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Nome (Egypt)

A nome (/nm/,[1] from Ancient Greek: νομός, nomós, “district”) was a territorial division in ancient Egypt.

Each nome was ruled by a nomarch (Ancient Egyptian: ḥrj tp ꜥꜣ Great Chief).[2] The number of nomes changed through the various periods of the history of ancient Egypt.

Etymology

Through French nome, the word comes from Ancient Greek νομός, nomós, meaning "district"; the Ancient Egyptian term was sepat or spAt.[3]

Today's use of the Ancient Greek rather than the Ancient Egyptian term came about during the Ptolemaic period, when the use of Greek was widespread in Egypt. The availability of Greek records on Egypt influenced the adoption of Greek terms by later historians.

History

Dynastic Egypt

The nomes & towns of Egypt in hieroglyphics

The division of ancient Egypt into nomes can be traced back to prehistoric Egypt (before 3100 BC). These nomes originally existed as autonomous city-states[citation needed], but later began to unify. According to ancient tradition, the ruler Menes completed the final unification.[4]

Not only did the division into nomes remain in place for more than three millennia, the areas of the individual nomes and their ordering remained remarkably stable. Some, like Xois in the Nile Delta or Khent in Upper Egypt, were first mentioned on the Palermo Stone, which was inscribed in the Fifth Dynasty. The names of a few, like the nome of Bubastis, appeared no earlier than the New Kingdom. Under the system that prevailed for most of pharaonic Egypt's history, the country was divided into 42 nomes.

Lower Egypt nomes

Lower Egypt nomes

Lower Egypt (Egyptian "Ā-meḥty"), from the Old Kingdom capital Memphis to the Mediterranean Sea, comprised 20 nomes. The first was based around Memphis, Saqqara, and Giza, in the area occupied by modern-day Cairo. The nomes were numbered in a more or less orderly fashion south to north through the Nile Delta, first covering the territory on the west before continuing with the higher numbers to the east. Thus, Alexandria was in the Third Nome; Bubastis was in the Eighteenth.

  1. White Walls Nome
  2. Travellers land
  3. Cattle land
  4. Southern shield land
  5. Northern shield land
  6. Mountain bull land
  7. West harpoon land
  8. East harpoon land
  9. Andjety god land
  10. Black bull land
  11. Heseb bull land
  12. Calf and Cow land
  13. Prospering Sceptre land
  14. Eastmost land
  15. Ibis-Tehut land
  16. Fish land
  17. The throne land
  18. Prince of the South land
  19. Prince of the North land
  20. Sopdu-Plumed Falcon land

Upper Egypt nomes

Upper Egypt nomes
Middle Egypt nomes

Upper Egypt was divided into 22 nomes. The first of these was centered on Elephantine close to Egypt's border with Nubia at the First Cataract – the area of modern-day Aswan. From there the numbering progressed downriver in an orderly fashion along the narrow fertile strip of land that was the Nile valley. Waset (ancient Thebes or contemporary Luxor) was in the Fourth Nome, Amarna in the Fourteenth, and Meidum in the Twenty-first.

  1. Bows land
  2. Throne of Horus land
  3. Shrine land
  4. Sceptre land
  5. The two falcons land
  6. The crocodile land
  7. Sistrum land
  8. The Great land
  9. Min-God land
  10. Cobra land
  11. Sha-Set animal land
  12. Viper mountain land
  13. Upper Sycamore and Viper land
  14. Lower Sycamore and Viper land
  15. Hares land
  16. Oryx Nome
  17. Anubis land
  18. Set land
  19. Two Sceptres land
  20. Southern Sycamore land
  21. Northern Sycamore land
  22. Knife land

Ptolemaic Egypt

Some nomes were added or renamed during the Graeco-Roman occupation of Egypt.[5] For example, the Ptolemies renamed the Crocodilopolitan nome to Arsinoe. Hadrian created a new nome, Antinoopolites, for which Antinoöpolis was the capital.

Roman Egypt

The nomes survived into Roman times. Under Roman rule, individual nomes minted their own coinage, the so-called "nome coins," which still reflect individual local associations and traditions. The nomes of Egypt retained their primary importance as administrative units until the fundamental rearrangement of the bureaucracy during the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine the Great.

From AD 307/8, their place was taken by smaller units called pagi. Eventually powerful local officials arose who were called pagarchs, through whom all patronage flowed. The pagarch's essential role was as an organizer of tax-collection. Later the pagarch assumed some military functions as well. The pagarchs were often wealthy landowners who reigned over the pagi from which they originated.

Nomarch

For most of the history, each nome was headed by a nomarch. The position of the nomarch was at times hereditary, while at others they were appointed by the pharaoh. Generally, when the national government was stronger, nomarchs were the king's appointed governors. When the central government was weaker, however—such as during foreign invasions or civil wars—individual nomes would assert themselves and establish hereditary lines of succession. Conflicts among these different hereditary nomarchies were common, most notably during the First Intermediate Period, a time that saw a breakdown in central authority lasting from the 7th–11th Dynasties which ended when one of the local rulers became strong enough to again assert control over the entire country as pharaoh.

List of nomes (ancient Egyptian: Sepat-Isti)

The nomes (Ancient Egyptian: sepat) are listed in separate tables for "Isti" - "the two Egypts" (Upper and Lower Egypt).

Note:

  1. older or other variants of the name in square brackets '[ ]';
  2. names vary from different time or era, or even titles, most epithets, honorific titles with a slash '/';
  3. Greek-Egypto derived names from the original Egyptian in parentheses '()'

Lower Egypt

Number Nome Standard (Symbol on top of head of man or woman) Ancient Egyptian

Nome Name

Capital Modern name of capital site Translation
Known Variants
1
Nome 1 of Lower-Egypt.png
Inebu-hedj 𓈠 Inebu-hedj Ineb-Ḥedjet [ 𓏠𓈖𓄤𓆑𓂋𓉴𓊖 Men-nefer/ Menfe] (Memphis) Mit Rahina White Walls
2
Khensu
Khepesh 𓈡 (Khensu) 𓐍𓋉𓅓𓊖 Khem [Sekhem/ Iry] (Letopolis) Ausim Cow's thigh
3
Iment (Ament)
Imentet/ Amentet 𓈢 Iment (Ament) I-am/ Imu (Apis) Kom El Hisn West
4
Sapi-Res
Nit Resu 𓈣 (Sapi-Res) Ptkheka Tanta Southern shield
5
Sap-Meh Sap-Meh
Sap-Meh
Nit Meḥtet, Nit Meḥetet 𓈤/𓈥 (Sap-Meh) 𓊃𓅭𓄿𓅱𓊖 Sau/ Zau (Sais) Sa El Hagar Northern shield
6
Khaset
Khasu'u/ Khasu'wu 𓈦 (Khaset) 𓆼𓋴𓅱𓅱𓏏𓊖 Khasu (Xois) Sakha Mountain bull
7
A-ment
Ḥui-ges Imenti/ Ḥui-ges Amenti 𓈧 (A-ment) 𓂧𓏇𓇌𓊖𓏌𓅃𓏤 (Hermopolis Parva, Metelis) Damanhur West harpoon
8
Nefer-Iabti
Ḥui-ges Iabti/ Ḥui-ges Aabti 𓈨 Nefer-Iabti (A-bt) Thek/ Tjeku / Iset-Tem [= 𓉐𓏤𓏏𓍃𓅓𓏏𓊖 Per-Atum]/ Ān (Heroonpolis, Pithom) Tell al-Maskhuta East harpoon
9
Ati
‘Andjeti/ ‘Anedjti 𓈩 (Ati) 𓉐𓏤𓊨𓁹𓎟𓊽𓂧𓅱𓊖 Djed/ Djedu [Iti] (Busiris) Abu Sir Bara Andjeti
10
Ka-Khem
Kem-Ur/ Kem-Wer 𓈪 Ka-Ka'm (Ka-khem) 𓉗𓏏𓉐𓇾𓁷𓄣𓊖 Hut-hery-ib (Athribis) Banha (Tell Atrib) Black bull
11
Ka-Heseb
Ḥesbu/ Ḥesebu 𓈫 (Ka-heseb) Taremu/ Ikhenu (Leontopolis) Tell El Urydam Heseb bull
12
Tjeb-Ka
Tjeb-Netjer 𓈬 (Theb-ka) 𓊹𓍿𓃀𓊖 Tjebnutjer (Sebennytos) Samanud Calf and Cow
13
Heq-At
Ḥeka-Redj 𓈭 (Heq-At) In (Iunu)/ In-meḥ/ Iset-Tem/ Igert, Igertet, Iqert, Iugertet (Heliopolis) Materiya (suburb of Cairo) Prospering Sceptre
14
Khent-Abt
Khenti-Iabti/ Khenti-Aabti 𓈮 (Khent-abt) Tjaru/ Dj‘anet (Sile, Tanis) Tell Abu Sefa Eastmost/ Foremost of the East
15
Djehuti
Djeḥuti 𓈯 (Tehut) Ba'h / Weprehwy (Hermopolis Parva) Baqliya Djehuti (Thoth)/ Ibis
16
Kha
Ḥat Meḥit 𓈰 (Kha) Djedet/ Ā'atjaba (Mendes) Tell El Rubˁ Fish/ Foremost of the Fish
17
Sema-Beḥut
Sema-Beḥut
Beḥdet/ Beḥedet 𓈱/𓈲 Sma-Beḥut (Sema-Beḥut) Semabehdet (Diospolis Inferior) Tel El Balamun The Throne/ Throne of Horus of Behdet
18
Im-Khent
Imty Khenti/ Amty Khenti 𓈳 Im-Khent (Am-Khent) Per-Bastet (Bubastis) Tell Bastah (near Zagazig) Prince of the South
19
Im-Peḥ
Imty Peḥu/ Amty Peḥu 𓈴 Im-Peḥ (Am-Peḥu) Dja'net (Leontopolis Tanis) Tell Nebesha or San El Hagar Prince of the North
20
Sep-d
Sepdju/ Sepedju 𓈵 Sep-d (Sopdu) Per-Sopdu Saft El Hinna Plumed Falcon/ Sepdju

Upper Egypt

Number Nome Standard (Symbol on top of head of man or woman) Ancient Egyptian

Nome Name

Capital Modern Capital Translation
Known Variants
1
Ta-Seti
Ta-Seti 𓈶 𓈶(Ta-Seti) 𓍋𓃀𓃰𓅱𓎶𓈊 Abu / Yeb [Yb] (Elephantine) Sunnu/ Irp-Ḥesp (Aswan) Land of the bow
2
Wetjes-Her
Wetjes-Ḥer 𓈷 (Wetjes-Hor) 𓌥𓃀𓊖 Djeba (Apollonopolis Magna) Ineb/ Iset-Unep/ Iset-en-Rā/ Iset-Neterui/ Iset-Ḥeq/ Iset-Khnem-Iten/ Iset-Sekhen-en-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-Shu/ Isebt/ Ā'ay-t-en-Beḥud/ Ā'a-t-enty-Ā'ap (Edfu) Throne of Horus
3
Nekhen
Nekhen 𓈸 (Nekhen) Nekhen (Hierakonpolis) El Kab Shrine
4
Uas (Uaset/ Waset)
Waset/ Uaset 𓈹 Uas (Uaset/ Waset) Niwt-rst / Waset [Ir-t Rā/ Iset-Sekhenu-en-Ākhemu/ Ānkh] (Thebes) Karnak Sceptre
5
Herui
Netjerui 𓈺 (Herui) 𓎤𓃀𓅂𓊖 Gebtu/ Iter-Shemā (Coptos) Qift The two falcons
6
Iqer
Iqer
Meseḥ/ Mes-ḥ 𓈻 (Iqer) In/ In-en-P'teḥ/ In-en-Nut/ In-Ta-Neferet/ Iset-Au-Ib/ Iset-Au-Ib-enti-Neteru-Nebu/ Iset-Iabes-Ḥet-Ḥer/ Iset-Iset-em-Khet-Ḥā-s/ Iset-urt-en-Ḥem-Ḥeru-Iakhuty/ Iset-Per-Ḥet-Ḥer-Kher-Menu/ Iset-Per-Seshem-en-Ḥet-Ḥer-Ureth-Nebt-Tawy-Im/ Iset-Peṣis-Ta/ Iset-Pesh-Nebty/ Iset-M'as-Menu-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Imṣ/ Iset-M'as-Snef-sa/ Iset-Meskhenet-en-Iset/ Iset-enth-Mut-Ḥeru/ Iset-ent-Rā-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-enth-Ḥemt-Nesu/ Iset-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Nebt-In/ Iset-Hy/ Isut-Ḥeru/ Iset-Ḥeḥ/ Iset-Khadbut-em-Āq-en-Netert-Ten/ Iset-Sekhem-Ānkh-en-Neter/ Iset-Shātu-Menu-en-Neb-In-Im-ṣ/ Iset-Shepset-Ḥent-Neterit/ Iset-Qen-Ḥeru-em-Baḥ-Mutef-Iset/ Iset-Tekh/ Iset-Tekh-ent-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-Djeser/ Ān-Ḥer/ Iunet (Tantere/ Tentyra/ Dendera) In/ In-en-P'teḥ/ In-en-Nut/ In-Ta-Neferet/ Iset-Au-Ib/ Iset-Au-Ib-enti-Neteru-Nebu/ Iset-Iabes-Ḥet-Ḥer/ Iset-Iset-em-Khet-Ḥā-s/ Iset-urt-en-Ḥem-Ḥeru-Iakhuty/ Iset-Per-Ḥet-Ḥer-Kher-Menu/ Iset-Per-Seshem-en-Ḥet-Ḥer-Ureth-Nebt-Tawy-Im/ Iset-Peṣis-Ta/ Iset-Pesh-Nebty/ Iset-M'as-Menu-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Imṣ/ Iset-M'as-Snef-sa/ Iset-Meskhenet-en-Iset/ Iset-enth-Mut-Ḥeru/ Iset-ent-Rā-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-enth-Ḥemt-Nesu/ Iset-ent-Ḥet-Ḥer-Nebt-In/ Iset-en-Sek-Djet/ Iset-Hy/ Isut-Ḥeru/ Iset-Ḥeḥ/ Iset-Khadbut-em-Āq-en-Netert-Ten/ Iset-Sekhem-Ānkh-en-Neter/ Iset-Shātu-Menu-en-Neb-In-Im-ṣ/ Iset-Shepset-Ḥent-Neterit/ Iset-Qen-Ḥeru-em-Baḥ-Mutef-Iset/ Iset-Tekh/ Iset-Tekh-ent-Ḥeru-Iakhuti/ Iset-Djeser/ Ān-Ḥer/ Iunet (Tantere/ Tentyra/ Dendera) The crocodile
7
Seshesh
Bat 𓈼 (Seshesh) Seshesh/ Pa-Khen-Iment/ Uas-Meḥ (Diospolis Parva) Hu Sistrum
8
Ta-wer
Ta-Wer/ Ta-Ur 𓈽 Ta-wer Thinis Great land
9
Min
Menu/ Minu 𓈾 (Min) Ip/ Ipi/ Ipu/ Apu/ [later: Khen-Min, perhaps another name for "Khemenu"]/ Ārty-Ḥeru (Panopolis) Akhmim Min
10
Uadj (Wadjet)
Uadj (Wadjet)
Wadjyt/ Uadjyt 𓈿/𓉀 Uadj (Wadjet) Djew-qa / Tjebu (Antaeopolis) Qaw El Kebir Cobra
11
Set
Set
Sha 𓉁/𓉂 (Set) Shashotep (Hypselis) Shutb The creature associated with Set
12
Ta-wer
Dju-fet 𓉃 (Tu-ph) Pr nmty (Hieracon) al Atawla Viper mountain
13
Ta-wer
Nedjfet Khentet/ Nedjefet Khentet 𓉄 (Atef-Khent) Zawty (z3wj-tj, Lycopolis) Asyut Upper Sycamore and Viper
14
Ta-wer
Nedjfet Peḥtet/ Nedjefet Peḥtet 𓉅 (Atef-Peḥu) Qesy (Cusae) El Qusiya Lower Sycamore and Viper
15
Ta-wer
Wenet/ Uenet/ Unit 𓉆 (Wenet) Khemenu (Hermopolis Magna) El Ashmounein Hare[6]
16
Ta-wer
Ma-Ḥedj 𓉇 (Ma-hedj) Herwer? Hur? Oryx[6]
17
Ta-wer
Input 𓉈 Inpu (Anpu) Saka (Cynopolis) El Qais Anubis
18
Ta-wer
Nemti 𓉉/𓉊 (Sep) Teudjoi / Hutnesut (Alabastronopolis) El Hiba Set
19
Ta-wer
Wabwi/ Uabwi/ Uabui 𓉋 (Uab) Per-Medjed/ Per-Mādjet/ Uabu-t (Oxyrhynchus) El Bahnasa Two Sceptres
20
Ta-wer
N‘art Khentet/ N‘aret Khentet 𓉌 (Atef-Khent) Henen-nesut (Herakleopolis Magna) Ihnasiya Southern Sycamore
21
Ta-wer
N‘art Peḥtet/ N‘aret Peḥtet 𓉍 (Atef-Peḥu) Shenakhen / Semenuhor/ Ium'ā (Crocodilopolis, Arsinoe) Faiyum Northern Sycamore
22
Ta-wer
Mednit/ Medenit 𓉎/𓉏 (Maten) 𓁶𓏤𓃒𓏪𓊖 Tepihu (Aphroditopolis) Atfih Knife

References

Citations

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition. Merriam-Webster, 2007. p. 841
  2. ^ Bunson, Margaret (2014). Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Infobase Publishing. p. 280. ISBN 978-1-4381-0997-8.
  3. ^ "Provinces of Egypt". www.ucl.ac.uk. Retrieved 2017-05-21.
  4. ^ Herodotus, Euterpe, 2.4.1 and 2.99.1ff.
  5. ^ Bagnall, Roger S. (1996). Egypt in Late Antiquity (Fourth printing ed.). Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 333. ISBN 0691069867. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  6. ^ a b Wolfram Grajetzki, The Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt: history, archaeology and society. London, Duckworth Egyptology, 2006, pp. 109-111

BIbliography

  • Bagnall, Roger S. (1996), Egypt in Late Antiquity, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Bowman, Alan K. (1990), Egypt after the Pharaohs, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

External links

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