Noakhali Sadar (Bengali: নোয়াখালি সদর) is an upazila of Noakhali District in the Division of Chittagong, Bangladesh. Noakhali Thana was established in 1861 and was converted into an upazila in 1984. The upazila takes its name from the district and the Bengali word sadar (headquarters). It is the subdistrict where the district headquarters, Noakhali town, is located. The town is situated on the western bank of the Noakhali Canal, from which it takes its name. The Noakhali Canal was dug in 1660 to control flooding of the river Dakatia. The name Noakhali means "New canal", derived from the Bengali words noa (new) and khal (canal).
2011 population declined because upazila boundaries were redrawn to create Suborno Char and Kabirhat upazilas Source: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
According to the 2011 Bangladesh census, Noakhali Sadar Upazila had 100,219 households and a population of 525,934, 24.9% of whom lived in urban areas. 12.3% of the population was under the age of 5. The literacy rate (age 7 and over) was 51.7%, compared to the national average of 51.8%.
The boundaries of the upazila were redrawn in 2005 to create a new upazila, Suborno Char, and again in 2006 to create Kabirhat Upazila. The combined population of the three in 2011 was 1,012,392, a 32% increase from 2001.
Noakhali Sadar Upazila is divided into Noakhali Municipality and 13 union parishads: Anderchar, Ashwadia, Binodpur, Char Matua, Dadpur, Dharmapur, Ewazbalia, Kadir Hanif, Kaladaraf, Niazpur, Noakhali, Noannai, and Purba Char Matua. The union parishads are subdivided into 166 mauzas and 173 villages.
Noakhali Municipality was established in 1876. It is subdivided into 9 wards and 36 mahallas.
Rail stations Maijdi, Maijdi Court, Harinarayanpur, and Noakhali are the last four on the branch line connecting Laksam and Noakhali. In May 2015, they were served by one intercity and four mail trains a day.
The town of Noakhali is the southern terminus of national highway N104, which connects to Feni, about 50 kilometres (31 mi) away.