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|• Total||4,202.70 km2 (1,622.67 sq mi)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|• Density||740/km2 (1,900/sq mi)|
|• Total||Male 51.43%, Female 45.08%|
|Time zone||BST (UTC+6)|
Noakhali (Bengali: নোয়াখালী জেলা) is a district in South-eastern Bangladesh. It is located in the Chittagong Division. Noakhali district, whose earlier name was Bhulua, was established in 1821. It was named Noakhali in 1868.
Noakhali District is bordered by Comilla district to the north, the Meghna estuary and the Bay of Bengal to the south, Feni and Chittagong districts to the east and Lakshmipur and Bhola district to the west. The district has an area of 4,202 km2. The district represents an extensive flat, coastal and delta land, located on the tidal floodplain of the Meghna River delta, characterised by flat land and low relief. The area is influenced by diurnal tidal cycles and the tidal fluctuations vary depending on seasons, being pronounced during the monsoon season. Around Noakhali on three sides is an alluvial plain that is annually inundated and fertilised by silt deposits from the Meghna estuary. The swift currents that course down from the Himalayas bring a rich bath of fertile silt, when it reaches the Bay of Bengal, settles along the coast, gradually forming new land called "chars". The district of Noakhali has actually gained more than 28 square miles (73 km2) of land in the past 50 years and so on.
Noakhali has tropical climate and it has significant rainfall most months, with a short dry season. In Noakhali, the average annual temperature is 25.6 °C and the average annual rain fall is about 3,302 mm. With an average of 40.6 °C, May is the warmest month. At 19.5 °C on average, January is the coldest month of the year. The driest month is January with 8 mm of precipitation. In July, the rainfall reaches its peak, with an average of 671 mm.
The ancient name of Noakhali is Bhulua. In the 1660s, the agricultural activities of the north-eastern region of Bhulua were seriously affected by floodwater of the Dakatia River flowing from the Tripura hills. To salvage the situation, a canal was dug in 1660 that ran from the Dakatia through Ramganj, Sonaimuri and Chaumuhani to divert water flow to the junction of the river Meghna and Feni. After excavating this long canal, Bhulua began to be known as "Noakhali". The name "Noakhali" was originated from the term Noa (New) and Khal (Canal).
Two hundred years ago Noakhali district was known as ‘Bhulua Pargana’. South Shahbazpur, Lakshmipur, mainland of Noakhali district and a portion of present Feni district were included in the Bhulua Pargana. In 1821 Mr. Plyden, the then salt agent, got the additional charge of collectorate of Bhulua from the Governor General. He proposed to the Governor General to establish a new district when some administrative problems arose with other salt-agents of Bhulua. On 29 March 1822 the Governor General passed an order in this regards and accordingly a new district was constituated with south Shabajpur, Sudharam, Begumganj, Ramganj, Raipur, Lakshmipur, Feni, Parshuram, Elahabad pargana of Tippera and Hatia, Sandwhip & Bamni of Chittagong district. The District was named Noakhali in 1868. In 1876 Noakhali district was divided into two sub-divisions. Feni Sub-division was constituted with Chhagalnaiya thana of Tippera, Mirshari of Chittagong, Feni Pargana, Parshuram & Sonagazi. Sadar Sub-division was formed with the remaining areas. At the census of 1901 its area was 1,644 square miles and its population was about 1,141,728.
Regional violence in 1946 escalated communal tensions throughout British India just before the 1947 partition. One of the worst religious massacre and incidents of ethnic cleansing against Hindu community took place in Noakhali during 1946 riot known as Noakhali Genocide. A huge number of mass killing, raping, looting, forcible conversion took place. Prime Minister of Bengal Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, answering a question from Dhirendranath Datta in the assembly early in 1947, stated that there had been 9,895 cases of forcible conversion in Tipperah alone. He said the number in Noakhali "ran into thousands". It was not a random incident and was quite well planned, organised and directed from a few local political leaders.
Noakhali town, the headquarters of Noakhali, got vanished in the river-bed in 1951, as a result of erosion of mighty Meghna. After that the headquarters of Noakhali was established at Maijdee. In 1964 Sadar Sub-division was divided into two sub-divisions, namely Sadar and Lakshmipur.
During the War of Liberation many direct and guerrilla encounters took place between the Pakistani Armed Forces and the Liberation Forces (Mukti Bahini). About 70 Freedom fighters (Mukti Joddha) were killed in a direct encounter with the Pakistan army on 15 June 1971, in front of the Sonapur Ahmadia School. Noakhali was liberated on 7 December 1971.
For administrative convenience, according to Government's decision Noakhali district was divided into three districts, namely Noakhali, Lakshmipur and Feni in 1984.
District administration is headed by an accomplished professional having long and laudable experience called Deputy Commissioner/District Magistrate.
The basic unit of administration of the country is locally named as Upazila, which is an integral component of the district. Field level functionaries of the development departments operate here at the grass-root level under guidance from the respective functional heads stationed in the districts as coordinated by the UNO (Upazila Nirbahi Officer). All decisions are discussed and finalised in a forum called Upazila Parishad which is presided over by an elected chairman and assisted by UNO.
An area covering several square kilometres having several thousand populations is named as Union that is administered by an elected chairman. These Chairmen are the dominant and voting members of the Parishad (counseling body) apart from various upazila level functionaries representing respective district counterparts.
Deputy Commissioner (DC): MD Mahbub Alam Talukder
Administrator of Zila Parishad: ABM Zaforullah 
Noakhali District consists of 9 upazilas, 8 municipalities, 72 wards, 153 mahallas, 91 unions, 882 mouzas and 967 villages.
Noakhali District is divided into the following Sub-districts (Upazilas):
A municipality is usually an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government or jurisdiction. Noakhali district has eight municipalities (Paurashavas). Every municipality consists of nine wards.
|268||Noakhali-1||Chatkhil-Sonaimuri||H.M. Ibrahim||Bangladesh Awami League|
|269||Noakhali-2||Senbag-Sonaimuri (partial)||Morshed Alam||Bangladesh Awami League|
|270||Noakhali-3||Begumganj||Md. Mamunur Rashid Kiron||Bangladesh Awami League|
|271||Noakhali-4||Noakhali Sadar-Subarnachar||Mohammed Ekramul Karim Chowdhury||Bangladesh Awami League|
|272||Noakhali-5||Companiganj-Kabirhat||Obaidul Quader||Bangladesh Awami League|
|273||Noakhali-6||Hatiya||Ayesha Ferdaus||Bangladesh Awami League|
According to the 2015 census the total population of Noakhali district is 3,318,083 (Male- 1,685,169 and Female- 1,622,914). Male Female ratio is 92:100, Population Density 897/km2 and annual growth rate is 1.86%. Urbanization rate of the district is 18.98%. The main town Maijdee has a population of 84,585 (male 51.50%, female 48.50%) with a population density of 5,915 km2.
People from many religions and faith live in Noakhali. Around 95.42% of the population are Muslims, while 4.52% are Hindus. Christians and Buddhists constitute 0.02% and 0.03% respectively of the local population. The district of Noakhali has 4,159 mosques, 497 Eid Gah, 239 temples, 2 Buddhist pagodas, 2 churches.
The people of this district speaks in an informal Bangla dialect. Linguistically, it is connected to the districts of Feni and Lakshmipur as well as southern parts of the district of Comilla and Mirasarai Upazila of Chittagong district. Indian nationals of Tripura State also speak this simplified Bangla dialect.It is used as the lingua franca among the Indians of South Tripura District and it is also widely spoken in Gomati District & Sepahijala District of Tripura. Noakhali dialect is also understood & spoken by indigenous Tripuri Tribe & also Chakma, Mog (Marma), Reang etc.It is widely spoken in the places of Tripura namely Belonia, Manurmukh, Sabroom, Santirbazar, Joalibari, Baikhora, Kathalia, Barpathari, Trishna, Chandrapur, Garjee, Hrishyamukh, Satchand, Karbook, Natunbazar, Birchandra Manu, Rajnagar etc. Belonia is the Headquarter of South Tripura District which consists of three subdivisions namely Belonia, Santirbazar and Sabroom.
Noakhali dialect does not have any recognised grammar recording. There is no formal use of Noakhali dialect in public, in courts, or in legislature like the existent standard Bangla. It stays as the language of the people of Greater Noakhali region of Bangladesh. The educated, elite, political and influential groups of Bangladesh bearing Noakhali homogeneity or being intrinsically exposed to the socio-cultural phenomenon of Noakhali usually prefer the standard form of Bangla for their wider communication and keep this dialect as their private means of linguistic exchange only with the members of the indigenous community of Noakhali.
The literacy rate of Noakhali district is 69.57% (male- 72.40% and female- 67.60%). School attendance rate is 74.40% for 5 to 24 years age group.
In Noakhali there are 1,243 Primary Schools (Government: 776, Non-government: 329, Community: 76, Satellite: 62), 289 High Schools, 161 Madrashas (Senior Madrasha: 30, Dakhil and Alim Madrasha: 131), 05 Technical Institutions (Youth Training Center: 02, PTI: 01, Technical School and College: 02), 35 Colleges (Government: 08, Private: 27), 01 Medical Assistant Training School (MATS), 01 Agricultural Training Institute, 01 Government Medical College, 01 Homeopathic Medical College, 01 Textile Engineering College and 01 Science and Technology University.
Prominent educational institutions of Noakhali
Noakhali district has 01 Medical College, 01 General Hospital (250-bedded), 08 Upazila Health Complex (Total 331-bedded), 25 Union Sub-Centers, 59 Union Health and Family Welfare Centers, 01 TB clinic, 02 school health clinics, 01 NGO Clinic and 03 Mother and Children Welfare Clinics (Total 30-bedded). There are 60 private hospitals and 115 diagnostic centers. 247 Community Clinics are now functioning. Activities of Medical College Hospital is now in General Hospital.
Coverage of households having access to safe drinking water is 90%, and coverage of households having access to sanitary latrines is 75%.
Agriculture plays a vital role in the regional economy. 30% of the regional GDP comes from agriculture with 45% of the population employed in the sector. Employment in fish sector is also dominant for the extreme poor and poor labour-intensive. 15–20% labour has involved round the year in this sector (boat roaring, fishing, drying, net and boat making and repairing, transporting fish from one location to other etc.). Most of the poor are involved in crop production during winter but other period they involved in fishing either own or selling labour to the mohajan. And near about 40% of population live in the abroad for their job. And they play a vital role in the nation economy. Besides main sources of income are dependent on non-agricultural labour 3.43%, industry 0.84%, commerce 14.74%, transport and communication 3.83%, service 16.11%, construction 1.49%, religious service 0.39%, rent and remittance 7.97% and others 10.58%.
The economy of Noakhali is predominately agriculture. Out of total 544,943 holdings of the district 65.37 holdings are farms that produce varieties of crops, namely local and hybrid rice, wheat, vegetables, spices, cash crops, pulses, betel leaves and others. Various fruits like mango, banana, jack fruit, coconut and betel nut etc. are grown.
Fish of different varieties abound in this district which enjoys the advantages of marine fishing. Moreover, varieties of fish are caught from rivers, tributary channels and creeks and even from paddy field during rainy seasons. Fishes like ruhi, katla, mrigel, kala baush, koi, grass carp, silver carp, telapia, nilotica and different species of local deshi fishes have also been introduced for commercial pisciculture in ponds and waterlands.
Some valuable timber and forest trees are grown in this district like koroi, sheel koroi, garjan, jarul, shimul, mahagoni, bamboo etc. The main crops of this district are boro and aman paddy, peanut, varieties of pulses, chilli, sugarcane, potato, etc. Mango, jack fruit, papaya, coconut, banana, litchi, betel nut, palm are the main fruits of this district.
Noakhali district has one of the finest transportation system in the country by road, railway and waterway.
Noakhali is well connected with capital city Dhaka and port city Chittagong. By road, distance between Dhaka and Noakhali is 151 km. While its distance from Chittagong and Comilla are 134 km and 95 km respectively. Buses are the most common form of transport, and they are easily available, and run to a wide range of destinations within and without the district. Everyday, a number of transport companies operate buses, trucks and other vehicles from different parts of Noakhali to Feni, Chandpur, Comilla, Dhaka and Chittagong. Trucks carry majority of goods transported in the district.
Inter-City train "Upakul Express" and Mail train "Noakhali Express" operates between Noakhali station and Kamalapur Railway Station of Dhaka. The local train that operates between Noakhali station and Laksam Railway Junction of Comilla stops at seven railway stations in Noakhali District – Noakhali (Sonapur), Harinarayanpur, Maijdee Court, Maijdee, Chowmuhani, Bazra and Sonaimuri.
Southern part of the Noakhali District and Hatiya Upazila is well connected by water transport. Hatiya island, isolated from the mainland is accessible from Noakhali by sea-truck, from Chittagong by steamer, and from Dhaka by launch.
Noakhali is one of the coastal districts at the fringe of the Bay of Bengal with vast char land of recent origin in the south. The plant life is confined generally to variations belonging to the lower gangetic plane and of other districts in the southern region of the country. Except the Government sponsored afforestation programme for the coastal belt, there is no organised forestry in the district.
However, all homesteads are usually covered by dense and lush green foliage of wide variety of trees. Most of the trees grown in homestead forests are fruitbearing. Mangoes, although poor in quality, grow in abundance. Almond or badam (Arachis hypogea) in unusually. Other common trees are jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), black berry (Syzygium cumini), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), jalpai (Elaeocarpus tectorius), bel (Aegle marmelos), chalta (Dillenia indica), boroi, guava (Psidiumguagava), etc. banana (Banana musa sapientum) is seen almost everywhere but their quality is rather poor.
Litchi (Litchi chinensis), kamranga (Averrho karmbola), ata, haritaki (Terminalia chebula), amloki (Phyllanthus emblica), gaab (Dioaspyros precatorius), etc. grow abundantly. Juice of gaab fruit mixed with charcoal is used in colouring boats and stiffening fishing nets. Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is abundantly produced in Noakhali.
Indigenous timber trees include Koroi, sheel koroi (Albizia procera), garjan (Dipterocarpus turbinatus), jarul (Iegerstroemia speciosa), shimul (Bombax ceiba), etc. however, various exotic trees like teak, mahagoni (Swietenia macrophylla), sissu (Dalbergia sissoo), etc. have been in produced as wayside trees as well as farm forestry.
Mandar (Erythrina variegata), a thorny tree mostly used as fuel and fencing, is seen in almost every household forest. Kadom (Anthocephalus cadamba) are very common and are preferred for manufacturing matchsticks. The fruit of shimul or karpas is used for stuffing mattresses and pillows and has a silky appearance. Newly introduced trees include eucalyptus and pine.
Mango wood is not good as a timber, but owing to its being in abundance, it is much used. The wood of tamarind and kul is hard-grained and of good quality. The amaltas is used for house and rough furniture. Jarul is used for boat building and pillars of houses.
The luxuriant growth of palms is the most characteristic feature of the vegetation. Betel nut palm or supari (Areca catechu) plantations are more and more abundant towards the north and the west of the district and grows almost in forest. Coconut are grown abundantly throughout the district. Toddy palms or tal (Borassus flabellifer) and date palms or khejur are also very common. Date palm is a valuable tree. The juice is extracted and made into gurr, the leaves are made into mat. Tal wood is used for posts of houses and other building purposes, leaves are used for making handmade mats and large hand fans. Betel nut and coconut are good source of household income.
Shade trees include banyan or bot (Ficus benghalensis), pipal (Ficus religiosa) and nim (Azadirachta indica) are seen commonly.
There are several varieties of cane, a good deal of bamboo of different varieties and thatching grass or chhan although their plantations are gradually but steadliy decreasing. Use of bamboo is widespread such as post and fencing of houses, making of baskets and trays of various kinds. Bet is used for making baskets binding and thatching. In the marshes are found sola (Aeschynomene aspera) and murta or mostak (Schumannianthus dichotomus ) which is extensively use making various types of mats famously known as shital pati and baskets.
The forest department of the government of Bangladesh created mangrove forests in Nijhum Dwip. The most common type of planted tree species in the island is keora, also known as kerfa, which has fast growing roots holding the sandy land. The tree occurs on newly accreted soil in moderately to strongly saline areas and is considered as a pioneer species in ecological succession.
Owing to the absence of organised forest and other natural conditions, no large or medium-sized carnivores are seen in the district. However, the following mammals are still seen the district although their number is gradually decreasing: jackal (Canis aureus), fox (Vulpes bengalensis), large Indian civet or bagdas (Viverra zibetha), otter or uud (Lutra lutra), lrrawaddy, kath biral (Callosciuruspy gerythrus), Bengal mongoose or beji (Herpestes edwards), different kind of rats and several species of bats.
Buffalo is found in char and Hatia island. The vast offshore areas and the emerging islands of the Noakhali district have become the potential places for buffalo farming.
Almost all varieties of birds that are seen all over Bangladesh are also commonly seen in Noakhali. Raptors include white-rumped vulture (Gyps bengalensis), lanner falcon or baj (Falco biarmicus), marsh harrier or gochila (Circus aeruginesus), pariah cheel (Milvus migyans lineatas), several species of stork like pond heron or kani boga (Ardeola greyii), cattle egret or go boga (Babulcus ibis) and black bittern or kala boga (Dupeter plovicollis), crows (Corvus splendens) and kingfisher (Alcedo atthis), etc.
Ducks are represented by a number of species including winter migrants like greenleg goose (Anser anser), rajhans (Anser indicus), the pintail (Anas acuta) and some other domestic species. Water birds include the little cormorant or pankawri (Phalacrocorax niger), waterhen or dahuk (Amaurornis phonicurus), kora (Gallicrex cinarea).
Cuckoo or kokil (Cuculus micropterus), black-hooded oriole or halde pakhi (Oriolus xanthornus), kingcrow or finge (Dicrurus adsimilis), moyna (Sturnus malabarica), shalik (Acridotheres tristis), redvented bulbuli (Pycnotus cafer), tuntuni (Orthotomus sutorious), shayma (Copsyehus malabaricus), sparrow (Passer domesticus), flowerpecker (Dicacum erythrochynchos), babui (Plocus phillippinus) famous for artistic nest building on the several species of pheasant quails (Eudynamis scolopscea), pigeons and doves.
The reptiles include snakes, lizards and tortoises. The snakes include varieties of cobra, urgabora, dughadabora, kuchiabora and jinlabora, all poisonous. The lizards include gecko, calotis, wall lizard and monitor lizard. There are amphibnians like toad, frogs and tree frogs.
There are many species of sea and fresh water fish available in the district. The list of the varieties is too long to find place in this section. Although Noakhali is coastal district, but most of the supply comes from ponds and tanks, canals and low-lying areas inundated by rain water, popular varieties include the carp tribe (Cyprinidoes), Ruhi (Labeo rohita), Katla (Catla catla), Mrigel (Cirrhinus mrigala) and Kalabaush (labeo calbasu), Airh (Sperata aor), Pangas (Pangasius pangasius), Tengra (Mystus vittatus) of several types, Magur (Clarias batrschus), Singi (Saccobranchus fossilis) and Koi(Mystus vittatus) are considered to be delicious, Shoul (Channa striatus), Boal (Wallago attu), Gozar (Channa marulius), Chitol (Chitala chitala), Foli (Notopterus notopterus) and Pabda (Ompok pabda) are available in abundance.
Hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha), Baila (Awaous guamensis), Bhetki (Lates calcarifer), Bata (Labeo bata), loitta etc. fishes are also available in abundance.
Prawn, cray fish(icha) and Crabs are also found. Tilapia, Muralla, Punti, Khoksha, Kajuli, Kakila, Khailsha, Bain and Chela are small fish like Mola, Kachki are found all over the district in abundance.
Created mangrove forests in Nijhum Dwip are habitat of about 5,000 cheetral or spotted deer. This island has been declared as the unique eco-touristic spot for its ideal natural setup with the rich bio-diversification factors and the perennial mangrove forest with wild animals like spotted deer, wild boar and rhesus macaque and for the ideal habitat for fish resources.
Nijhum Dwip (Char Osmani, Baluar Char, Golden Island ) is a small island under Hatiya upazila of Noakhali. A cluster of islands (mainly, Ballar Char, Kamlar char, Char Osman and Char Muri) emerged in the early 1950s as an alluvium in the shallow estuary of the Bay of Bengal on the south of Noakhali. These new sandbanks first drew the notice of a group of fishermen, who named it Baular Char. In 1974 the Forest Department took an aforestation program for a duration of twenty years in the north side of the island. Covering an area of nine thousand acres, it has now developed into a deep forest with a variety of plant species. Among the trees Keora is much seen. Besides this Gewa, Kankra, Bain, Babul, Karamja, Pashur and many other species are seen. It was renamed 'Nijhum Dweep' by former Minister Amirul Islam Kalam in 1979 observing its isolation and mild nature.
During winter, thousands of migratory birds flock in to island. The fishermen use the airy and sunny land as an ideal place for drying their catches from the sea. Sometimes many of them also construct straw huts on the island as seasonal residences.
On 8 April 2001 the government declared the 40,390 acres of forest of Jahajmara range including 9,550 acres of forest land on Nijhum Dweep as a National Park for the protection and development of the biodiversity of the forest. But in practice, there a very lazy appearance of that declaration.
Bazra Shahi Mosque is one of the major archaeological works in undivided Bengal. It is situated 8 miles from district headquarter Maijdee Court. Amir Sanaullah, the owner of Bazra Jaigir started the construction of 'Bazra'Shahi Mosque' in the pattern of Tajmahal in the Hizri year 1134. The construction was completed in the Hizri year 1154. The 'Bazra Shahi Mosque' is a wonderful embodiment of Moghal architecture. In the year 1922, late Ali Ahmed, the Jaminder of Bazra, plastered the whole exterior of the mosque with piece of China clay, which greatly enhanced the beauty of the mosque.
This is one of the oldest Catholic Church in the country. The Church was established in 1959, named after the Queen Lurther's at Sonapur of Noakhali Sadar upazila. Quiet, bland shadowed environment made the Church glamorous. Christian cemetery containing numerous cross, a giant statue of Jesus Christ, flower garden, spectacular ponds, mission school, Charitable Health Center, Crafts Center are also seen beside the Church. Around the Church there is a large Christian colony. Christians in this district had Portuguese ancestry. The Portuguese pirates of Sandwip terrorised the coasts of Noakhali throughout the seventeenth century. Later on they inter married with the women of the region. In 1844 the first Christian missionary arrived in Noakhali. The mission maintains two boys' schools and one girls' school at Noakhali and one girls' school at Ewazbalia. It makes few converts.
The establishment of Gandhi Ashram trust is rooted with the 'Peace Mission' of Mahatma Gandhi immediately after the communal riots in 1946 at Noakhali. Gandhi stayed for about four months in the riot stricken areas. He started moving around the villages and motivated the people towards his peaceful coexistence and non-violence philosophy. When Gandhiji came to Jayag on 29 January 1947 all sections of the local community extended him whole-hearten support. At that time, Barrister Hemanta Kumar Ghosh of the village donated all his resources to Mahatma for the development and peace of the area and Ambika Kaliganga Charitable Trust was formed. The office of the Gandhi Peace Mission, formerly known as Gandhi Camp, was shifted to the present campus of Jayag, Sonaimuri.
Rajgonj Mia Bari Compare to other places of Noakhali,it is also another beautiful place.A small moment spending here can give you a different feeling. This jomidar bari always known as Rajgonj Mia bari. It is located at west of Maijdee Bazar. Sayed Sultan Alam Chowdhury built this house in 1907. A book titled “Noakhalir Itihas” was written by Sri Perimohan Sen, Mentioned the name of Syed Sultan Alam Chowdhury as a Prestigious person of Noakhali. His ancestors came here at Noakhali from Baghdad on 5th Magh 1149 Bengali year. The first family member of this house named Syed Sher Alam Baghdadi. He came here only for preaching Islam. Even their generations are living here at Rajgonj Mia Bari with their similar traditions.
It is located on the bank of the Feni river,in Companygonj upazilla.The Musapur Closure Dam, which was constructed at a cost of Tk 194 crore at Musapur under Companiganj Upazila of the district, has ushered in a new prospect to the people living around it. The dam was constructed applying workforce of around 6,000 labourers and is supposed to prevent salinity to about 1.30 lakh hectares of cropland under 14 upazilas in Noakhali, Comilla and Chandpur districts. However, a certain portion of the dam was washed away within three hours of its construction; later with the joint efforts of locals and the Water Development Board (WDB) here, the erosion could be prevented.
H.S. Suhrawardy, the chief minister, while answering the question of Dhirendra Nath Dutt on the floor of the Bengal Legislative Assembly, gave a figure of 9,895 cases of forcible conversion in Tippera, while that for Noakhali was not known 'but (which) ran into thousands'.