This page uses content from Wikipedia and is licensed under CC BY-SA.

No-deal Brexit

Part of a series of articles on
Brexit
(withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union)
UK location in the EU 2016.svg
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom portal
Flag of Europe.svg European Union portal
Part of a series of articles on the
British membership
of the
European Union
UK location in the EU 2016.svg
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom portal
Flag of Europe.svg European Union portal

A no-deal Brexit is the potential withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU) without a withdrawal agreement. Under article 50 of the Treaty on EU, the Treaties of the European Union cease to apply once a withdrawal agreement is ratified or two years have passed since a member state has indicated its will to leave. The two-year period can be extended by unanimous consent of all member states, including the one wishing to leave.

The UK and EU have negotiated such a withdrawal agreement, but the UK House of Commons has on three occasions voted against ratifying it. The proposed agreement contains provisions concerning citizens' rights,[a] border arrangements, money liabilities,[b] and resolution of disputes.

Without such an agreement in place at the end of the period specified in article 50 Treaty on European Union, EU law and other agreements would cease to apply to the established interactions between the UK and the rest of the EU. Additionally, UK interactions with non-EU countries, which until now have been governed by EU agreements with those countries, may need to be renegotiated.

Short-term (90-day) cross-border travel for tourism is expected to continue as at present, albeit with some inconvenience to aviation schedules. While trading of goods (though not services) could continue to operate under World Trade Organization (WTO) most favoured nation rules, some significant disruption to established trade flows is anticipated and the UK and the EU have prepared agreements and (short-term) understandings for the more serious risks anticipated to arise. Operation Yellowhammer is the codename used by the UK Treasury for cross-government civil contingency planning for the possibility of a no-deal Brexit.[1][2]

Recent developments in the United Kingdom

In May 2019, the Speaker of the House of Commons advised that while a no-deal exit on 31 October 2019 was the current default position in law, it was not credible that Parliament could be deprived of the right to intervene should it wish to do so.[3]

In July 2019 Boris Johnson became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party. The Department for Exiting the European Union, which had previously been responsible for Brexit negotiations, was refocused to concentrate on no-deal planning,[4] with an additional £1 billion in funding for preparations for a no-deal Brexit.[5] Johnson appointed Michael Gove to the Cabinet with the responsibility for co-ordination of planning across Government Departments for a no-deal Brexit,[4] declaring that Gove would "turbo-charge" the UK's preparations for a no-deal Brexit on 31 October.[6]

In August 2019, The Guardian reported that British diplomats would pull out from the EU's decision making meetings "within days", under plans being drawn up by Downing Street.[7] That newspaper also said in the same month that any attempt to bypass MPs could create a constitutional crisis.[8] On 21 August 2019, Angela Merkel offered and Boris Johnson accepted a suggestion that the UK Government should come up with a viable alternative to the backstop,[9] and on the same day the President of France Emmanuel Macron indicated that no deal was the most likely Brexit outcome due to the inability of the UK to accept the withdrawal agreement.[10] At an interview with the BBC at the 45th G7 summit in late August 2019 Johnson suggested that the chances of achieving a Brexit deal were now "touch and go". He had previously stated that the odds of a no-deal exit were "a million to one".[11] On 28 August 2019, the Johnson ministry reopened negotiations on the withdrawal agreement, but set as a pre-condition that the Irish backstop must be scrapped before doing so, a condition to which the EU had declared it would not agree.[12]

On 30 October 2019, the day named as "exit day" in UK legislation was changed to 31 January 2020 at 11.00 p.m.[13]

Projected consequences of a no-deal Brexit

Budget contributions and divorce bill

The UK's recurrent contributions to the EU budget will cease. (A House of Commons briefing paper issued in June 2016 stated that the average net contribution for the years 2013 to 2017 was £7.9 billion per annum.)[14] The withdrawal agreement negotiated by Prime Minister Theresa May included an understanding that the UK would need to pay a "divorce" bill of £39 billion for previous and long-term commitments.[15] On 25 August 2019 it was reported that a UK government legal team had advised that the amount due should a no-deal Brexit eventuate would be £9 billion and possibly as low as £7 billion.[15]

Economy

Analysis by Her Majesty's Treasury in 2016 predicted that a no-deal Brexit, whereby the UK left the EU and traded with the EU only on WTO terms without any new deals being negotiated, would result in a 7.5% decrease in GDP after 15 years for the UK (relative to where it would otherwise have been, were the UK to have remained a member of the EU).[16] In April 2019 the International Monetary Fund published analysis showing that, in the event of a no-deal Brexit occurring during 2019, the UK's GDP would be 3.5% smaller by 2021 than it would have been had a withdrawal agreement been made during that year (2019). The IMF also predicted a 0.5% reduction in GDP relative to where it otherwise would have been for the rest of the EU by 2021 as a result of a no-deal Brexit.[17] In June 2019 the Office of Budget Responsibility published analysis predicting that the economy would shrink by 2% of GDP by 2021 if a no-deal Brexit occurred during 2019, but where the UK's exit was not "disruptive or disorderly".[18]

Economists at think tank The Policy Exchange have criticised the Treasury, IMF and OECD forecasts for their reliance on a gravity model with what they say are incorrect assumptions.[19] Specifically, these forecasts rely on the comparison between firstly the average gain in trade between EU countries and secondly the average gain in trade between EU countries and the rest of the world. For example, the Treasury's forecast shows that trade in goods has increased 115% more between EU countries compared to trade between the EU and the rest of the world over the timeline of the EU. The authors point to various problems with this, including that 115% is the average across all EU countries and UK specific analysis leads to significantly lower number in the 20% to 30% range, that currency fluctuations should reduce some of the impact of this, and that UK exports to the EU as a percentage of its total exports have been falling rapidly since 1999.

In 2016 Patrick Minford predicted that a 'Britain Alone' scenario in which Britain left the EU, traded with the EU only on WTO terms, and unilaterally removed all tariffs, would result in a gain of 4% of GDP relative to where it would otherwise have been had the UK remained in the EU. Thomas Sampson, Swati Dhingra, Gianmarco Ottaviano and John Van Reenen of the Centre for Economic Performance criticised this analysis as being based on outdated information and analyticial models, and unjustified assumptions.[20]

A report prepared by the Central Bank of Ireland in August 2019 indicated that the City of London would be "largely unaffected" by a hard Brexit, even if it were to have an "adverse" impact on the rest of the country. The report said that the City's financial services industry was sufficiently strong to withstand the impact of a no-deal Brexit and would remain "rich".[21]

Freedom of movement

Under the EU Single Market, freedom of movement allowed EU citizens to travel, live and work in any other member state. This freedom would have been curtailed by a no-deal Brexit, but in early September 2019 it became clear that Home Secretary Priti Patel would announce a liberalisation of rules such that in the event of a no-deal Brexit EU citizens arriving and joining the Settlement Register by the end of 2020 would be able to remain in the UK until 31 December 2023.[22]

Ireland

The economies of both parts of Ireland are expected to be seriously affected by a no-deal Brexit.[23][24]

Motor industry

On 28 July 2019, Groupe PSA (owners of Vauxhall Motors) told the Financial Times that a no-deal Brexit could, if Brexit makes it unprofitable, result in the closure of its Ellesmere Port plant,[25] with serious consequential impact on local suppliers.[26]

Sheep farming

On 30 July 2019, Helen Roberts of the National Sheep Association in Wales told The Guardian that it would be "absolutely catastrophic" to leave with no-deal and could lead to civil unrest among sheep farmers. Minette Batters, the president of the National Farmers Union, said there would be no market for 40% of the UK's lamb meat in the event of a no-deal Brexit. The Guardian also reported research commissioned by the Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board and Quality Meat Scotland that found that combined beef and sheep meat exports to the EU could decline by 92.5%, with the lamb export trade "almost completely wiped out".[27]

Reports have emerged of no deal plans by the UK government to purchase beef, lamb and some crops with £500 million having been budgeted for this.[28][29]

World-wide trade winners and losers

The UK would be able to make new international free trade deals straightaway following a no-deal Brexit.[30]

Delivering a research study on the impact on worldwide exports to the UK, the director of international trade and commodities at UNCTAD considers that "Brexit is not only a regional affair. Once the UK has left [the EU], it will alter the ability of non-EU countries to export to the UK market".[31]

According to UNCTAD a no-deal Brexit could impact third world countries, including in Africa.[32][31] However the no-deal Brexit could provide gains to China.[31] A no-deal Brexit could in one hand reduce EU exports to the UK by $34 billion and from Turkey by $2 billion, and on the other could increase Chinese exports by $10 billion and US exports by $5 billion.[31]

A no-deal Brexit would have immediate repercussions for many developing countries’ exports, with the UNCTAD research raising the specter of significant disruption and economic harm for developing countries whose exports are highly reliant on the UK market and/or are current beneficiaries of EU preferences.[31]

United Kingdom preparedness and contingencies

Operation Yellowhammer

In the run up to the anticipated Spring 2019 Brexit date, the Department for Exiting the European Union (DExEU) and the Civil Contingencies Secretariat developed preparedness and contingency plans for the possibility of a "no-deal" Brexit, codenamed Operation Yellowhammer – the emergency co-ordination plan.[33] In August 2019, it was reported that the Cabinet Office was "not able to confirm" that Operation Yellowhammer is to remain available for an Autumn Brexit.[34] On 18 August 2019, a leak revealed that the policy continues to exist and is being updated.[2][35]

Since Boris Johnson became UK prime minister in July 2019, there have been changes for Brexit planning. Under Michael Gove, significant additional emphasis and funding was being given to no-deal preparations.[5]

Transport systems

As of 2 April 2019 the UK government had issued 16 publications indicating advice on road, rail, air and marine transport, most of which are applicable to the no-deal scenario.[36]

Surface

Transport links are likely to be affected by additional procedures required at border crossings, leading to possible bottlenecks and congestion.[37] Some measures were taken to mitigate the effect of possible problems, including additional ferry capacity.[38] Additionally an enhanced plan, Operation Brock, was prepared to cope with additional traffic delays on the M20 motorway to the Channel Tunnel and Channel ports with Operation Fennel used to manage overall traffic congestion in Kent.[33]

It was said in July 2019 that any issues with train operators and driver certifications (to operate/continue to operate cross-border train services) needed to be resolved.[39]:7

At the end of July 2019, in a statement headlined "Brexit and the UK haulage industry – no deal, no jobs, no food", the (British) Road Haulage Association said that "A no-deal Brexit will create massive problems for international hauliers – whether UK or mainland Europe based".[40]

Aviation

Aviation would be particularly affected if the European Common Aviation Area and EU–US Open Skies Agreement no longer applied to the UK after a "no-deal" Brexit, since World Trade Organization rules do not cover that sector,[41] implying that the following day a British plane could not land at an EU airport.[42] UK government said in September 2018 that in case of no deal on aviation, UK would allow EU airlines to use British airports anyway, and expect EU countries to reciprocate.[43] A number of other aviation issues exist, including pan-European air traffic control, service agreements with the EU and other countries, security regimes, and the UK's relationship with the European Aviation Safety Agency.[39]:7 EU—UK flights should not be affected for a time following a no-deal exit,[citation needed] subject to EU and UK respecting reciprocal rights in this area.[citation needed]

Post Brexit open skies agreements were reached with the US and Canada in November and December 2018 respectively and these would also apply in a "no-deal" situation.[44][45]

Borders

The UK National Audit Office (NAO) produced the report The UK border: preparedness for EU exit update in October 2018[46] and an update in February 2019.[47] These indicated 11 out of 12 critical systems for borders would be at risk were a no-deal exit to occur on 29 March 2019.[47]:4

Movements of people

EU citizens entering the UK for tourism and (some) business and tourism (and vice versa), will not need visas for visits up to 90 days; however significant business travel will require a work permit for each country visited.[48] EU and UK citizens with less than six months to a year on their passports may be advised to renew them.[37] Passports will not be required between Ireland and UK as they are in the common travel area. Citizens from the UK would be unable to use the EU channels in EU airports: the EU channels at UK airports will be repurposed. An International Driving Licence and Green Card may be required for UK citizens to drive in the EU.[37]

Movement of goods

In February 2019, it was estimated that the number of customs declarations to be handled for goods leaving the UK would rise from the current 55 million per year to 240 million.[47]:4

Healthcare

The Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) analysed supply chain, organised stockpiles and additional refrigeration warehouse space.[49] Medicine with limited shelf life cannot be stockpiled; arrangements are in place to prioritise medicines as key goods and a chartered plane would be available for provisioning if necessary.[49] Each clinic and hospital must answer 60 questions each day as part of a sitrep (Situation Report) to confirm they will be able to continue to manage.[50] On 26 March 2016 the Minister for the DHSC indicated it was prepared for a no-deal exit.[citation needed]

Energy

In the event of a no-deal exit, EU energy law will no longer apply to the UK. Continuity of supply will be prioritised. For 12 months until new trading arrangements, a temporary scheme will be implemented to import electricity with no tariff.[citation needed][needs update] The All-Ireland single Electricity Market will no longer apply, although alternative trading arrangements have been outlined and were being pursued, the Government stated in March 2019.[51]

Fisheries

As a member of the EU, the UK is part of the common fisheries policy which, among other things, allows fishermen from other EU countries to access UK waters (and vice versa).[52] In the event of no deal the UK government has stated that, as the UK would no longer be bound by the common fisheries policy, it could deny access to EU Member States fishing vessels,[53] and in September 2018 DEFRA reported that issues were expected in enforcing the UK fishing area to prevent fishing by non-UK vessels.[54]:9–10 The EU has requested that, in the event of no-deal, short term access be provided to EU vessels,[55] and Steven Barclay (Brexit Secretary) informed the Exiting the European Union Select Committee that the UK had agreed to stay in the common fisheries policy until at least December 31 2019.[56]

Food and water

In September 2018, DEFRA produced a report on Progress implementing EU Exit.[54] Progress was being made getting other countries to accept UK versions of export health certificates, especially in the 15% of non-EU countries accounting for 90% of the UK's non-EU exports.[54]:9–10 There were also concerns about insufficient veterinary staff to process export health certificates.[54]:9–10

In August 2019 it was revealed that local government planning for a No-deal Brexit encompassed the possibility of needing to change legal requirements underpinning the provision of school meals, for example by making them more expensive or less healthy; possibly even discarding the requirements entirely. One council also said that "special dietary requirements may be difficult to meet" and that fresh food might have to be replaced with frozen and tinned goods, while another mentioned the possibility of a return to rationing.[57]

Foreign nationals

The British Government intends to treat EU citizens already living in the UK as it had proposed in the draft Brexit withdrawal agreement, though there will be some variations. The UK Government is hopeful this will be reciprocated for UK Nationals in the EU.[58] The EU have published a fact-sheet detailing information for UK nationals in the EU.[59]

In August 2019, Boris Johnson communicated that he wants the freedom of movement which allow EU citizens to travel to the UK to be immediately stopped on October the 31st. Those rules applicable till October the 31st will be replaced by new stricter non stated rules.[60][61]

Law enforcement

Metropolitan Police Deputy assistant commissioner Richard Martin stated that a no-deal exit would mean a loss of Europe-wide tools, databases and European Arrest Warrant, which would limit ability to detain foreign suspects in the UK and pursue UK fugitives in the EU.[62] The National Police Chiefs Council asked "prominent individuals" to avoid inciting anger and said 10,000 officers were ready for deployment in the UK in case of conflicts between citizens.[63]

Banking and finance

A "temporary permissions regime" (TPR) has been introduced so that in the event of no-deal, European Union banks, insurers and asset managers can simply notify UK financial regulators in order to continue to serve UK customers.[64]

Motor insurance

A no-deal Brexit will make UK no longer party to the Motor Insurance Directive. According to Irish no deal preparedness plans,[65] Green Cards will be required by for UK motorists wishing to travel to the EU (and vice versa) – an issue that will particularly affect the heavily traversed Irish border.[66] As a consequence, one million Green Cards were sent to insurance companies and brokers in the Republic of Ireland alone, as part of a 'prudent advance planning' for a possible no-deal Brexit.[65]

Northern Ireland

A Sinn Féin protest against a hard border. Post-Brexit border controls are a controversial issue

The UK's highest-ranking civil servant said in April 2019 that a no-deal Brexit would result in the return of direct rule in Northern Ireland.[67]

The May administration was committed to avoiding a "hard" border[c] and honouring the Belfast (Good Friday) Agreement.[68] However, it was reported in March 2019 that its proposed approach might violate other legal obligations and could be challenged.[69][70][d]

In August 2019 it was reported that it was "understood" that a no-deal Brexit could challenge the question of the border between UK and EU on the island of Ireland, necessitating negotiation between the UK with the European Commission and/or the Irish government to jointly agree long-term measures to avoid a hard border.[78]

A forecast made in August 2019 had an expectation of a reduction of 19% in exports from Northern Ireland to Ireland in the event of a no-deal Brexit.[78]

Oversea territories

The EU intends to define Gibraltar (in UK law, 'a British Overseas Territory') as a "Colony of the British Crown" in draft legislation about visa-less travel to the EU in a no-deal scenario.[79]

National security

Exiting the EU is expected to cause serious disruption to security relationships built up with the UK and may compromise UK national security. The difficulties are increased significantly in the event of a "no-deal" exit.[80]

Military operations

British troops currently in Bosnia as part of an EU force would need to be placed under NATO command.[67]

In February 2019, The Times reported plans to evacuate the Royal Family from London in the event of rioting following a no-deal Brexit, however neither Buckingham Palace nor 10 Downing Street would comment on the report.[81]

Tariffs

On 13 March 2019, the Department for International Trade released details of temporary tariff rates that would apply to imports if the United Kingdom leaves the EU without a deal.[82] This tariff regime would last for 12 months, then will be reviewed. The new regime increases the percentage of items that are tariff free from 80% to 87%; products that will become tariff-free include jams, jellies and marmalade (currently 24%), oranges (currently 16%), onions (currently 9.6%), peas (currently 8%), and televisions (currently 14%).[83] However, there seems to be no reason to expect these tariffs to be reciprocated and some exporters foresee complete loss of their major markets.[84]

On 22 July 2019, the Trade Secretary Liam Fox said that these were short-term transitory rates and should be expected to change.[84]

Risks common to all areas

Legal

In the event of a "no-deal" exit existing legislation will be used as far as possible to cover any essential contingency measures but a power of last resort is to use the Civil Contingencies Act 2004 to introduce temporary legislation.[85] UK government departments said existing legislation is sufficient.[38]:14

Communications

The UK Government has needed to withdraw communication resources with regard to a no-deal exit on 23 March 2019 due to it being out of date.[86]

The EU has announced that UK residents and undertakings will be unable to register or renew .eu domain names after the withdrawal date.[87]

Data

The UK Government has issued a notice about how data protection law will work if the UK leaves the EU without a deal.[88]

GATT 24

It has been suggested by supporters of Brexit – including Boris Johnson – that, in the event of a no-deal scenario, paragraph 5b Article 24 of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade might be used to avoid the need (under WTO rules) for the EU and UK to apply tariffs to their mutual trade. This position has been criticised as unrealistic by Mark Carney, Liam Fox and others, as paragraph 5c requires an agreement with the EU be in place for paragraph 5b to be of use, and would not cover services.[89][90]

EU preparedness

The European Union issued a press release on 25 March 2019 saying that it had prepared for an increasingly likely "no-deal" scenario on 12 April 2019. It has issued 90 preparedness notices, 3 Commission Communications, 19 legislative proposals, and a number of fact sheets for its citizens.[91]

For example, this includes a nine-month temporary measure to allow the negotiation of a long term solution for the rail link between the UK and the continent.[92]

Different laws/waivers, including some under work, are considered, for instance:

  • to temporarily allow British citizens to travel without visa within the EU, if UK has a reciprocal arrangement,[92]
  • to allow Erasmus students to finish their year/semester,[92]
  • to pay British beneficiaries if UK comply with its obligations,[92]
  • to pay fishers for the temporarily inactivity generated by Brexit, unless EU shares its fish resources with UK and UK with EU[92]

Recasting of EU institutions

The immediate effects of withdrawal (either with or without a ratified treaty) are ending of the UK's membership of the Council of the European Union and the European Commission, and loss of the 73 seats of the UK MEPs in the European Parliament who were elected in the May 2019 European Parliament election in the United Kingdom. The latter will require re-apportionment of those seats among the remaining member states according to the result of the 2019 elections which took into account the Brexit as planned.

Transport

Transport between UK and the EU will suffer from long delays, which the parties have made efforts to ameliorate:

  • British airlines will be able to operate flights between the UK and EU until March 2020;[93]
  • Eurostar, and shuttle will be allowed to operate for three months[93]
  • As of August 2019, the status of the roads that cross the border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland remains unclear. Both sides vowed not to reintroduce border controls as required by WTO terms.[94] (For details, see Brexit and the Irish border).

Galileo

Removal of Galileo satellite navigation infrastructure from the United Kingdom, Falklands and Ascension Islands is in the final stages of completion.[91]

Member states preparedness

Austria

In case of no deal Brexit, Austria will offer British nationals living in Austria a free six months delay to apply for a €160 residence permit with simplified rules which will not require speaking German to obtain residency.[95]

Belgium

Belgium has drafted, in case of no deal Brexit, a bilingual Dutch-French law offering a transition period until December 2020. This time offer the possibility for British citizens to apply for a €57 long-term residence permit, called D-card, but Brexit specific.[95]

Bulgaria

Bulgaria will offer British the same rights as EU citizens but requires them to re-register.[95]

Croatia

Croatia will offer to British nationals a free application for temporary residence upgradeable after no-deal Brexit to a HRK 79.50 resident ID card. Permanent residency is an option for people who have been there 5 years or more.[95]

Cyprus

British authorities have advised British nationals to register with the local authorities.[95]

Czech Republic

Czechs did the most generous proposals with a draft law to offer 8,000 Britons living in the country a 21-month exemption from normal immigration laws, till the end of 2020. This offer relies on reciprocity for the 40,000 Czech citizens living in Britain.[96]

France

France considers that a no deal Brexit (sortie sèche in French) will occur because the withdrawal agreement has not been ratified.[citation needed]

In this perspective, 200 measures have been considered, including the possibility for the government to make and unmake law by ordonnance (roughly equivalent to a statutory instrument).[97][98]

The right of British citizens living in France are ruled by an ordonnance dated 6 February 2019 and by décrets (decrees) dated 2 and 3 April 2019.[98] This includes a 12-month period, assuming reciprocity, to allow British nationals to continue to live in France without titre de séjour. After that, they must have a carte de résident (10-year residence permit) if they have lived in France for more than five years, otherwise one of the titres.[98]

Border controls will be made possible through an ordonnance and a décret of 23 January 2019 and an ordonnance of 27 March 2019 to establish border checks.[98]

An ordonnance of 30 January 2019 will allow the movement of defence goods between France and the United Kingdom to continue.[98]

Germany

Germany will offer British citizens three months to apply for residence permits.[97] Germany has also recruited 900 extra customs staff.[97]

Greece

In July, Greece understood that "Boris Johnson's election as PM of the United Kingdom creates the conditions for a disorderly Brexit". For this reason, according to Varvitsiotis, Greece wants to fix the "list of hundreds of pending issues that we must look at, because if they are not covered by an overall EU-UK agreement, all these agreements must be drawn up on a bilateral, national level. He wants that all actions will respect both the "relations we have but also the relations that we will build from here on."[99]

Republic of Ireland

The economies of both parts of Ireland are expected to be seriously affected by a no-deal Brexit.[100][101] The EU plans to ensure that the economy of the Republic of Ireland is supported through the crisis with "a huge aid package" from the contingency fund.[102] On 22 July 2019, an EU diplomat told The Times that the bloc would “spend whatever was necessary” to support the Irish government through any disruption of trade.[102] According to the then UK Brexit Secretary, Stephen Barclay, 40% of the Republic's tangibles trade with continental Europe goes via Dover/Calais, which (in a no-deal scenario) is expected to be seriously disrupted.[102]

Eamonn O’Reilly, CEO of Dublin Port, was quoted on 21 March 2019 as indicating the port was "as ready as we can be" for a No-deal Brexit with 8 hectares (20 acres) allocated for the eventuality.[103]

Poland

Poland planned a draft law to offer Britons living in Poland a delay from no deal Brexit at midnight on 29–30 March in 2019, until 30 March 2020, to protect their rights by obtaining a temporary residence permit or permanent residence in Poland. Theresa May said: "Almost 1 million Poles make their lives in Britain. That is why securing the rights of Polish and other EU citizens was my priority in the Brexit negotiations.".[96]

The card will be different from a normal residency permit, being a "Brexit" card.[96]

Spain

Spain has established a 42-page document of English-language royal decrees containing several chapters:[104]

  1. "General Provisions": the purpose of the Royal Decree-Law, mechanism of reciprocity, temporary nature, possible extension
  2. "Citizens" sets forth the provisions affecting citizens that would require urgent adoption
  3. "International Police and Judicial Cooperation" regulates international police and judicial cooperation, including some laws and instruments which cease to apply
  4. "Economic Activities" with 4 sub-parts
  5. "Transport" includes provisions on land transport

Sweden

The Swedish government has adopted certain transitional rules to facilitate British citizens in Sweden in the event of withdrawal without deal or if an agreement is approved too late in order to be legislated. Most are valid for one year.[105]

  • British citizens and their family members do not need a residence and work permit, are exempted from fees for studying at universities and colleges in Sweden they were admitted to at Brexit, and children without a residence permit may continue to attend Swedish schools.
  • British driving licenses are valid for residents of Sweden for one year from Brexit, but a simple exchange to a Swedish driver's license is not included, so people should do that before Brexit.
  • Swedish citizens in the UK can receive pensions, health care costs and other social security benefits from Sweden during 2019.

EEA EFTA preparedness

Members of the European Union (blue) and
European Free Trade Association (EFTA) (green)

Because the "EEA EFTA-UK separation agreement" will only apply if the Withdrawal Agreement is concluded between the EU and the UK,[106] a no-deal agreement has also been agreed:

According to the gov.uk, "EEA EFTA no deal citizens'rights agreement" is the citizens' rights agreement with the EEA EFTA states to protect the rights of UK and EEA EFTA nationals who have chosen to call each other' countries home. This would come into effect in a no deal scenario.[107]

Official name of this agreement is "Agreement on arrangements regarding citizens’ rights between Iceland, the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Kingdom of Norway and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland following the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union and the EEA Agreement"[108]

Other countries' positions on no-deal Brexit

United States

A no-deal Brexit is strongly supported by the Trump Administration, and the United States might benefit from it through changes to the British position on trade and foreign policy, according to an op ed piece by Gaby Hinsliff of The Guardian (UK).[109] U.S. national security adviser John R. Bolton told British Prime Minister Boris Johnson that President Trump wanted to see a successful British exit from the European Union on Oct. 31, according to CNBC.[110] A no-deal Brexit may also offer a possible switch of UK alignment to the US rules rather than to EU rules.[111]

However, Speaker of the House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi (leader of the Democratic Congressional majority) has said that the House will refuse to ratify any US/UK free trade agreement if the stability of the Good Friday Agreement is imperilled.[112]

Subsequent EU/UK free trade agreement negotiations

It is generally assumed that the UK and EU will wish to negotiate a free-trade agreement. Dominic Raab, the UK Foreign Secretary, believes that the UK will be better able to negotiate an FTA with the EU after no-deal Brexit.[113] However the Institute for Government disagrees, pointing out that negotiations in this case will not be under Article 50 terms but under the EU's 'third countries' arrangements which "take place on a different legal basis with a more complicated process and ratification requirements – which is likely to involve ratification in all 27 member state parliaments".[114][115]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ EU citizens already resident in the UK and UK citizens already resident in the EU
  2. ^ such as long term pension commitments and previously agreed contributions to Community programmes
  3. ^ a controlled border with physical infrastructure (customs, police and SPS measures) at a limited number of authorised crossing points
  4. ^ and other sources.[71][72][73][74][75][76][77]

References

  1. ^ "MoD hosts no-deal planning in bunker". BBC News. 21 March 2019. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  2. ^ a b Rowena Mason (18 August 2019). "No-deal Brexit: key points of Operation Yellowhammer report". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  3. ^ "Brexit: John Bercow says MPs will get a say over no deal". BBC. 28 May 2019. Archived from the original on 6 June 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  4. ^ a b Wright, Oliver (25 July 2019). "Boris Johnson's cabinet: Feud ends as Gove is given key role in Brexit plans". The Times. Archived from the original on 25 July 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
  5. ^ a b "UK ups no-deal Brexit planning". CNBC. 29 July 2019. Archived from the original on 7 August 2019. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
  6. ^ "Michael Gove told to 'turbo-charge' no-deal Brexit plans". Financial Times. 25 July 2019. Archived from the original on 16 August 2019. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
  7. ^ Daniel Boffey (12 August 2019). "British diplomats to pull out from EU decision-making meetings within days". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 August 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  8. ^ editor, Rowena Mason Deputy political (14 August 2019). "Johnson accuses MPs and EU of 'terrible collaboration' over Brexit". Archived from the original on 14 August 2019. Retrieved 14 August 2019 – via www.theguardian.com.
  9. ^ Sparrow, Andrew (21 August 2019). "Brexit: Angela Merkel gives Boris Johnson 30 days to come up with solution to backstop - live news" – via www.theguardian.com.
  10. ^ AFP, avec (21 August 2019). "Brexit. Le « scénario central est celui du no-deal », selon l'Élysée". Ouest-France.fr (in French).
  11. ^ "A Brexit deal is now 'touch and go', says Johnson". BBC. 25 August 2019. Archived from the original on 25 August 2019. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
  12. ^ Peter Walker (26 July 2019). "UK on course for no-deal Brexit as Johnson rejects EU agreement". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  13. ^ The European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 (Exit Day) (Amendment) (No. 3) Regulations 2019 SI 2019 No. 1423, 30th October 2019.[1]
  14. ^ "The UK's contribution to the EU budget". www.parliament.uk. 24 June 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  15. ^ a b "The Papers". BBC/Mail on Sunday/Sunday Times. 25 August 2019. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
  16. ^ HM Treasury analysis: the long-term economic impact of EU membership and the alternatives (PDF). HM Govt. April 2016. p. 7. ISBN 9781474130899. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 July 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  17. ^ Elliott, Larry (9 April 2019). "IMF says no-deal Brexit risks two-year recession for UK". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 July 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  18. ^ Elliott, Larry (18 July 2019). "No-deal Brexit would plunge Britain into a recession, says OBR". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  19. ^ "Defying Gravity: A critique of estimates of the economic impact of Brexit | Policy Exchange". Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  20. ^ Economists for Brexit: A Critique (PDF). LSE. 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 February 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  21. ^ "London will stay rich even after hard Brexit". Metro. 6 August 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  22. ^ "Brexit: New rules could give EU nationals three-year right to remain after possible no-deal". The Independent. 3 September 2019. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  23. ^ John Campbell (22 January 2019). "Brexit: What would no-deal mean for the NI economy?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  24. ^ Rory Carroll and Lisa O'Carroll (9 July 2019). "No-deal Brexit a political and economic threat, Ireland warns". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  25. ^ Theo Leggett (28 July 2019). "Vauxhall owner 'could move Astra production from UK'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 29 July 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  26. ^ "Vauxhall Ellesmere Port factory loss would have 'big impact' on Wales". BBC News. 29 July 2019. Archived from the original on 30 July 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  27. ^ Rowena Mason, Peter Walker and Lisa O'Carroll (30 July 2019). "Johnson refuses to give details on his no-deal Brexit plans for farming". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 August 2019. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
  28. ^ Editor, Oliver Wright, Policy (31 July 2019). "No-deal Brexit: £500m plan to help farmers". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  29. ^ "£500 million plan to buy slaughtered livestock in no-deal Brexit". ADAS. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  30. ^ "No-deal Brexit benefits: What the positives could be and how likely they are to actually happen". inews. 8 August 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  31. ^ a b c d e "No-deal Brexit: the trade winners and losers". UNCTAD. 9 April 2019. Archived from the original on 3 June 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  32. ^ "Pourquoi le Brexit sans accord défendu par Boris Johnson inquiète les pays africains ('Why a Brexit without an agreement, defended by Boris Johnson, disturbs African countries')" (in French). Radio France Internationale. 23 July 2019. Archived from the original on 23 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  33. ^ a b correspondent, Lisa O'Carroll Brexit (20 March 2019). "UK's emergency plans for no-deal Brexit begin to be put into action". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 20 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  34. ^ Schraer, Rachel; Edgington, Tom (6 August 2019). "No-deal Brexit: What is the UK government doing to prepare?". BBC. Archived from the original on 11 August 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  35. ^ Ailbhe Rea (19 August 2019). "The government just emailed confidential Brexit information to the wrong person". New Statesman. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  36. ^ "Transport – EU Exit guidance". gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  37. ^ a b c "Brexit: 10 ways you could be affected by no-deal". BBC. Archived from the original on 1 April 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  38. ^ a b National Audit Office - Cabinet Office Civil Contingencies Secretariat (12 March 2019). "Contingency preparations for exiting the EU with no deal" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  39. ^ a b National Audit Office - Comptroller and Auditor General (19 July 2018). "Report" (PDF). Department for Transport - The UK border: preparedness for EU exit.
  40. ^ "Brexit and the UK haulage industry – no deal, no jobs, no food". Road Haulage Association. 29 July 2019. Archived from the original on 12 May 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  41. ^ Gerrard, Bradley (18 August 2017). "With no plan B, Brexit stakes for aviation sector are sky high". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 21 September 2017. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  42. ^ "Brexit : le résultat des législatives "est une mauvaise nouvelle" pour le président de la Fondation Robert-Schuman". FranceTVInfo.fr (in French). 10 June 2017. Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  43. ^ "UK would allow EU airlines to fly in no-deal Brexit, would keep EU safety rules". reuters.com. 24 September 2018. Archived from the original on 11 October 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  44. ^ "UK and USA reach post-Brexit open-skies accord". FlightGlobal. Archived from the original on 7 July 2019.
  45. ^ Clark, Oliver (3 December 2018). "UK and Canada conclude post-Brexit open skies agreement". Flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 7 July 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  46. ^ National Audit Office - Comptroller and Auditor General (24 October 2018). "Report" (PDF). The UK border: preparedness for EU exit.
  47. ^ a b c National Audit Office (February 2019). "Memorandum to the House of Commons Committee of Public Accounts" (PDF). The UK border: preparedness for EU exit update.
  48. ^ "UK business travellers face 'sea change' after a no-deal Brexit". Financial Times. 11 August 2019. Archived from the original on 12 August 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  49. ^ a b Edgington, Tom; Schraer, Rachel (23 March 2019). "No-deal Brexit: What is the UK government doing to prepare?". BBC. Archived from the original on 23 March 2019.
  50. ^ Nick Hopkins (22 March 2019). "Secret Cabinet Office document reveals chaotic planning for no-deal Brexit". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 23 March 2019.
  51. ^ "Trading electricity if there's no Brexit deal". Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. If there’s no deal. Archived from the original on 4 May 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  52. ^ "Common Fisheries Policy". The Institute for Government. 17 February 2017. Archived from the original on 18 May 2019. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  53. ^ Ares, Elena (6 March 2019). "Fisheries and Brexit". Archived from the original on 9 August 2019. Retrieved 9 August 2019. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  54. ^ a b c d National Audit Office - Comptroller and Auditor General (12 September 2018). "Report" (PDF). Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs - Progress in Implementing EU Exit.
  55. ^ Rankin, Jennifer (5 April 2019). "EU confirms it wants short-term fisheries arrangement with UK". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  56. ^ Hawker, Luke (17 July 2019). "EU fishing row: Macron's France to continue exploiting UK waters even after no deal Brexit". Express.co.uk. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  57. ^ Islam, Faisal (19 August 2019). "School lunch standards warning under no-deal Brexit". BBC News. Archived from the original on 19 August 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  58. ^ "Policy paper: Citizens' Rights - EU citizens in the UK and UK nationals in the EU" (PDF). DExEU. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 December 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  59. ^ "The rights of UK nationals living in the EU in the event of "No deal"" (PDF). EU. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  60. ^ "Boris Johnson menace de mettre fin à la libre circulation des personnes". RTL.fr (in French).
  61. ^ "Brexit: EU migration rules 'to end straight after no-deal'". BBC. 19 August 2019. Archived from the original on 19 August 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  62. ^ Dodd, Vikram (11 February 2019). "No-deal Brexit would make Britain less safe, says police chief". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  63. ^ Dodd, Vikram (3 April 2019). "Police amass 10,000 officers in preparation for no-deal unrest". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 April 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  64. ^ Jones, Huw (29 March 2019). "Britain gives EU banks more time for no-deal Brexit preparations". Reuters. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  65. ^ a b "Clarification on the need for Green Cards". Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport (Press release). 6 March 2019. Archived from the original on 23 July 2019.
  66. ^ Archer, Bimpe (28 September 2018). "More than 45 million vehicles crossing border between north and the Republic annually". The Irish News. Archived from the original on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  67. ^ a b Elgot, Jessica (8 April 2019). "Ministers warned over planes and troops in no-deal Brexit". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 April 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  68. ^ "EU Exit: Avoiding a hard border in Northern Ireland in a no deal scenario". gov.uk. 2 April 2019. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  69. ^ "No-deal plans a bid 'to break EU unity'". Bbc.co.uk. 13 March 2019. Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  70. ^ correspondent, Lisa O'Carroll Brexit; Boffey, Daniel (13 March 2019). "UK will cut most tariffs to zero in event of no-deal Brexit". Theguardian.com. Archived from the original on 14 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  71. ^ Sandford, Alisdair (13 March 2019). "UK zero-tariff plan for no-deal Brexit would not spare some EU imports" (PDF). Euronews.com. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  72. ^ David Young and Andrew Woodcock, Press Association (14 March 1999). "No-deal Brexit: British government confirms zero tariffs on goods entering north over border". The Irish News. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  73. ^ McCormack, Jayne (14 March 2019). "Does NI tariffs plan violate WTO law?". Bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 3 April 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  74. ^ Thursday; March 14; Am, 2019-05:10 (14 March 2019). "Proposed fees regime 'against WTO rules'". Irishexaminer.com.
  75. ^ "John Downing: 'EU puts Britain in its place with two very blunt messages'". Independent.ie.
  76. ^ "EU to apply normal tariffs on trade with UK in case of no-deal Brexit". Uk.reuters.com. 13 March 2019. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  77. ^ "EU says UK no-deal Brexit tariff plan is 'illegal'". The Independent. 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  78. ^ a b Campbell, John (6 August 2019). "What could no deal mean for the Irish border?". Archived from the original on 18 August 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2019 – via www.bbc.com.
  79. ^ Sánchez, Álvaro. "EU Parliament pushes out British negotiator over Gibraltar "colony" dispute". El País. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  80. ^ Bunkall, Alistair (25 January 2019). "National security will take 'years' to rebuild in event of 'no-deal' Brexit". Sky. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  81. ^ "Plan to evacuate the Queen after a no-deal Brexit". The Times. 3 February 2019.
  82. ^ "Temporary tariff regime for no deal Brexit published". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  83. ^ "Most imports tariff-free under no-deal plan". 13 March 2019. Archived from the original on 10 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  84. ^ a b Faisal Islam (22 July 2019). "What happened to post-Brexit free-trade nirvana?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 24 July 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
  85. ^ Guyoncourt, Sally (21 March 2019). "Operation Yellowhammer: what are the Government's emergency plans for a no-deal Brexit and how would they work?". inews.co.uk. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019.
  86. ^ "Promotional material Communication resources". HMRC. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  87. ^ "Withdrawal of the United Kingdom and EU rules on .eu domain names" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  88. ^ "Amendments to UK data protection law in the event the UK leaves the EU without a deal on 29 March 2019". Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport. 13 February 2019. Archived from the original on 8 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  89. ^ Wood, Vincent (13 July 2019). "What is GATT 24: What is the WTO clause at the centre of Andrew Neil's grilling of Boris Johnson". The Independent. Archived from the original on 13 July 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  90. ^ Morris, Chris (24 June 2019). "Gatt 24: Would obscure trade rule help with no-deal Brexit?". BBC. Archived from the original on 13 July 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  91. ^ a b "Daily News – 25.03.2019". European commission Press Release Database. Archived from the original on 25 March 2019.
  92. ^ a b c d e "La France etl'UE se préparent". brexit.gouv.fr (in French). Archived from the original on 12 August 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  93. ^ a b "Les conséquences d'un Brexit sans accord se précisent | Brèves". L'Antenne - Les transports et la logistique au quotidien (in French).
  94. ^ "Technical Information on Technical barriers to trade". World Trade Organization. See section 'Non-discrimination and national treatment'
  95. ^ a b c d e "A guide to no-deal Brexit for expats: what will it mean?". Expatica. Archived from the original on 15 August 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  96. ^ a b c O'Carroll, Lisa (15 January 2019). "No-deal Brexit: Poland and Czech Republic to allow Britons to stay if UK crashes out". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  97. ^ a b c "Brexit: What are EU countries doing to prepare for no deal?". BBC News. 9 April 2019. Archived from the original on 19 July 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  98. ^ a b c d e "Les autorités françaises se préparent au Brexit" [French authorities prepare themselves for Brexit] (in French). Government of France. April 2019. Archived from the original on 12 August 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  99. ^ Kampouris, Nick. "Special Meeting Called as Greece Prepares For a No-Deal Brexit". GreekReporter.com. Archived from the original on 25 July 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  100. ^ John Campbell (22 January 2019). "Brexit: What would no-deal mean for the NI economy?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  101. ^ Rory Carroll and Lisa O'Carroll (9 July 2019). "No-deal Brexit a political and economic threat, Ireland warns". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  102. ^ a b c Wright, Oliver (22 July 2019). "EU prepares huge aid package for Ireland". The Times. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  103. ^ Clarke, Vivienne (21 March 2019). "Dublin Port head defends decision to cut number of cruise ships". BreakingNews.ie. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  104. ^ "Royal Decree-Law 5/2019, of 1 March, adopting contingency planning measures to prepare for a withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union without the conclusion of the agreement provided for in Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union" (PDF). Spanish Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 August 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  105. ^ Regeländringar för att hantera brexit
  106. ^ "EEA EFTA states and the UK strike agreement to protect citizens' rights in a no deal Brexit scenario | European Free Trade Association". www.efta.int. Archived from the original on 15 August 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  107. ^ "EEA EFTA No Deal Citizens' Rights Agreement and Explainer". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 15 August 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  108. ^ "No deal agreement" (PDF). www.efta.int. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 August 2019. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  109. ^ Gaby Hinsliff (13 August 2019). "Of course the US supports a no deal – it makes a minnow out of Britain". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 August 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  110. ^ "Trump advisor Bolton: US would enthusiastically support a UK choice for no-deal Brexit". CNBC. 13 August 2019. Archived from the original on 13 August 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  111. ^ "Brexit Britain's weakness exposed in US trade deal documents". The Conversation. 12 March 2019. Archived from the original on 13 August 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  112. ^ Julian Borger (31 July 2019). "We'll block trade deal if Brexit imperils open Irish border, say US politicians". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 August 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  113. ^ Nadeem Badshah (29 July 2019). "Raab: UK will be better able to negotiate with EU after no-deal Brexit". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 29 July 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  114. ^ Joe Owen, Maddy Thimont Jack, Jill Rutter (28 July 2019). "Preparing Brexit: No Deal" (PDF). Institute for Government. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 July 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  115. ^ Lisa O'Carroll and Rowena Mason (28 July 2019). "Johnson told no-deal Brexit will crush domestic policy plans. Institute for Government tells PM there is 'no such thing as a managed no deal'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 July 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.

External links