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Ngardi language

RegionNorthern Territory and Western Australia
Native speakers
3 (2016 census)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3rxd
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Ngardi (Ngarti) or Ngardilj, also called Bunara, is a moribund Australian Aboriginal language.


Capell (1962) considered Ngardi, Warlpiri, and Warlmanpa to be dialects of a single language. R. M. W. Dixon (2002) grouped Ngardi together with Warlpiri and Warlmanpa in the Yapa group, but admitted that this was based on limited data. McConvell and Laughren (2004) showed that it was in Ngumbin, a closely related group, and this was followed in Honeyman (2005). However, Bowern (2011) listed it as a more distant Wati language.[3]



Front Back
High i u
Low a


Peripheral Laminal Apical
Bilabial Velar Palatal Alveolar Retroflex
Stop p k c t ʈ
Nasal m ŋ ɲ n ɳ
Lateral ʎ l ɭ
Rhotic r ɻ
Semivowel w j


  1. ^ a b A69 Ngardi at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ngardi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Bowern, Claire. 2011 "How Many Languages Were Spoken in Australia?", Anggarrgoon: Australian languages on the web, December 23, 2011 (corrected February 6, 2012)
  • Capell, A. (1962). Some linguistic types in Australia. Sydney: Oceania Publications.
  • Dixon, R. M. W. (2002). Australian Languages: Their Nature and Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Honeyman, Tom (2005). Topic and Focus in Ngardi. thesis. University of Sydney.
  • McConvell and Laughren (2004) "The Ngumpin-Yapa subgroup". In Claire Bowern & Harold Koch, Australian Languages: Classification and the Comparative Method. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.