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Ngaju language

Native toIndonesia
Native speakers
890,000 (2003)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3nij
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Ngaju (also Ngaju Dayak or Dayak Ngaju) is an Austronesian language spoken along the Kapuas, Kahayan, Katingan, and Mentaya Rivers in Central Borneo, Indonesia. It is closely related to Bakumpai language. There are three dialects—Pulopetak, Ba'amang, and Mantangai.[3]



Ngaju has the following consonants.[4]

Biabial Coronal Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Stop p b t d c ɟ k g
Fricative s h
j w
Trill r


Ngaju has the following vowels. All vowels except ə can be long.[5]

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e ə o
Low a


Vocabulary comparison between Bakumpai, Ngaju, Indonesian and English languages.

Bakumpai Ngaju Indonesian English
Jida Dia Tidak No
Beken Beken Bukan Not
Pai Pai Kaki Foot / Leg
Kueh Kueh Mana Which / Where
Si-kueh Bara-kueh Dari mana Where from
Hituh Hetuh Sini Here
Si-hituh Intu-hetuh Di sini Here
Bara Bara Dari From
Kejaw Kejaw Jauh Far
Tukep / Parak Tukep Dekat Near
Kuman Kuman Makan Eat
Mihup Mihop Minum Drink
Lebu Lewu Kampung Village
Batatapas Bapukan Mencuci pakaian To wash clothes


  1. ^ Ngaju at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ngaju". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Raymond G. Gordon Jr., ed. 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 15th edition. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  4. ^ Mihing & Stokhof 1977.
  5. ^ Mihing & Stokhof 1977


Ashn E. Johannes. 1971. "An Introduction to Dayak Ngaju Morphology," Malang MA thesis.

T.W.J. Mihing & W.A.L. Stokhof. 1977. "On the Ngaju Dayak Sound System," Miscellaneous Studies in Indonesian and Languages in Indonesia 3:49-59.