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The phrase "New World crops" is usually used to describe crops, food and otherwise, that were native to the New World (mostly the Americas) before 1492 CE and not found anywhere else at that time. Many of these crops are now grown around the world and have often become an integral part of the cuisine of various cultures in the Old World.
Notable among these crops are the Three Sisters: maize, winter squash, and climbing beans.
|Cereals||little barley, maize (corn), maygrass, wild rice|
|Pseudocereals||amaranth, knotweed, goosefoot (quinoa), sunflower, chia|
|Fruits||açaí, acerola, avocado, blueberry, cashew apple, cherimoya, cranberry, curuba, feijoa, granadilla or lulo, guava (guayaba), huckleberry, jabuticaba, jerivá, jurubeba, macaúba, papaya, pawpaw, passionfruit, peppers, persimmon (American), pineapple, pitanga, pitaya, prickly pear, soursop, garden strawberry, sugar-apple, tomato, tomatillo, tucum|
|Melons||chayote, squashes (including pumpkins)|
|Beans||common bean, lima bean, peanut, scarlet runner bean, tepary bean|
|Nuts||American chestnut, Araucaria, black walnut, Brazil nut, cashew, hickory, pecan, shagbark hickory|
|Roots and Tubers||arracacha, arrowroot, jicama, camas root, hopniss, leren, manioc (yuca, cassava), mashua or cubio, oca, potato, sweet potato, ulluco, yacón, sunroot (Jerusalem artichoke)|
|Fiber||agave, yucca, cotton (long-staple and upland)|
|Other||achiote (annatto), balsam of Peru, canna, chicle (ingredient in chewing gum), coca leaf, cocoa bean, cochineal (red dye), guarana, logwood, maple syrup, poinsettia flowers, rubber tree, tobacco, vanilla, yerba mate|
The new world developed agriculture about 1500 years after it was first practiced in the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East. The following table shows when each New World crop was first domesticated.
|8000 BCE||Squash||Oaxaca, Mexico|
|8000-5000 BCE||Potato||Peruvian Andes|
|6000-4000 BCE||Peppers||Oaxaca, Mexico|
|5700 BCE||Maize||Guerrero, Mexico|
|5500 BCE||Peanut||South America|
|4000 BCE||Common bean||Central America|
|3400 BCE||Cotton||Tehuacan Valley, Mexico|
|1500 BCE||Sweet potato||Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colombia|