Neo-völkisch movements, as defined by the historian, Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, cover a wide variety of mutually influencing groups of a radically ethnocentric character which have emerged, especially in the English-speaking world, since World War II. These loose networks revive or imitate the völkisch movement of 19th- and early-20th-century Germany in their defensive affirmation of white identity against modernity, liberalism, immigration, multiracialism and multiculturalism. Some identify as neo-fascist, neo-Nazi, Third Positionist or alt-right while others are politicised around some form of white nationalism or identity politics and may show neo-tribalist-neo-pagan tendencies such as the one promoted by Else Christensen's Odinist Fellowship. Especially notable is the prevalence of devotional forms and esoteric themes so that neo-völkisch currents often have the character of new religious movements.
Included under the neo-völkisch umbrella are movements ranging from conservative revolutionary schools of thought (Nouvelle Droite, European New Right and Evolian traditionalism) to white supremacist and white separatist interpretations of Christianity, pantheism and paganism (Christian Identity, Creativity Movement, Cosmotheism and Nordic racial paganism) to neo-Nazi subcultures (esoteric Hitlerism, Nazi Satanism and National Socialist black metal). According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, only pagan-type groups are recognized as neo-völkisch, excluding Christian Identity.
Among the terms used are Nazi Satanism and fascist Satanism. Sometimes these groups self-identify as traditional Satanism and consist of small groups in Norway, Britain, New Zealand and France under names such as Black Order or Infernal Alliance which draw their inspiration from the esoteric Nazism of Miguel Serrano. Uww, founder of black metal fanzine Deo Occidi, denounced Anton LaVey as a "moderate Jew" and embraced the "esoterrorism" of the Scandinavian Black Metal milieu. Small Satanist grouplets catering to the black metal Satanist fringe include the Black Order, the Order of Nine Angles (ONA), the Ordo Sinistra Vivendi (formerly the Order of the Left Hand Path) and the Order of the Jarls of Baelder.
The chief initiator of Nazi Satanism in Britain has been alleged to be David Wulstan Myatt (b. 1950), active in neo-Nazi politics from the late 1960s. The ONA was allegedly led by Myatt, who converted to Islam in 1998 and renounced it in 2010 in favor of his own Numinous Way philosophy. However, Myatt has always denied any involvement with the ONA and Satanism and has repeatedly challenged anyone to provide any evidence of such allegations.
The ONA "represent a dangerous and extreme form of Satanism" and first attracted public attention during the 1980s and 1990s after being mentioned in books detailing Satanist and far-right groups. The ONA was formed in the United Kingdom and rose to public note during the 1980s and 1990s. Presently, the ONA is organized around clandestine cells (which it calls "traditional nexions") and around what it calls "sinister tribes".
Joy of Satan ministries is another notable satanic organization that combines elements of Nazism with theistic Satanism, believing that the "Aryan race" was genetically-engineered from Nordic extraterrestrials.
The Order of the Jarls of Baelder (OJB) which was dissolved in early 2005 was a British neopagan non-political and non-aligned educational society founded in 1990 by Stephen Bernard Cox, who was briefly associated in the 1980s with the ONA, Cox having published the ONA's book Naos in 1990 under the imprint of his Coxland Press and Antares by the ONA's C. Beest in 1993.
According to Anti-fascistische Actie Nederland, in the 1990s the OJB belonged to the international network of satanic Nazi organizations which the ONA played a pivotal role.
The OJB (Jarl is Scandinavian for earl) which was renamed the Arktion Federation in 1998 was also described by Partridge as a fascist Satanist group. However, according to the OJB these allegations are incorrect. Instead, the OJB claimed to have advocated pan-European neo-tribalism which involved celebration of the rich tapestry of cultural diversity of humanity, study of Aryan traditions and heritage, pursuing the "aeonic destiny of Europe" and the emergence of the elitist super race as an element of the unfolding of variant global/continental cultural forms. The activities of the OJB which functioned as a spiritual and heritage group for people of any race or religion included such activities as rock climbing, hang gliding, hiking and the study of runes. Gay members were encouraged to join because it was felt they added to the male bonding of the organization. The OJB symbol formerly consisted of the valknut combined with the Gemini sign within a broken curved-armed swastika. Its symbol was later changed to a representation of the world tree embracing the yin-yang and maze with sun and stars.
As defined by Goodrick-Clarke, Nordic racial paganism is synonymous with the Odinist movement (including some who identify as Wotansvolk). He describes it as a "spiritual rediscovery of the Aryan ancestral gods [...] intended to embed the white races in a sacred worldview that supports their tribal feeling" and expressed in "imaginative forms of ritual magic and ceremonial forms of fraternal fellowship".
On the basis of research by Mattias Gardell, Goodrick-Clarke traces the original conception of the Odinist religion by Alexander Rud Mills in the 1920s and its modern revival by Else Christensen and her Odinist Fellowship from 1969 onwards. Christensen's politics were left-wing, deriving from anarcho-syndicalism, but she believed that left-wing ideas had a formative influence on both Italian Fascism and German National Socialism, whose totalitarian perversions were a betrayal of these movements' socialist roots. Elements of a left-wing and libertarian racial-socialism could therefore be reclaimed from the fascism in which they had become encrusted. However, Christensen was also convinced that the diseases of Western culture demanded a spiritual remedy. Mills' almost-forgotten writings inspired her with a programme for re-connecting with the gods and goddesses of the old Norse and Germanic pantheons which she identified with the archetypes in Carl Jung's concept of the racial collective unconscious. According to Christensen, Odinism is therefore organically related to race in that "its principles are encoded in our genes".
The Ásatrú movement as practiced by Stephen McNallen differed from Christensen's Odinist Fellowship in placing a greater emphasis on ritual and a lesser focus on racial ideology. In 1987, McNallen's Asatru Free Assembly collapsed from prolonged internal tensions arising from his repudiation of Nazi sympathizers within the organization. A group of these, including Wyatt Kaldenberg, then joined the Odinist Fellowship as its Los Angeles chapter and formed an association with Tom Metzger which led to a further rebuff since "Else Christensen thought Metzger too racist, and members of the Arizona Kindred also wanted the Fellowship to be pro-white but not hostile to colored races and Jews". A series of defections from both of the main United States-based organizations created secessionist groups with more radical agendas, among them Kaldenberg's Pagan Revival network and Jost Turner's National Socialist Kindred.
Kaplan and Weinberg note that "the religious component of the Euro-American radical right subculture includes both pagan and Christian or pseudo-Christian elements", locating Satanist or Odinist Nazi skinhead sects in the United States (Ben Klassen's atheistic Creativity Movement), Britain (David Myatt), Germany, Scandinavia and South Africa.
In the United States, some white supremacist groups and terrorists—including several with neo-fascist or neo-Nazi leanings—have built their ideologies around pagan religious imagery, including Odinism or Wotanism. One such group is the White Order of Thule. Founding members of The Order were Wotanists (a racial form of Odinism). Anders Brievik, a Norwegian terrorist who committed the 2011 Oslo attacks, identified himself as an Odinist. Wotanism is another religion that has appeared in the American white supremacist movement and also utilizes imagery derived from paganism. Odalism is a European ideology advocated by the defunct Heathen Front and the National Socialist Black Metal musician Varg Vikernes.
The question of the relationship between Germanic neopaganism and the neo-Nazi movement is controversial among German neopagans, with opinions ranging across a wide spectrum. Active conflation of neo-fascist or far-right ideology with paganism is present in the Artgemeinschaft and Deutsche Heidnische Front. In Flanders, Werkgroep Traditie combines Germanic neopaganism with the ideology of the Nouvelle Droite.
In the United States, Michael J. Murray of Ásatrú Alliance (in the late 1960s an American Nazi Party member) and musician/journalist Michael Moynihan (who turned to "metagenetic" Asatru in the mid-1990s), although Moynihan states that he has no political affiliations. Kevin Coogan claims that a form of "eccentric and avant-garde form of cultural fascism" or "counter-cultural fascism" can be traced to the industrial music genre of the late 1970s, particularly to the seminal British Industrial band Throbbing Gristle, with whom Boyd Rice performed at a London concert in 1978. Schobert alleges a neo-Nazi "cultural offensive" targeting the Dark Wave subculture.
Mattias Gardell claims that while older American racist groups are Christian and patriotic (Christian Identity), there is a younger generation of white supremacists who have rejected both Christianity and mainstream right-wing movements. Many neo-Nazis have also left Christianity for neopaganism because of Christianity's Jewish roots and patriotism in favour of Odinism because they view both Christianity and the United States government as responsible for what they see as the evils of a liberal society and the decline of the white race. Kaplan claims that there is a growing interest in one form of Odinism among members of the radical racist right-wing movements. Berger judges that there has been an aggregation of both racist and non-racist groups under the heading of Odinism which has confused the discussion about neo-Nazi neopagans and which has led most non-racist Germanic neopagans to favour terms like Ásatrú or Heathenry over Odinism. Thus, the 1999 Project Megiddo report issued by the FBI used Odinism as referring to white supremacist groups exclusively, sparking protests by the International Asatru-Odinic Alliance, Stephen McNallen expressing concern about a "pattern of anti-European-American actions".
The older Tempelhofgesellschaft (THG) was built in the 1980s by a few members of the Nazi Erbengemeinschaft der Tempelritter. The leader of this group was the former police officer Hans-Günter Fröhlich, who resided in Germany/Homburg. The group had close links to the German-speaking far-right network. Its first publication was Einblick in die magische Weltsicht und die magischen Prozesse in 1987.
The younger THG was founded in Vienna in the early 1990s by Norbert Jurgen-Ratthofer and Ralft Ettl to teach a dualist form of Christian religion called Marcionism and a form of gnosticism. This one was a part of the main THG/Homburg. The group identifies an "evil creator of this world", the Demiurge with Jehovah, the God of Judaism and holds that Jesus Christ was an Aryan, not Jewish. They distribute pamphlets claiming that the Aryan race originally came to Atlantis from the star Aldebaran (this information is supposedly based on "ancient Sumerian manuscripts"). They maintain that the Aryans from Aldebaran derive their power from the vril energy of the Black Sun. They teach that since the Aryan race is of extraterrestrial origin it has a divine mission to dominate all the other races. It is believed by adherents of this religion that an enormous space fleet is on its way to Earth from Aldebaran which when it arrives will join forces with the Nazi Flying Saucers from Antarctica to establish the Western Imperium. Its major publication is called Das Vril-Projekt (1992). After the THG had been dissolved, Ralf Ettl founded the Freundeskreis (circle of friends) Causa Nostra. It remains active and maintains relations to far-right publishers like the Swiss Unitall-Verlag.