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|Near-close central rounded vowel|
|IPA Number||318 430|
|Unicode (hex)||U+028A U+0308|
The near-close central rounded vowel, or near-high central rounded vowel, is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The International Phonetic Alphabet can represent this sound in a number of ways (see the box on the right), but the most common symbols are ⟨ʉ̞⟩ (lowered [ʉ]) and ⟨ʊ̈⟩ (centralized [ʊ]) for a protruded vowel, and ⟨ʏ̈⟩ for a compressed vowel. Other possible transcriptions of the protruded variant include ⟨ʊ̟⟩ (advanced [ʊ]) and ⟨ɵ̝⟩ (raised [ɵ]).
The symbol ⟨ᵿ⟩, a conflation of ⟨ʊ⟩ and ⟨ʉ⟩, is used as an unofficial extension of the IPA to represent this sound by a number of publications, such as Accents of English by John C. Wells and the Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, a pronunciation dictionary for German. In the third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, ⟨ᵿ⟩ represents free variation between /ʊ/ and /ə/.
The near-close central protruded vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨ʉ̞⟩ or ⟨ʊ̈⟩. As there is no dedicated diacritic for protrusion in the IPA, symbol for the near-close central rounded vowel with an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨ ̫⟩, can be used as an ad hoc symbol ⟨ʉ̫˕⟩ or ⟨ʊ̫̈⟩ for the near-close central protruded vowel. Another possible transcription is ⟨ʉ̞ʷ⟩, ⟨ʊ̈ʷ⟩, ⟨ɨ̞ʷ⟩ or ⟨ɪ̈ʷ⟩ (a near-close central vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
Note: Because ⟨ʊ⟩ is commonly used for the close-mid near-back rounded vowel (see near-close back rounded vowel), some of the vowels transcribed with ⟨ʊ̈⟩ can actually be close-mid as well. See close-mid central rounded vowel.
|Dutch||Randstad||hut||[ɦɵ̝t]||'hut'||Found in Amsterdam, Rotterdam and The Hague. Lower [ɵ] in Standard Dutch. See Dutch phonology|
|English||Cockney||good||[ɡʊ̈d]||'good'||Only in some words, particularly good, otherwise realized as near-back [ʊ].|
|Rural white Southern American||Can be front [ʏ] instead.|
|Southeastern English||May be unrounded [ɪ̈] instead; it corresponds to [ʊ] in other dialects. See English phonology|
|Ulster||Short allophone of /u/.|
|New Zealand||goose||[ɡʉ̞ːs]||'goose'||Possible realization of /ʉː/. See New Zealand English phonology|
|Shetland||strut||[stɹʊ̈t]||'strut'||Can be [ɔ̟] or [ʌ] instead.|
|Irish||Munster||giobal||[ˈɟjʊ̟bˠəɫ̪]||'rag'||Allophone of /ʊ/ after a slender consonant. See Irish phonology|
|Limburgish||Hamont dialect||bul||[bʉ̞l¹]||'a paper bag'||Close front [y] or close central [ʉ] in other dialects; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨y⟩.|
|Norwegian||Urban East||gull||[ɡʉ̞lː]||'gold'||The quality has been variously described as near-close front [ʉ̞˖], near-close central [ʉ̞] and close central [ʉ], whereas the type of rounding has been variously described as compressed and protruded. Typically, it is transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ⟩. See Norwegian phonology|
|Russian||ютиться||[jʉ̞ˈtʲit̪͡s̪ə]||'to huddle'||Occurs only between palatalized consonants and in unstressed syllables. See Russian phonology|
|Near-close central compressed vowel|
As there is no official diacritic for compression in the IPA, the centering diacritic is used with the front rounded vowel [ʏ], which is normally compressed. Other possible transcriptions are ⟨ɨ̞͡β̞⟩ or ⟨ɪ̈͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [ɨ̞] or [ɪ̈] and labial compression) and ⟨ɨ̞ᵝ⟩ or ⟨ɪ̈ᵝ⟩ ([ɨ̞] or [ɪ̈] modified with labial compression).
|Norwegian||Urban East||gull||[ɡʏ̈lː]||'gold'||The quality has been variously described as near-close front [ʏ], near-close central [ʏ̈] and close central [ÿ], whereas the type of rounding has been variously described as compressed and protruded. Typically, it is transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ⟩. See Norwegian phonology|
|Swedish||duell||[dʏ̈ˈɛ̝lː]||'duel'||Unstressed allophone of /ɵ/ in some environments; can be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ̞⟩. See Swedish phonology|