This page uses content from Wikipedia and is licensed under CC BY-SA.
|Near-close back unrounded vowel|
The near-close back unrounded vowel or near-high back unrounded vowel, is a type of a vowel sound, used in a few spoken languages. Acoustically it is a near-close back-central unrounded vowel. The International Phonetic Alphabet can represent this sound as ⟨ɯ̞⟩ (lowered [ɯ]) or as ⟨ɤ̝⟩ (raised [ɤ]).
By analogy to [ʊ], this vowel can be transcribed as a mid-centralized close back unrounded vowel [ɯ] (ɯ̽), a symbol equivalent to a more complex ⟨ɯ̞̈⟩ (lowered and centralized [ɯ]). However, acoustic analysis of cardinal vowels as produced by Daniel Jones and John C. Wells has shown that basically all cardinal back unrounded vowels but the open [ɑ] (so not just [ɯ] but also [ɤ] and [ʌ]) are near-back (or back-central) in their articulation, so that there may be no substantial difference between a near-close back unrounded vowel and its near-back counterpart. In his Accents of English, John C. Wells transcribes this vowel with a non-IPA symbol ⟨ω⟩.
Theoretically it can also be represented in the IPA as ⟨ʊ̜⟩ (less rounded [ʊ]), but because [ʊ] is defined by the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association as rounded (rather than unspecified for rounding as [ə] and [ɐ]), the symbol ⟨ʊ̜⟩ can also signify a weakly rounded [ʊ], rather than a fully unrounded vowel that is described in this article.
It is phonemic in Korean.
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
|English||African-American||hook||[hɯ̞k]||'hook'||Possible realization of /ʊ/.|
|California||Often pronounced with spread lips. Corresponds to /ʊ/ in other accents. See English phonology|
|Tidewater||May be rounded [ʊ] instead.|
|Cardiff||[ɯ̞k]||Also described as close-mid central [ɘ ~ ɵ].|
|New Zealand||treacle||[ˈtɹ̝̊iːkɯ̞]||'treacle'||Possible realization of the unstressed vowel /ɯ/, which is variable in rounding and ranges from central to (more often) back and close to close-mid. It corresponds to /əl/ in other accents. See New Zealand English phonology|
|Some Philadelphia speakers||plus||[pɫ̥ɯ̞s]||'plus'||Used particularly by male speakers; can be lower [ʌ̝ ~ ʌ] instead. It corresponds to [ʌ] in other accents. See English phonology|
|South African||pill||[pʰɯ̞ɫ]||'pill'||Possible allophone of /ɪ/ before the velarised allophone of /l/. Also described as close-mid [ɤ]. See South African English phonology|
|Irish||Ulster||ag gail||[ə ˈɡɯ̞lˠ]||'boiling'||Allophone of /ɪ/. See Irish phonology|
|Korean||어른/eoreun||[ə̝ːɾɯ̞n]||'seniors'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɯ⟩. See Korean phonology|
|Portuguese||European||pegar||[pɯ̞ˈɣäɾ]||'to hold'||Typically transcibred in IPA with ⟨ɨ⟩ or ⟨ə⟩. Appears only in unstressed syllables. See Portuguese phonology|
|Turkish||Standard||sığ||[sɯ̞ː]||'shallow'||Also described as close back [ɯ] and close central [ɨ]. See Turkish phonology|
|Vietnamese||Hanoi||từ||[t̻ɯ̞˧˨]||'word'||Common allophone of /ɯ/. See Vietnamese phonology|
|Yine||[tɯ̞wɯ̞]||'salt'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɯ⟩.|