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|Near-close back rounded vowel|
The near-close back rounded vowel, or near-high back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some vocal languages. The IPA symbol that represents this sound is ⟨ʊ⟩. It is informally called "horseshoe u". Prior to 1989, there was an alternate IPA symbol for this sound, ⟨ɷ⟩, called "closed omega"; use of this symbol is no longer sanctioned by the IPA. In Americanist phonetic notation, the symbol ⟨ᴜ⟩ (a small capital U) is used. Sometimes, especially in broad transcription, this vowel is transcribed with a simpler symbol ⟨u⟩, which technically represents the close back rounded vowel.
Handbook of the International Phonetic Association defines [ʊ] as a mid-centralized (lowered and centralized) close back rounded vowel (transcribed [u̽] or [ü̞]), and the current official IPA name of the vowel transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʊ⟩ is near-close near-back rounded vowel. However, some languages have the close-mid near-back rounded vowel, a vowel that is somewhat lower than the canonical value of [ʊ], though it still fits the definition of a mid-centralized [u]. It occurs in some dialects of English (such as General American and Geordie) as well as some other languages (such as Maastrichtian Limburgish). It can be transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʊ̞⟩ (a lowered ⟨ʊ⟩) in narrow transcription. For the close-mid (near-)back rounded vowel that is not usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʊ⟩ (or ⟨u⟩), see close-mid back rounded vowel.
In some other languages (such as Bengali, Korean and Luxembourgish) as well as some dialects of English (such as Scottish) there is a fully back near-close rounded vowel (a sound between cardinal [u] and [o]), which can be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʊ̠⟩, ⟨u̞⟩ or ⟨o̝⟩.
A few languages also have the near-close back unrounded vowel (which does not have a separate IPA symbol) in their inventory.
The near-close back protruded vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨ʊ⟩, and that is the convention used in this article. As there is no dedicated diacritic for protrusion in the IPA, symbol for the near-close back rounded vowel with an old diacritic for labialization, ⟨ ̫⟩, can be used as an ad hoc symbol ⟨ʊ̫⟩ for the near-close back protruded vowel. Another possible transcription is ⟨ʊʷ⟩ or ⟨ɯ̽ʷ⟩ (a near-close back vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.
The close-mid near-back protruded vowel can be transcribed ⟨ʊ̞ʷ⟩ or ⟨ʊ̫˕⟩, whereas the fully back near-close protruded vowel can be transcribed ⟨u̞ʷ⟩, ⟨ɯ̞ʷ⟩ or ⟨u̫˕⟩.
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
Note: Because back rounded vowels are assumed to have protrusion, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have compression.
|Afrikaans||Standard||Botha||[ˈbʊ̞ˑta]||'Botha'||Close-mid. Allophone of /ʊə/ in less stressed words, in stressed syllables of polysyllabic words and word-finally when unstressed. In the second case, it is in free variation with the diphthongal realization [ʊə̯ ~ ʊ̯ə ~ ʊə]. See Afrikaans phonology|
|[pʊ̞t]||'to bury'||Close-mid; also described as open [ɒ].|
|Bengali||তুমি||[ˈt̪u̞ˌmiː]||'you'||Fully back; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩. See Bengali phonology|
|Bulgarian||абатство||[ɐˈbat̪s̪t̪vo̝]||'abbey'||Fully back; possible realization of unstressed /u/ and /ɔ/ in post-stressed syllables. See Bulgarian phonology|
|[mʊʔ]||'smooth'||Allophone of /u/ in syllables closed by a glottal stop and when nasalized.|
|Chinese||Mandarin||红 / hóng||[xʊŋ˧˥]||'red'||Fully back; height varies between mid and close depending on the speaker. See Standard Chinese phonology|
|Shanghainese||瓜||[kʊ¹]||'melon'||The height varies between close and close-mid; contrasts with a close to close-mid back compressed vowel.|
|Danish||Standard||mave||[ˈmɛːʊ]||'stomach'||Phonetic realization of the sequence /və/. See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Standard Northern||oren||[ˈʊːrə(n)]||'ears'||Allophone of /oː/ before /r/. Can be a centering diphthong [ʊə] instead, especially before coda /r/. See Dutch phonology|
|Some speakers||hok||[ɦʊk]||'den'||Contrasts with /ɔ/ in certain words, but many speakers have only one vowel /ɔ/. See Dutch phonology|
|English||Australian||hook||[hʊk]||'hook'||Also described as close back [u]. See Australian English phonology|
|Welsh||In Cardiff, it is advanced and lowered to [ɵ], often also with unrounding to [ɘ].|
|Cockney||[ʊʔk]||Sometimes fronted to [ʊ̈].|
|Conservative Received Pronunciation||[hʊʔk]||Often lowered and advanced to [ɵ], or unrounded to [ɘ]. See English phonology|
|Multicultural London||May be front [ʏ] instead.|
|New Zealand||The height varies between near-close and close-mid; it is unrounded and advanced to [ɪ̈ ~ ɘ] in some lexical items. See New Zealand English phonology|
|Some Estuary speakers||Often advanced to [ʊ̈ ~ ʏ], or advanced and lowered to [ɵ ~ ʏ̞].|
|Faroese||gult||[kʊl̥t]||'yellow'||See Faroese phonology|
|French||Quebec||foule||[fʊl]||'crowd'||Allophone of /u/ in closed syllables. See Quebec French phonology|
|Galician||bebo||[ˈbe̞β̞ʊ]||'I drink'||Unstressed allophone of /u/ and /o/. See Galician phonology|
|Gayo||wuk||[ˈwʊk̚]||'hair'||Possible allophone of /u/ and /o/; in both cases the backness varies between back and near-back.|
|German||Standard||Stunde||[ˈʃtʊndə]||'hour'||The quality has been variously described as near-close back [ʊ̠] and close-mid near-back [ʊ̞]. For some speakers, it may be as high as [u]. See Standard German phonology|
|Hindustani||गुलाब/گلاب||[gʊˈläːb]||'rose'||See Hindustani phonology|
|Hungarian||ujj||[ʊjː]||'finger'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩. See Hungarian phonology|
|Irish||Munster||dubh||[d̪ˠʊvˠ]||'black'||Allophone of /ʊ/ between broad consonants. See Irish phonology|
|Italian||Central-Southern accents||ombra||[ˈo̝mbrä]||'shade'||Fully back; local realization of /o/. See Italian phonology|
|Kaingang||[kʊˈtu]||'deaf'||Atonic allophone of /u/ and /o/.|
|Korean||구리 / guri||[ku̞ɾi]||'copper'||Fully back; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩. See Korean phonology|
|Weert dialect||[example needed]||Used only by older speakers.|
|Li'o||Ke'o||[peru̞ ʔbäʔi]||'a shell'||Fully back; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩.|
|Low German||mutt / moet||[mʊt]||'(he) must'|
|Luxembourgish||Sprooch||[ʃpʀo̝ːχ]||'language'||Fully back. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨oː⟩. See Luxembourgish phonology|
|Northern Paiute||Mono Lake dialect||hudziba||[hu̞d͡zibɐ]||'bird'||Fully back; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩.|
|[ˈt̪ʰú̞u̞ɳi̠]||'pillar'||Realization of /uː/ and /u/. Near-close back [u̞ː] in the former case, close-mid near-back [ʊ̞] in the latter.|
|Pashayi||Lower Darai Nur dialect||صُر||[sʊ̞r]||'sun'||Close-mid.|
|Portuguese||Brazilian||pulo||[ˈpulʊ]||'leap'||Reduction and neutralization of unstressed /u, o, ɔ/; can be voiceless. See Portuguese phonology|
|Russian||сухой||[s̪ʊˈxʷo̞j]||'dry'||Unstressed allophone of /u/. See Russian phonology|
|Sandawe||dtu||[tʊ̂]||'come out'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩.|
|Saterland Frisian||Roop||[ʀo̝ːp]||'rope'||Phonetic realization of /oː/ and /ʊ/. Near-close back [o̝ː] in the former case, close-mid near-back [ʊ̞] in the latter. Phonetically, the latter is nearly identical to /ɔː/ ([o̟ː]).|
|Scots||Glenoe dialect||go||[ɡo̝ː]||'go'||Fully back.|
|Shiwiar||[example needed]||Allophone of /u/.|
|Sinhalese||[example needed]||[ɦʊ̜ŋɡak]||'much'||Only weakly rounded; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩.|
|Slovak||ruka||[ˈru̞kä]||'arm'||Typically fully back. See Slovak phonology|
|Sotho||potso||[pʼʊ̠t͡sʼɔ]||'query'||Fully back; contrasts close, near-close and close-mid back rounded vowels. See Sotho phonology|
|Spanish||Eastern Andalusian||tus||[t̪ʊ̠ː]||'your' (pl.)||Fully back. Corresponds to [u] in other dialects, but in these dialects they are distinct. See Spanish phonology|
|Tamambo||culi||[xʊli̞]||'to clear land'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩.|
|Temne||put||[pú̞t]||'burst'||Fully back; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩.|
|Tera||zuri||[zʊri̞]||'fried'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨u⟩.|
|Turkish||buzlu||[buz̪ˈl̠ʊ]||'icy'||Allophone of /u/ described variously as "word-final" and "occurring in final open syllable of a phrase". See Turkish phonology|
|Ukrainian||Мусій||[mʊˈsij]||'Musiy' (name)||See Ukrainian phonology|
|Yoruba||[example needed]||Near-back or back; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ũ⟩. It is nasalized, and may be close [ũ̟ ~ ũ] instead.|
|Near-close back compressed vowel|
Some languages, such as Norwegian, are found with a near-close back vowel that has a distinct type of rounding, called compressed or exolabial.
There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, the compression of the lips can be shown with the letter ⟨β̞⟩ as ⟨ɯ̽͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [ɯ̽] and labial compression) or ⟨ɯ̽ᵝ⟩ ([ɯ̽] modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic ⟨ ͍ ⟩ may also be used with a rounded vowel letter ⟨ʊ͍⟩ as an ad hoc symbol, though technically 'spread' means unrounded.
Only the Shanghainese dialect is known to contrast this with the more typical protruded (endolabial) near-close back vowel, although the height of both of these vowels varies from close to close-mid.
The fully back variant of the near-close compressed vowel can be transcribed ⟨ɯ̞͡β̞⟩, ⟨ɯ̞ᵝ⟩ or ⟨u͍˕⟩.
|Chinese||Shanghainese||都||[tɯ̽ᵝ¹]||'capital'||The height varies between close and close-mid; contrasts with a close to close-mid back protruded vowel.|
|Norwegian||ond||[ɯ̞ᵝnː]||'evil'||The example word is from Urban East Norwegian, in which the vowel has been variously described as near-close back [ɯ̞ᵝ] and close back [ɯᵝ]. See Norwegian phonology|
|Swedish||Central Standard||ort||[ɯ̽ᵝʈː]||'locality'||The quality has been variously described as near-close near-back [ɯ̽ᵝ], near-close back [ɯ̞ᵝ] and close back [ɯᵝ]. See Swedish phonology|