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|Naval Action Force|
Force d'action navale
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The Force d'action navale (FAN, Naval Action Force) is the 12,000-man and about 100-ship strong backbone of the French Navy. As of 2018, it is commanded by Vice-Amiral d’Escadre Jean-Philippe Rolland.
The ships are divided into seven categories:
The aeronaval group is the main French Navy power projection force. It is also one of the components of the nuclear deterrence forces, since the embarked Super Étendard and Rafale planes have nuclear capabilities.
At minimum, it contains an aircraft carrier (currently Charles de Gaulle), an anti-air frigate, and a support vessel. Typically, this group also includes several anti-air and anti-submarine frigates, nuclear attack submarine (Rubis-class submarine and the future Barracuda-class submarines), and possibly additional support ships.
The carrier air group can include up to 40 aircraft: Rafale, Super Étendard and E-2 Hawkeye planes; NH-90 Caïman Marine, AS365 Dauphin and AS565 Panther for the helicopters. This composition varies according to the mission and the tactical environment, and can include aircraft of the ALAT (Army) or the Armée de l'Air (Air Force).
Like any naval force, the aeronaval group can be assisted by land-based Breguet Atlantique aircraft.
Clemenceau formed the core of the French Navy's battle force for many years.
One of the aeronaval group's deployments was to take part in the initial attacks on Al Qaeda and the Taliban in Afghanistan as part of what became the War in Afghanistan, in response to the September 11th attacks. The group, designated Task Force 473 for the operation, comprised 2,900 men under the command of Contre-Amiral François Cluzel and sailed in December 2001. It consisted of the nuclear aircraft carrier Charles De Gaulle, frigates Lamotte-Picquet, Jean de Vienne , Jean Bart, the nuclear attack submarine Rubis, the tanker Meuse, and the aviso Commandant Ducuing. The Indian Ocean region deployment lasted for seven months before the group returned to France in mid-2002.
The number 473 seems to be semi-permanently assigned to Charles de Gaulle and its task group, being used again during Operation Agapanthe in 2004.
During the 2011 Libyan civil war, the French carrier battle group commanded from Charles de Gaulle was designated Task Force 473 and was under the command of Vice-Admiral Phillippe Coindreau. Coindreau was promoted to contre-amiral in September 2009, and he was named deputy commandant of the aéro-maritime force of rapid réaction at Toulon. In English-language reports, he was described as deputy commander of the High Readiness Force Maritime Headquarters.
On 29 December 2013, Task Force 473, led by the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle, and comprising the destroyer Forbin, frigate Jean de Vienne, and the replenishment oiler Meuse met Carrier Strike Group Ten for an exercise in the Gulf of Oman. Carrier Strike Group Ten comprises the aircraft carrier USS Harry S. Truman, guided-missile cruisers USS Gettysburg and USS San Jacinto and guided-missile destroyers USS Bulkeley, USS Carney, USS Hopper, and USS Mason.
In November 2015, Task Force 473 sailed again to strike Islamic State targets in Syria and Iraq. The composition of the task force is French, however, the British destroyer HMS Defender and a frigate from the Belgian Navy, Leopold I, sailed as part of the group.
The French Navy operates three large amphibious ships, which contain smaller landing craft. Aboard are helicopters, troops, and land vehicles (three Mistral-class amphibious assault ships).
The amphibious groups include one or several landing craft (EDAR and CTM) which allow the projection of inter-arm groups with troops, vehicles and helicopters, and one or several light transport ships (bâtiments de transport léger, BATRAL) which carry motorised infantry companies up to the beaches themselves. They can carry Puma, Cougar and NH-90 Caïman Marine transport helicopters or Gazelle and Tigre combat helicopters, the Commandos Marine, minesweeping units, or Army units.
Commander French Maritime Forces (COMFRMARFOR) advises ALFAN, the Admiral in command of the Naval Action Force, and when operational at sea commands from the TCDs.
The destroyers and frigates are the backbone of the French surface fleet. They secure aero-naval space and allow free action to the other components of the Navy. They are specialised according to the threat, typically escorting other forces (aeronaval or amphibious groups, submarines or civil ships).
The minesweepers secure major French harbours, especially for the ballistic-missile submarines in Brest, and the attack submarines in Toulon. They also stay available to secure access to Toulon, Marseille, any of the harbours of the Atlantic coast, and any Allied harbour simultaneously.
They are designed to be used within a larger group, interallied or international, in case of mine risks near coasts.
In peace time, these units can bring help and assistance to civilian ships, or search wrecks.
This force includes 1,100 men and:
These vessels secure access to harbours and carry out police missions.
There are six Floréal-class frigates to perform these tasks, mainly by controlling the large French Exclusive Economic Zone, patrolling ocean waters, carrying out police action, and monitoring fishing activities. They are designed to operate in low-risk environments. Five are presently based overseas.
The patrol boats of the Gendarmerie Maritime carry out police actions at sea.
The four support ships allow the French naval forces to be present anywhere on the planet, regardless of the remoteness of their bases. These ships are integrated into tactical groups. They shuttle between harbours and fleets, giving them months of operational capabilities by feeding fuel, ammunition, food, water, spare parts and mail. There is also one permanent mechanics ship, Jules Verne, which can repair other ships. The trial and measurement ship Monge is used to develop new weapon systems, especially those related to nuclear deterrence.
One hydro-oceanographic and three hydrographic ships help carrying out mapping and research operations, as well as gathering intelligence which could prove useful to the deployment of naval forces and their weapon systems. They are operated by the service hydrographique et océanographique de la marine (SHOM).