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National conservatism

National conservatism is a variant of conservatism that concentrates more on national interests and upholding cultural or ethnic identity than most other conservatives.[1] In Europe, national conservatives are usually Eurosceptics.[2][3] National conservatism is also related to social conservatism[1] and traditionalist conservatism.[how?][citation needed]

Most conservative parties in post-communist Central and Southeastern Europe since 1989 have been national conservative.[4]

Ideology

Social policies

National conservative parties are "socially traditional"[2] and support the traditional family[peacock term] and social stability.[5] According to the Austrian political scientist Sieglinde Rosenberger, "national conservatism praises the family as a home and a center of identity, solidarity and emotion."[5] Many national conservatives are thus social conservatives, as well as in favor of limiting immigration and enacting law-and-order policies.[2]

Economic policies

National conservative parties in different countries do not necessarily share a common position on economic policy: their views may range from support of a planned economy to a centrist mixed economy to a laissez-faire approach.[1] In the first, more common, case, national conservatives can be distinguished from liberal conservatives,[6] for whom free-market economic policies, deregulation and tight spending are the main priorities. Some commentators have indeed identified a growing gap between national and economic liberal conservatism: "most parties of the Right [today] are run by economically liberal conservatives who, in varying degrees, have marginalized social, cultural, and national conservatives."[6]

List of national conservative political parties

Current national conservative parties or parties with national conservative factions

The following political parties have been characterized as national conservative, at least as one of their ideological influences.

Country/Territory Party
 Åland Future of Åland
 Algeria Algerian National Front
 Albania Democratic Party of Albania[4]
Republican Party of Albania[7]
Albanian Alternative
 Armenia Republican Party of Armenia
 Australia One Nation
Australian Liberty Alliance
Christian Democratic Party
Family First Party
 Azerbaijan Motherland Party
Civic Solidarity Party
 Belgium Vlaams Belang
 Bolivia Nationalist Democratic Action
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Party of Democratic Action
Croatian Democratic Union BiH
Party of Democratic Progress[4]
 Brazil Brazilian Labour Renewal Party
Patriota
 Bulgaria IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement[8]
Union of Democratic Forces
Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria
Democratic Party[4]
 Chile Independent Democratic Union
 Croatia Croatian Democratic Union[4]
Croatian Party of Rights dr. Ante Starčević
Croatian Party of Rights
 Cyprus Solidarity Movement[9]
 Czech Republic Civic Democratic Party[10][11]
Coalition for Republic – Republican Party of Czechoslovakia
Realists[12]
Dawn - National Coalition
National Democracy
Order of Nation
 Denmark Danish People's Party[13]
Danish Unity
 Estonia Pro Patria and Res Publica Union[4]
Conservative People's Party of Estonia[14]
Estonian Free Party
 Finland Finns Party[15]
 France Movement for France[16]
National Front[17]
France Arise
 Germany Alternative for Germany[18]
Christian Social Union in Bavaria (partially)
The Republicans
Pro Germany Citizens' Movement
 Greece Independent Greeks[19]
Democratic Revival
Popular Orthodox Rally
 Hungary Fidesz[4][20]
 India Bharatiya Janata Party
 Indonesia National Awakening Party
 Israel Yisrael Beiteinu
Likud
 Italy Brothers of Italy[21]
Citizens' Union for South Tyrol
South Tyrolean Freedom
The Right
 Japan Liberal Democratic Party
Party for Japanese Kokoro
 Latvia National Alliance[22]
 Lebanon Kataeb Party
Lebanese Forces
 Liechtenstein Progressive Citizens' Party
 Lithuania Homeland Union[4]
Order and Justice[23]
 Luxembourg Alternative Democratic Reform Party[24]
 Macedonia Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization – Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity[4]
United for Macedonia
 Montenegro New Serb Democracy
Democratic People's Party
Democratic Party of Unity
 Morocco Istiqlal Party
   Nepal Rastriya Prajatantra Party
 Netherlands Forum for Democracy
Party for Freedom
 New Zealand Conservative Party of New Zealand
 Norway Progress Party
 Philippines Nacionalista Party
 Poland Law and Justice[4][25]
Solidary Poland
Congress of the New Right
 Portugal CDS – People's Party[26]
 Romania United Romania Party
 Russia United Russia[27]
 Serbia Serbian Progressive Party[28]
Democratic Party of Serbia[4][28]
Democratic Serb Party
New Serb Democracy
 Slovakia Slovak National Party
 Slovenia Slovenian Democratic Party[4]
 South Africa National Conservative Party of South Africa
 South Korea Saenuri Party
 Spain Vox
Spanish Alternative
 Sweden Sweden Democrats[29]
  Switzerland Swiss People's Party
Federal Democratic Union[30]
Swiss Democrats
Geneva Citizens' Movement
Ticino League
 Republic of China Chinese Nationalist Party
 Turkey Justice and Development Party
Nationalist Movement Party
Homeland Party
 Ukraine Ukrainian Republican Party
 United Kingdom Democratic Unionist Party[31]
Traditional Unionist Voice[32]
 United States Constitution Party
Republican Party (factions)

Former national conservative parties or parties with national conservative factions

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Mandal 2007, p. 306.
  2. ^ a b c Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  3. ^ Traynor, Ian, The EU's weary travellers The Guardian, 4 April 2006
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Bakke, Elisabeth (2010), "Central and East European party systems since 1989", Central and Southeast European Politics Since 1989, Cambridge University Press, p. 79 
  5. ^ a b Rosenberger, Sieglinde, Europe is swinging towards the right - What are the effects on women?, University of Vienna, 2002. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
  6. ^ a b National Questions, National Review, Vol. 49, Issue 12, 30 June 1997, pp. 16-17
  7. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  8. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  9. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 22 May 2016. 
  10. ^ "Détails ODS - Election(s)Meter". fr.electionsmeter.com. Retrieved 15 May 2016. 
  11. ^ Pehe, Jiří. "Má liberalismus v České republice šanci? — Jiří Pehe". www.pehe.cz. Retrieved 15 May 2016. 
  12. ^ "Politolog Robejšek založil konzervativní stranu Realisté. Ve volbách chce získat 20 procent hlasů". Aktuálně.cz - Víte co se právě děje. Retrieved 24 November 2016. 
  13. ^ Moreau, Patrick (2011). "The Victorious Parties - Unity in Diversity?". In Uwe Backes, Patrick Moreau. The Extreme Right in Europe: Current Trends and Perspectives. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p. 101. ISBN 9783647369228. 
  14. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  15. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  16. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  17. ^ [www.lefigaro.fr]
  18. ^ Simon Franzmann (2015). "The Failed Struggle for Office Instead of Votes". In Gabriele D'Ottavio; Thomas Saalfeld. Germany After the 2013 Elections: Breaking the Mould of Post-Unification Politics?. Ashgate. pp. 166–167. ISBN 978-1-4724-4439-4. 
  19. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  20. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  21. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  22. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  23. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  24. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  25. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  26. ^ David Art (2011), "Memory Politics in Western Europe", in Uwe Backes; Patrick Moreau, The Extreme Right in Europe, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, p. 364, ISBN 978-3-525-36922-7 
  27. ^ [www.diena.lv]
  28. ^ a b Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  29. ^ Peter Starke; Alexandra Kaasch; Franca Van Hooren (2013). The Welfare State as Crisis Manager: Explaining the Diversity of Policy Responses to Economic Crisis. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-137-31484-0. 
  30. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  31. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  32. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Parties-and-elections.eu. Retrieved 9 May 2015. 
  33. ^ Tarchi, Marco (2007), "Recalcitrant Allies: The Conflicting Foreign Policy Agenda of the Alleanza Nazionale and the Lega Nord", Europe for the Europeans, Ashgate, p. 188 

Books

Mandal, U.C. (2007). Dictionary Of Public Administration. Sarup & Sons. ISBN 978-8-1762-5784-8.