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Nanakshahi calendar

Guru Nanak Dev

The Nanakshahi (Punjabi: ਨਾਨਕਸ਼ਾਹੀ, nānakashāhī) calendar is a tropical solar calendar which is used in Sikhism and is based on the 'Barah Maha' (Punjabi: ਬਾਰਹ ਮਾਹਾ). Barah Maha was composed by the Sikh Gurus and translates as the "Twelve Months". It is a poem reflecting the changes in nature which are conveyed in the twelve-month cycle of the Year.[1] The year begins with the month of Chet, with 1 Chet corresponding to 14 March. The first year of the Nanakshahi Calendar starts in 1469 CE: the year of the birth of Guru Nanak Dev.[2]

Etymology

The Nanakshahi Calendar is named after the founder of the Sikh religion, Guru Nanak Dev.[3]

History

Sikhs have traditionally recognised two eras and luni-solar calendars: the Nanakshahi and Khalsa. Traditionally, both these calendars closely followed the Bikrami calendar with the Nanakshahi year beginning on Katak Pooranmashi (full moon) and the Khalsa year commencing with Vaisakhi.[4] The methods for calculating the beginning of the Khalsa era were based on the Bikrami calendar. The year length was also the same as the Bikrami solar year.[5] According to Steel (2000), (since the calendar was based on the Bikrami), the calendar has twelve lunar months that are determined by the lunar phase, but thirteen months in leap years which occur every 2-3 years in the Bikrami calendar to sync the lunar calendar with its solar counterpart.[6] References to the Nanakshahi Era have been made in historic documents.[7] Banda Singh Bahadur adopted the Nanakshahi calendar in 1710 C.E. after his victory in Sirhand (12 May 1710 C.E.)[8] according to which the year 1710 C.E. became Nanakshahi 241. However, according to Dilagira (1997), he "continued adopting the months and the days of the months according to the Bikrami calendar".[9] Banda Singh Bahadur also minted new coins also called Nanakshahi.[10]

The revised Nanakshahi calendar was designed by Pal Singh Purewal to replace the Bikrami calendar.[11] The epoch of this calendar is the birth of the first Sikh Guru, Nanak Dev in 1469 and the Nanakshahi year commences on 1 Chet. New Year's Day falls annually on what is March 14 in the Gregorian Western calendar.[12] The start of each month is fixed.[13] According to Kapel (2006), the solar accuracy of the Nanakshahi calendar is linked to the Gregorian civil calendar.[14] This is because the Nanaskhahi calendar uses the tropical year[15] instead of using the sidereal year which is used in the Bikrami calendar or the old Nanakshahi and Khalsa calendars.

The amended Nanakshahi calendar was adopted in 1998[16] but implemented in 2003[17][18] by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee to determine the dates for important Sikh events. The calendar was implemented during the SGPC presidency of Sikh scholar Prof. Kirpal Singh Badungar at Takhat Sri Damdama Sahib in the presence of Sikh leadership.[12] Nanakshahi Calendar recognizes the adoption event, of 1999 CE, in the Sikh history when SGPC released the first calendar with permanently fixed dates in the Tropical Calendar. Therefore, the calculations of this calendar do not regress back from 1999 CE into the Bikrami era, and accurately fixes for all time in the future.[19]

Features of the Nanakshahi Calendar (2003)

Features of the Original Nanakshahi calendar (2003 Version):[20][21]

  • Uses the accurate Tropical year (365 Days, 5 Hours, 48 Minutes, 45 Seconds) rather than the Sidereal year
  • Called Nanakshahi after Guru Nanak (Founder of Sikhism)
  • Year 1 is the Year of Guru Nanak's Birth (1469 C.E.). As an example, July 18, 2018 CE is Nanakshahi 550.
  • Is Based on Gurbani[22] - Month Names are taken from Guru Granth Sahib[23]
  • Contains 5 Months of 31 days followed by 7 Months of 30 days
  • Leap year every 4 Years in which the last month (Phagun) has an extra day
  • Approved by Akal Takht in 2003[24]

Months

No. Name Punjabi Days Gregorian Months Season[25]
1 Chet ਚੇਤ 31 14 March – 13 April Basant (Spring)
2 Vaisakh ਵੈਸਾਖ 31 14 April – 14 May Basant (Spring)
3 Jeth ਜੇਠ 31 15 May – 14 June Garikham (Summer)
4 Harh ਹਾੜ 31 15 June – 15 July Garisham (Summer)
5 Sawan ਸਾਵਣ 31 16 July – 15 August Rut Baras (Rainy season)
6 Bhadon ਭਾਦੋਂ 30 16 August – 14 September Rut Baras (Rainy season)
7 Assu ਅੱਸੂ 30 15 September – 14 October Sard (Autumn)
8 Katak ਕੱਤਕ 30 15 October – 13 November Sard (Autumn)
9 Maghar ਮੱਘਰ 30 14 November – 13 December Sisiar (Winter)
10 Poh ਪੋਹ 30 14 December – 12 January Sisiar (Winter)
11 Magh ਮਾਘ 30 13 January – 11 February Himkar (late Winter/early Spring)
12 Phagun ਫੱਗਣ 30/31 12 February – 13 March Himkar (late Winter/early Spring)

Controversy

In 2010, the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee ("SGPC") modified the calendar so that the dates for the start of the months are movable so that they coincide with the Bikrami calendar and changed the dates for various Sikh festivals so they are based upon the lunar phase. This has created controversy with some bodies adopting the original 2003 version, also called the "Mool Nanakshahi Calendar"[26] and others, the 2010 version.[27] By 2014, the SGPC had scrapped the original Nanakshahi calendar from 2003 and reverted back to the Bikrami calendar entirely, however it was still published under the name of Nanakshahi.[28] The Sikh bodies termed it a step taken under pressure from the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Shiromani Akali Dal.[29] There is also some controversy about the acceptance of the calendar altogether among certain sectors of the Sikh world.[21]

SGPC president, Gobind Singh Longowal, on 13 March 2018 urged all Sikhs to follow the current (2010) Nanakshahi calendar.[30] The previous SGPC President before Longowal, Prof. Kirpal Singh Badungar, tried to appeal the Akal Takht to celebrate the birthday of Guru Gobind Singh on 5 January as per the original Nanakshahi calendar, but the appeal was denied.[31] The Pakistan Sikh Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee and a majority of the other gurdwara managements across the world are opposing the modified version of the calendar citing that the SGPC reverted to the Bikrami calendar. They argue that in the Bikrami calendar, dates of many gurpurbs coincide, thereby creating confusion among the Sikh Panth.[29]

According to Ahaluwalia (2003), the Nanakshahi calendar goes against the use of lunar Bikrami dates by the Gurus themselves and is contradictory. It begins with the year of birth of Guru Nanak Dev, but the first date, 1 Chet, is when Guru Har Rai was installed the seventh Guru.[32] However, the first date of the Nanakshahi calendar (1 Chet) is based upon the Barah Maha of the Guru Granth Sahib, which has Chet as the first month.[33] Pal Singh Purewal, as reported in the Edmonton Journal (March 2018) has stated that his aims in formulating the Nanakshahi calendar were, "first and foremost, it should respect sacred holy scriptures. Second, it should discard the lunar calendar and use only a solar one. Third, all the dates should be fixed and not vary from year to year."[28] In reality however, state Haar and Kalsi (2009), the introduction of the Nanakshahi calendar has resulted in many festivals being "celebrated on two dates depending on the choice of the management of the local gurdwaras."[34]

Months (2010 version)

The start date of the months in the current Nanakshahi calendar are not fixed.[35]

No. Name Punjabi Gregorian Months Season[36]
1 Chet ਚੇਤ March – April Basant (Spring)
2 Vaisakh ਵੈਸਾਖ April – May Basant (Spring)
3 Jeth ਜੇਠ May – June Garikham (Summer)
4 Harh ਹਾੜ June – July Garisham (Summer)
5 Sawan ਸਾਵਣ July – August Rut Baras (Rainy season)
6 Bhadon ਭਾਦੋਂ August – September Rut Baras (Rainy season)
7 Assu ਅੱਸੂ September – October Sard (Autumn)
8 Katak ਕੱਤਕ October – November Sard (Autumn)
9 Maghar ਮੱਘਰ November – December Sisiar (Winter)
10 Poh ਪੋਹ December – January Sisiar (Winter)
11 Magh ਮਾਘ January – February Himkar (late Winter/early Spring)
12 Phagun ਫੱਗਣ February – March Himkar (late Winter/early Spring)

Festivals and events (2003 version)

Dates of observance of festivals as determined by reference to the 2003 version.

Festivals and events (Original Nanakshahi calendar)[37] Nanakshahi date Gregorian date
Guru Har Rai becomes the 7th Guru
Nanakshahi New Year Commences
1 Chet 14 Mar
Guru Hargobind merges back to the Creator 6 Chet 19 Mar
The ordination of the Khalsa
Birth of Guru Nanak (Vaisakhi Date)[38]
1 Vaisakh 14 Apr
Guru Angad merges back to the Creator
Guru Amar Das becomes the 3rd Guru
Guru Harkrishan merges back to the Creator
Guru Tegh Bahadur becomes the 9th Guru
3 Vaisakh 16 Apr
Birth of Guru Angad, the 2nd Guru
Birth of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the 9th Guru
5 Vaisakh 18 Apr
Birth of Guru Arjan, the 5th Guru 19 Vaisakh 2 May
Birth of Guru Amar Das, the 3rd Guru 9 Jeth 23 May
Guru Hargobind becomes the 6th Guru 28 Jeth 11 Jun
Guru Arjan, the 5th Guru, is martyred 2 Harh 16 Jun
Foundation Day of the Akaal Takht 18 Harh 16 Jun
Birth of Guru Hargobind, the 6th Guru 21 Harh 5 Jul
Miri-Piri is established by Guru Hargobind 6 Sawan 21 Jul
Birth of Guru Harkrishan, the 8th Guru 8 Sawan 23 Jul
The writing of the Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh Scripture, is completed 15 Bhadon 30 Aug
Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh Scripture, is installed at the Golden Temple for the first time 17 Bhadon 1 Sep
Guru Amar Das merges back to the Creator
Guru Ram Das becomes the 4th Guru
Guru Ram Das merges back to the Creator
Guru Arjan becomes the 5th Guru
2 Assu 16 Sep
Guru Angad becomes the 2nd Guru 4 Assu 18 Sep
Guru Nanak merges back to the Creator 8 Assu 22 Sep
Birth of Guru Ram Das, the 4th Guru 25 Assu 9 Oct
Guru Har Rai merges back to the Creator
Guru Harkrishan becomes the 8th Guru
The Guru Granth Sahib is declared as the Guru for all times to come by Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th and the last human Guru
6 Katak 20 Oct
Guru Gobind Singh merges back to the Creator 7 Katak 21 Oct
Guru Gobind Singh becomes the 10th Guru 11 Maghar 24 Nov
Guru Tegh Bahadur martyred in Delhi by Aurangzeb for defending the oppressed 11 Maghar 24 Nov
Ajit Singh, and Jujhar Singh, the two elder sons of Guru Gobind Singh, martyred in the battle of Chamkaur 8 Poh 21 Dec
Zorawar Singh, and Fateh Singh, the two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh, executed in Sirhind 13 Poh 26 Dec
Birth of Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Guru 23 Poh 5 Jan
Birth of Guru Har Rai, the 7th Guru 19 Magh 31 Jan

Movable dates for Sikh Festivals in the 2003 and 2010 versions. (These change every year in line with the Lunar Phase)[39]

Year Hola Mohalla Bandi Chhor Divas Birth of Guru Nanak Dev
2003 19 Mar 25 Oct 8 Nov
2004 7 Mar 12 Nov 26 Nov
2005 26 Mar 1 Nov 15 Nov
2006 15 Mar 21 Oct 5 Nov
2007 4 Mar 9 Nov 24 Nov
2008 22 Mar 28 Oct 13 Nov
2009 11 Mar 17 Oct 2 Nov
2010 1 Mar 5 Nov 21 Nov
2011 20 Mar 26 Oct 10 Nov
2012 9 Mar 13 Nov 28 Nov
2013 28 Mar 3 Nov 17 Nov
2014 17 Mar 23 Oct 6 Nov
2015 6 Mar 11 Nov 25 Nov
2016 24 Mar 30 Oct 14 Nov
2017 13 Mar 19 Oct 4 Nov
2018 2 Mar 7 Nov 23 Nov
2019 21 Mar 27 Oct 12 Nov
2020 10 Mar 14 Nov 30 Nov

See also

References

  1. ^ W. H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow Press.
  2. ^ Singh, Jagraj (2009). A complete guide to Sikhism. Unistar Books.
  3. ^ J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann (2010) Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition [6 volumes]. ABC-Clio[1]
  4. ^ Singh, Harbans (1998) The Encyclopaedia of Sikhism: S-Z. Publications Bureau [2]
  5. ^ Proceedings - Punjab History Conference, Volume 27, Part 1 (1996) Punjabi University[3]
  6. ^ Steel, Duncan (2000) v. Wiley [4]
  7. ^ Harajindara Siṅgha Dilagīra, A. T. Kerr (1995) Akal Takht Sahib. Sikh Educational Trust in collaboration with the Sikh University Centre, Denmark[5]
  8. ^ Gandhi, Surjit Singh (1999) Sikhs in the Eighteenth Century: Their Struggle for Survival and Supremacy. Singh Bros[6]
  9. ^ Dilagīra, Harajindara Singha (1997) The Sikh Reference Book. Sikh Educational Trust for Sikh University Centre, Denmark[7]
  10. ^ Dhillon, Harish (2013) First Raj of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Banda Singh Bahadur. Hay House [8]
  11. ^ Chilana, Rajwant Singh (2006) International Bibliography of Sikh Studies. Springer Science & Business Media [9]
  12. ^ a b "What is the Sikh Nanakshahi calendar". allaboutsikhs.com. Archived from the original on 2008-05-10. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 
  13. ^ Abstracts of Sikh Studies, Volume 5 (2003) Institute of Sikh Studies, [10]
  14. ^ Kepel, Martin (2006) The Structure and Mathematics of the Principal Calendars of the Western World: Muslim, Gregorian, Jewish, and Other Systems. Edwin Mellen Press[11]
  15. ^ Melton, J. Gordon (2011) Religious Celebrations: L-Z. ABC-Clio [12]
  16. ^ Louis E. Fenech, W. H. McLeod (2014) Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield [13]
  17. ^ Knut A. Jacobsen (2008) South Asian Religions on Display: Religious Processions in South Asia and in the Diaspora. Routledge [14]
  18. ^ Nesbitt, Eleanor (2016) Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press[15]
  19. ^ Bodiwala, Community Contributor Suresh. "Sikh Religious Society Organizes Two -day Conference in Chicago to Implement Mool Nanakshahi Calendar". Naperville Sun. Retrieved 2018-03-29. 
  20. ^ Abstracts of Sikh Studies, Volume 5 (2003) Institute of Sikh Studies [16]
  21. ^ a b "Nanakshahi Calendar at BBC". BBC. 2003-07-29. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 
  22. ^ Singh Purewal, Pal. "Gurbani And Nanakshahi Calendar" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 13 March 2018. 
  23. ^ "Bara Maha - SikhiWiki, free Sikh encyclopedia". www.sikhiwiki.org. sikhiwiki.org. Retrieved 13 March 2018. 
  24. ^ Parkash, Chander (14 March 2003). "Nanakshahi calendar out". www.tribuneindia.com. The Tribune. Retrieved 13 March 2018. 
  25. ^ Kohli, Surindar Singh (1992) A Conceptual Encyclopaedia of Guru Granth Sahib.Manohar Publishers & Distributors [17]
  26. ^ Chicago Tribune (18.11.2017) Sikh Religious Society Organizes Two-day Conference in Chicago to Implement Mool Nanakshahi Calendar [18]
  27. ^ Singh, Surjit( 06.03.2018) Hindustan Times) HT Explainer: Know about the controversial Nanakshahi calendar [19]
  28. ^ a b Sikhs around world celebrate new year using Edmonton man's calendar (14.03.2018) Edmonton Journal by Juris Graney [20]
  29. ^ a b Singh, Surjit (6 March 2018). "HT Explainer: Know about the controversial Nanakshahi calendar". Hindustan Times. HT Media. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  30. ^ Tribune India (14.03.2018) SGPC: Follow Nanakshahi calendar [21]
  31. ^ Singh, Surjit (13 November 2017). "Guru Gobind Singh's birth anniversary: Akal Takht rejects SGPC plea to extend parkash parv date". Hindustan Times. HT Media. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  32. ^ Āhalūwālīā, Jasabīra Siṅgha (2003) Liberating Sikhism from 'the Sikhs': Sikhisim's [sic] Potential for World Civilization. Unistar books [22]
  33. ^ Singh Purewal, Pal. "Reply to Mr. Gurcharanjit Singh Lamba's criticism of Nanakshahi Calendar first implemented in 1999 CE" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  34. ^ Haar, Kristen and Kalsi, Sewa Singh (2009) Sikhism. Infobase Publishing [23]
  35. ^ J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann (2010) Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition [6 volumes]. ABC-Clio[24]
  36. ^ Kohli, Surindar Singh (1992) A Conceptual Encyclopaedia of Guru Granth Sahib.Manohar Publishers & Distributors [25]
  37. ^ Singh Purewal, Pal. "Gurpurbs (Fixed Dates)" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 13 March 2018. 
  38. ^ Singh Purewal, Pal. "Birth Date of Guru Nanak Sahib" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 4 February 2018. 
  39. ^ Singh Purewal, Pal. "Movable Dates of Gurpurbs (Change Every Year)" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 13 March 2018. 

External links