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Nagaur

Nagaur
City
Nagaur is located in Rajasthan
Nagaur
Nagaur
Location in Rajasthan, India
Coordinates: 27°12′N 73°44′E / 27.2°N 73.73°E / 27.2; 73.73
Country India
StateRajasthan
DistrictNagaur
Founded byNagwanshiKshatriya
Government
 • TypeDemocracy
 • BodyDistrict Collector
 • MPHanuman Beniwal
 • Collector & DMShri. Dinesh Kumar Yadav, IAS
 • Chairman, City CouncilKriparam Solanki
 • Superintendent of PoliceSh. Dr. Vikas Pathak, IPS
Elevation
302 m (991 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total110,797
Languages
 • OfficialHindi, English
 • LocalMarwari
Languages
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Vehicle registrationRJ-21
Website[nagaur.rajasthan.gov.in]

Nagaur (Nāgaur) is a city in the state of Rajasthan in India. It is the administrative headquarters of Nagaur District. The Nagaur city lies about midway between Jodhpur and Bikaner.

History

The Nagaur Fort is of historical importance. Nagaur fort is the fort built by the ancient Kshatriya of India. The original maker of the fort is Naagvansi Kshatriya.[1] The Kshatriya rulers dominated Nagaur for a longer period. Nagaur ruler were repeatedly forced to pay tribute to the Sisodias of Chittor while their lands were slowly annexed by the Rathors of Jodhpur.

In the medieval era the town of Nagaur sat astride trade routes coming north from Gujarat and Sindh and those on the west crossing the Indus from Multan. With a dead flat plain all around, the defense of the fort depended on the military and economic power of its rulers—and from the period of the Ghaznavid invasions Nagaur was under the powerful Chauhan clan. A succession of rulers kept the whole of Jangladesh free from foreign rule down to the reign of Prithviraj Chauhan III at the close of the 12th Century. That Nagaur town came under the invaders is clear since Balban, before becoming Sultan, was given an estate centered on this desert town. But just as there were petty Hindu chiefs (of numerous castes) in the vast lands between Ajmer and Delhi, it is reasonable to suppose that such landholders were also present in the lands between Ajmer and Nagaur, paying land revenue to the Muslims and probably joining their army.

Another similarity between Ajmer and Nagaur is the early founding of Sufi shrines at both places. One of the earliest Sufis to come to Nagaur was Sultan Tarkin, whose shrine was established during Hindu rule. After Khwaja Moinuddin established the Chishti Sufi order at Ajmer one of his disciples, named Hamiduddin, came to Nagaur. Hamiduddin accommodated some Hindu principles in his teachings—he became a strict vegetarian and lovingly reared a cow in his shrine.

In 1306 a Mongol army along with khokars ravaged Nagaur. The Khalji Turks had begun pushing deeper into the lands of the independent Rajput rulers and even further into South India. In the midst of this expansion they lost some of the important Rajput forts like Jaisalmer, Chittor, and Siwana, while guerrilla warfare made the regions of Marwar and Mewar impassable for the Muslim armies. Some of the other forts and towns were lost to the Rajputs after the break-up of the Delhi Sultanate in 1351. With the death of Firuz Tughlaq in 1388, the remaining strongholds like Ajmer and Nagaur came under their own hereditary governors. Turks of the Dandani tribe became Sultans, The Sultans of Nagaur taxed the money earned by the people from trade, agriculture, and from the vast herds of cattle, goats, and camels. In addition, like in the Delhi Sultanate, jaziya and a pilgrimage tax taken from Hindus brought significant sums to the treasury and enabled the Dandani Turks to match their neighbors in battle.

While Nagaur was still swearing a nominal allegiance to Delhi, two ominous events occurred in the neighborhood within a short period. One was the campaign of Rana Lakha (1389–1404) of Mewar, which saw a Rajput army ravaging Ajmer and pushing on to the Jhunjhunu region near Delhi. The second was the capture of Mandore by Rao Chunda (1390–1422) of the Rathor clan—this city henceforth became the Rathor capital and gave Rao Chunda a convenient base for attacking Nagaur.

Rao Chunda also changed horses mid-stream and formed an alliance with Mewar, where the Rathor princess Hamsabai was married to the old Rana Lakha, who in turn promised to make her son the next Rana. On the strength of this alliance Chunda subdued Rajput clans like the Bhatis and Mohils and again invaded Nagaur, forcing Muslim rulers to make peace by paying him tribute. In 1422 these three defeated powers made an alliance and killed Chunda on the outskirts of Nagaur—Chunda's son Ranamalla was then at Mewar and his brothers sought to capture the throne at Mandore.

With the help of the Mewar army, Ranamall defeated his brothers and became the head of the Rathor clan. In 1428 he led this joint Sesodia-Rathor army to punish the Turks of Nagaur where he stormed the fort and killed Firuz Khan( khokhar). The next Sultan of Nagaur Qiyam Khan Khokhar paid tribute to Mewar till 1438 when Ranamall Rathor was killed at Chittor and the Sesodias invaded Marwar. The conflict between the two Rajput clans was the opportunity for the Nagaur that had been smarting under their dominance—the Sultans of Gujarat and Malwa fought Mewar for almost twenty years and were ultimately compelled to form an alliance against the strong Rajput state.

With its two Rajput enemies simultaneously in trouble, Nagaur regained independence and its Sultans their former power, which was reflected in the internal politics of the neighboring Delhi Sultanate. In 1451 the minister of the last Sayyid ruler invited Qiyam Khan khokhar to seize Delhi and become Sultan—at the same time he sent a similar invitation to Buhlul Lodi, the Afghan governor of Sirhind. The latter, being closer to Delhi, reached first and established the Lodi dynasty, while the disappointed Qiyam Khan khokhar retired with his army to Nagaur.

After his death in 1453, the succession to the Nagaur throne was disputed between the brothers Mujahid Khan khokhar and Shams Khan khokhar. Rana Kumbha, who had emerged victorious in the long war with the Sultan of Malwa and the Rathors, sent his army to aid Shams Khan khokhar who was installed as the Sultan. As a price of his support, Kumbha demanded that a portion of the Nagaur fort be demolished, but this Shams Khan khokhar would not do—instead, he formed a matrimonial alliance with Sultan Qutb-ud-din of Gujarat.

In 1456 Rana Kumbha defeated the allied Muslim army and again captured Nagaur. On this occasion the great mosque at Nagaur, built by Firuz Khan khokhar, was demolished by the Rajputs to signify Kumbha's displeasure against Shams Khan khokhar and to impose the status of a vassal on him.

For the next two years the Sultans of Gujarat ( Uncle of Shams Khan khokhar)and Malwa formed an alliance to fight against Rana Kumbha, but by this time Mewar had again become the dominant power in North India—not the least because of a peace treaty with the Rathor clan.

Rao Jodha, the head of the Rathor clan, had founded a new capital called Jodhpur and had recovered most of his other forts from the Sisodias. The war between the two clans was brought to an end in 1458 by a treaty. But this did not make Nagaur independent—rather its territory became food for the hungry and fast multiplying Rathor clan.

Jodha's son Bika, with a portion of the Rathor clansmen, captured the northern portions of Nagaur and founded a new city called Bikaner. Another son named Duda captured Merta lying to the east of Nagaur—the Sultanate of Nagaur was now shrunk to the main town and a few surrounding villages. The policy of the sultans was to maintain independence by either paying tribute to the head of the Rathor clan or to the Lodis of Delhi.

In 1513 Nagaure was defeated and compelled to pay tribute—subsequently Rao Lunkaran protected Nagaur, as his vassal state, from an attack by his own kinsman Rao Ganga of Jodhpur. The territory of the Sultanate had now shrunk to just the town of Nagaur. In Nagaur though, the powerless dynasty of the Khokhar was formally ended and an Afghan army was left in control of the fort and town. This force was ousted by the Mughals under Akbar in 1562. Akbar also captured the fief of Merta—the Rathor ruler of Merta, the famous Jaimal took up service with the Rana of Chittor and died defending that fort from Akbar in 1569. Akbar's campaign in Rajputana had some similarity with Sher Shah's in that he made alliances with the smaller Rajput states like Bikaner and Amber and used them against the bigger states.

Nagaur remained under Mughal control, but was actually administered by one of the nearby Rajput rulers. In the time of Shah Jahan the heir of the Jodhpur throne, Amar Singh Rathore was disinherited by his father and was granted Nagaur as compensation by the Mughal Emperor. Many of the buildings in the town date from this period. During Aurangzeb's war against the Rathors in 1679, the headship of the clan was given to Indra Singh (nephew of the dead Maharaja Jaswant Singh) of Nagaur—but he was overthrown by Jaswant's son Ajit Singh and his general Durgadas who permanently annexed Nagaur to the Kingdom of Jodhpur.

In 1755 Jai Appa Sindhia (King of Gawalior) attacked on Nagaur fort. He was having huge army and defeated all state which comes in his way. He halted his army at Tausar (5 km from Nagaur ,near a pond. He surrounded the Nagaur fort and stopped food and ration . Maharaja Vijay Singh sent proposal of treaty but Jai Appa Sindhia not accepted it.

Mahraja Vijay Singh announced in darbaar that it's difficult time for Marwar and asked for volunteers to kill Jai Appa Sindhia. Gajji Khan khokhar( chawta Kalla) and one Dotlai Rajput Gehlot were volunteered . Gajji Khan khokhar and Rajput soldier changed their outfit as small traders and opened their shop near Army of Jaiappa Sindhia. For 2 months they noted down all activities and made plan accordingly. On 25 July 1755 Gaji khan khokhar and Dotlai Rajput according plan started fighting with each other and reached near Jai Appa Sindhia for justice. Both took out their daggers ,Gajji Khan piraced dagger in the chest of Jai Appa and said it's a Nagaur, Rajput piraced the dagger in his belly and said it's Jodhpur ( Painting situated in Mandore musium of Mandore , Jodhpur) .They killed Jai Appa Sindhia ,army of Jai Appa surprised and attacked on both the soldier and killed them. After that a common proverb is still in Nagaur that " Khokhar badda khuraki ghayigaya haappa jiyanka daaki". Appa Army continued fighting under the kingship of Jai Appa Sindhia brother. But they never succeed.



Climate

Nagaur has a dry climate with a hot summer. Sand storms are common in summer. The district's climate is marked by extreme dryness, large variations of temperature & highly irregular rainfall patterns. The maximum temperature recorded in the district is 117F with 32F as the lowest recorded temperature. The average temperature of the district is 74 F. The winter season extends from mid-November until the beginning of March. The rainy season is relatively short, extending from July through mid-September. There are ten climatological stations within the district, being within the cities of Nagaur, Khinvsar, Didwana, Merta, Parbatsar, Makarana, Nawa, Jayal, Degana & Ladnun. The average rainfall in the district is 36.16 cm & 59% relative humidity.

Geography

Nagaur is located at 27°12′N 73°44′E / 27.2°N 73.73°E / 27.2; 73.73.[2] It has an average elevation of 302 metres (990 feet). Nagaur is situated amidst seven districts namely Bikaner, Churu, Sikar, Jaipur, Ajmer, Pali, Jodhpur. Nagaur is the fifth largest district in Rajasthan with a vast terrain spreading over 17,718 km2 Its geographical spread is a good combine of plain, hills, sand mounds & as such it is a part of the great Indian Thar Desert.

Demographics

Religions in Nagaur
Religion Percent
Hindus
63.33%
Muslims
33.24%

As of 2011 India census,[3] Nagaur District's Demographics statues:

Total Population 3340234
Male 1679570
Female 1660474
% Decadal Growth (2001–11) 19.25
Sex Ratio 948
Density 187
Child Population (0-6) 498585
Literacy Rate (Total) 94.08
Literacy Rate (Male) 88.90
Literacy Rate (Female) 98.63

Merta, Degana, Ladnun, Didwana, Makrana, Parbatsar and Kuchaman are the major towns of the district. The total area of the district is 17,718 km2, out of which 17,448.5 km2 is rural and 269.5 km2 is urban.

Forest, Flora & Fauna

The district of Nagaur is poor in forest resources. The total area under including hills, is reported to be 240.92 km2., which is 1.3 percent of total geographical area of the district. Scanty rainfall & other geographical constraints account for this. The western part of the district is divided of natural vegetation cover except for low herbs & grass which grows on low sand dunes. However, the south-eastern part of the district & part of the northern tehsil of Ladnun & Didwana have much greater greenery as compared to north-west part of the district. Khejri trees are commonly found in the district. Its leaves are used as fodder. It also gives gum. Apart from commercial value, this tree is considered holy. The tree also plays an important role in checking soil crosion. The other common species found in the district are babul, neem, shisham, peepal, rohira, kalsi, dhangood, akara etc. Rohira & shisham trees provide timber & is used for making furniture. Dhangood is generally used for making cots. A common shrub-phog provides building material from its roots & twings.

Tourism

Nagaur Fort
  • Nagaur Fort was one of the first Muslim strongholds in northern India[4] and one of the finest examples of Jat-Mughal architecture.[5] Built in the early 12th century and repeatedly altered over subsequent centuries, it witnessed many battles. Underwent major renovations in 2007.[4][5] 90 fountains are now running in the gardens and buildings. The fort's buildings and spaces, both external and internal, serve as venue, stage and home to a Sufi Music Festival.
  • Rol, also known as Rol Sharif is a village in Jayal tehsil of Nagaur district in the Indian state of Rajasthan. The village has many mosques, including Shahi Jama Masjid. There is Jubba Mubarak of Muhammad, which are said to possess holy relic brought by Qazi Hamiduddin Nagauri from Bukhara, Russia. Devotees from various parts of the country gather on urs of Quazi Sahab to celebrate the occasion. There is an annual Urs Mela (Urs Fair) organised in village.[6]
  • Ladnun - 10th century's Jain temples are rich with historical attraction. Jain Vishva Bharti University - A famous centre of Jainism; a school of thought; a centre of spirituality & purification; a society of Ahimsa; a treasure of tranquility; an abode of humanity on earth.
  • Bairathal Kallan - The Bairathal Kallan village was established about 700–750 years ago.
  • Khinvsar town - Khimsar Fort - Situated 42 km from Nagaur on the National Highway No. 65 towards Jodhpur; 500-year-old fort in the middle of the Thar Desert; turned into a hotel furnished with modern facilities. Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb used to stay here; Khinvsar town has 25 small temples; black deer roaming in herds are a very popular tourist attraction.
  • Jayal- Dadhimati Mata Temple - Also known as Goth-Manglod temple; 40 km from Nagaur; the oldest temple of the district constructed during the Gupta Dynasty (4th Century); Kul Devi of Dadhich Brahmins.
  • Merta - Meera Bai Temple - Also known as the Charbhuja temple; 400 years old; evidence how total surrender helps attain godly qualities; how deep faith converts poison to 'Amrit'.
  • Kuchaman City - Kuchaman Fort - One of the oldest & most inaccessible forts of Rajasthan; situated on top of a straight hill; unique water harvesting system; Jodhpur rulers used to mint their gold & silver currency here; affords a beautiful view of the city; fort converted into a hotel has a strong attraction for tourists.
  • Khatu - Khatu's old name was Shatkup (six wells). When Shak rulers came to India then they brought two new wells with them which were called Shakandhu (Stepwell) & Kalandh (Rahat). According to Prathviraj Raso, Khatu's old name was Khatwan. Old Khatu is almost destroyed. Now there are two villages, one is called Bari Khatu & other Chhoti Khatu. On the hillock of Chhoti Khatu a small fort is standing. Fort was built by Prithviraj Chauhan. An old stepwell is located in Chhoti Khatu, known as Phool Bawadi, it is believed that this stepwell was constructed in Gurjara Pratihara period. This stepwell is artistic in its style of architecture.
  • Kurki - Kurki is a small village in the Merta Tehsil of Nagaur district. It is the birthplace of the famous princess and poet, Meera Bai, about 30 km from Merta.
  • Kharnal - It is situated on the Nagaur-Jodhpur National Highway near about 15 km from Nagaur. It is the birthplace of Lok Devta Veer Tejaji. It is believed that Kharnal was established by Dhawal Khichi who was in the 5th generation of the Choudhan ruler Gundal Rao Khichi of Jayal state. Veer Tejaji was born in Dholiya Gotra of Jat.
  • Untwaliya - It is situated 15 km from Nagaur and 10 km from Alai.
  • Jhorda - It is situated on the north of Nagaur about 30 km away. It is the birthplace of the Great Saint Baba Hariram.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 December 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Nagaur
  3. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  4. ^ a b "Rehabilitation of Nagaur Fort". Aga Khan Award for Architecture. Aga Khan Development Network. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  5. ^ a b Abraham, Melissa. "India's Vibrant Cultural Heritage Comes to Life at Nagaur Fort". The Getty Iris. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
  6. ^ Rol Urs Mela nagaur.rajasthan.gov.in[verification needed]

External links

Meera Nagari Merta City[1]

  1. ^ "https://www.timeofrajasthan.com/". Time of Rajasthan. Retrieved 23 October 2019. External link in |title= (help)