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465 Huntington Avenue|
Boston, MA 02115
|Public transit access||Museum of Fine Arts Ruggles Ruggles Ruggles|
The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts, is the fifth largest museum in the United States. It contains more than 450,000 works of art, making it one of the most comprehensive collections in the Americas. With more than one million visitors a year, it is the 43rd most-visited art museum in the world as of 2016[update].
Founded in 1870, the museum moved to its current location in 1909. The museum is affiliated with the School of the Museum of Fine Arts at Tufts.
The Museum of Fine Arts was founded in 1870 and opened in 1876, with most of its initial collection taken from the Boston Athenæum Art Gallery. Francis Davis Millet, a local artist, was instrumental in starting the Art School affiliated with the museum, and in appointing Emil Otto Grundmann as its first director. The museum was originally located in a highly ornamented brick Gothic Revival building in Copley Square designed by John Hubbard Sturgis and Charles Brigham which was noted for its massed architectural terracotta in an American building. It was built almost entirely of brick and terracotta (imported from England), with some stone about its base.
In 1907, plans were laid to build a new home for the museum on Huntington Avenue in Boston's Fenway-Kenmore neighborhood, near the recently-constructed mansion that would later become the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. Museum trustees decided to hire architect Guy Lowell to create a design for a museum that could be built in stages, as funding was obtained for each phase. Two years later, the first section of Lowell’s neoclassical design was completed. It featured a 500-foot (150 m) façade of granite and a grand rotunda. The museum moved to its new location later that year; the Copley Plaza Hotel eventually replaced the old building.
The second phase of construction built a wing along The Fens to house paintings galleries. It was funded entirely by Maria Antoinette Evans Hunt, the wife of wealthy business magnate Robert Dawson Evans, and opened in 1915. From 1916 through 1925, the noted artist John Singer Sargent painted the frescoes that adorn the rotunda and the associated colonnades.
Numerous additions enlarged the building throughout the years, including the Decorative Arts wing in 1928 (again enlarged in 1968) and the Norma Jean Calderwood Garden Court and Terrace in 1997. The West Wing, designed by I. M. Pei, opened in 1981, and was renamed the Linde Family Wing for Contemporary Art in 2008. This wing now houses the museum's cafe, restaurant, meeting rooms, classrooms, and a giftshop/bookstore, as well as large exhibition spaces.
In the mid-2000s, the museum launched a major effort to renovate and expand its facilities. In a seven-year fundraising campaign between 2001 and 2008 for a new wing, the endowment, and operating expenses, the museum managed to total over $500 million, in addition to acquiring over $160 million worth of art. During the global financial crisis between 2007 and 2012, the museum's budget was trimmed by $1.5 million and the museum increased revenues by conducting traveling exhibitions, which included a loan exhibition sent to the for-profit Bellagio in Las Vegas in exchange for $1 million. In 2011, Moody's Investors Service calculated that the museum had over $180 million in outstanding debt. However, the agency cited growing attendance, a large endowment, and positive cash flow as reasons to believe that the museum's finances would become stable in the near future.
In 2011, the museum put eight paintings by Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley, Gauguin, and others on sale at Sotheby's, bringing in a total of $21.6 million, to pay for Man at His Bath by Gustave Caillebotte at a cost reported to be more than $15 million.
The renovation included a new Art of the Americas Wing to feature artwork from North, South, and Central America. In 2006, the groundbreaking ceremonies took place. The wing and adjoining Ruth and Carl J. Shapiro Family Courtyard were designed in a restrained, contemporary style by the London-based architectural firm Foster and Partners, under the directorship of Thomas T. Difraia and CBT/Childs Bertman Tseckares Architects. The landscape architecture firm Gustafson Guthrie Nichol redesigned the Huntington Avenue and Fenway entrances, gardens, access roads, and interior courtyards.
The wing opened on November 20, 2010 with free admission to the public. Mayor Thomas Menino declared it "Museum of Fine Arts Day", and more than 13,500 visitors attended the opening. The 12,000-square-foot (1,100 m2) glass-enclosed courtyard features a 42.5-foot (13.0 m) high glass sculpture, titled the Lime Green Icicle Tower, by Dale Chihuly. In 2014, the Art of the Americas Wing was recognized for its high architectural achievement by being awarded the Harleston Parker Medal, by the Boston Society of Architects.
In 2015, the museum renovated its Japanese garden, Tenshin-en. The garden, which originally opened in 1988, was designed by Japanese professor Kinsaku Nakane. The garden's kabukimon-style entrance gate was built by Chris Hall of Massachusetts, using traditional Japanese carpentry techniques.
The Museum of Fine Arts possesses materials from a wide variety of art movements and cultures. The museum also maintains a large online database with information on over 346,000 items from its collection, accompanied with digitized images.
Some highlights of the collection include:
The libraries at the Museum of Fine Arts house 320,000 items. The main branch, the William Morris Hunt Memorial Library, named after the noted American artist, is located off-site in Horticultural Hall.
Other notable works are in the collection, but the following examples are ones in the public domain and for which pictures are available.
John Singleton Copley, Paul Revere, 1768
John Singleton Copley, Watson and the Shark, 1778
Gilbert Stuart, George Washington, 1796
Washington Allston, Self-Portrait, 1805
Charles Bird King, Still Life on a Green Table Cloth, 1815
Fitz Henry Lane, Salem Harbor, 1853
Martin Johnson Heade, Passion Flowers and Hummingbirds, c. 1870-1873
William Rimmer, Flight and Pursuit, 1872
Mary Cassatt, Tea, 1880
Childe Hassam, At Dusk (Boston Common at Twilight), 1886
Rosso Fiorentino, The Dead Christ with Angels, 1524-1527
El Greco, Fray Hortensio Félix Paravicino, 1609
Diego Velázquez, Don Baltasar Carlos with a Dwarf, 1632
Claude Lorrain, Apollo and the Muses on Mount Helion, 1680
Giovanni Paolo Panini, Picture Gallery with Views of Modern Rome, 1757
Francisco Goya, Seated Giant, 1818
Edouard Manet, Street Singer, 1862
Henri Regnault, Automedon with the Horses of Achilles, 1868
Edgar Degas, At the Races in the Countryside, 1869
Edgar Degas, Racehorses at Longchamp, 1873–1875
Claude Monet, La Japonaise, 1876
Paul Cézanne, Madame Cézanne in a Red Armchair, 1877
Claude Monet, Poppy Field in a Hollow near Giverny, 1888
Vincent van Gogh, Postman Joseph Roulin, 1888
Vincent van Gogh, La Berceuse, 1889
A bulletin has appeared under various titles from 1903 to 1983:
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