Algebraic structure → Group theory Group theory 



Infinite dimensional Lie group

In mathematics and group theory, the term multiplicative group refers to one of the following concepts:
The group scheme of nth roots of unity is by definition the kernel of the npower map on the multiplicative group GL(1), considered as a group scheme. That is, for any integer n > 1 we can consider the morphism on the multiplicative group that takes nth powers, and take an appropriate fiber product of schemes, with the morphism e that serves as the identity.
The resulting group scheme is written μ_{n} (or ^{[2]}). It gives rise to a reduced scheme, when we take it over a field K, if and only if the characteristic of K does not divide n. This makes it a source of some key examples of nonreduced schemes (schemes with nilpotent elements in their structure sheaves); for example μ_{p} over a finite field with p elements for any prime number p.
This phenomenon is not easily expressed in the classical language of algebraic geometry. For example, it turns out to be of major importance in expressing the duality theory of abelian varieties in characteristic p (theory of Pierre Cartier). The Galois cohomology of this group scheme is a way of expressing Kummer theory.