Part of a series on Islam
The Quran enumerates little about Muhammad's early life or other biographic details, but it talks about his prophetic mission, his moral excellence, and theological issues regarding Muhammad. According to the Quran, Muhammad is the last in a chain of prophets sent by God (33:40).
The name "Muhammad" is mentioned four times in the Quran and the name "Ahmad" (another variant of the name of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad) is mentioned one time. However, Muhammad is also referred to with various titles such as the Messenger of Allah, Prophet, unlettered, etc. and many verses about Muhammad refer directly or indirectly to him. Also, the name of chapter (Surah) 47 of the Quran is "Muhammad".
|Sura||Verse||Link||English translation (by Abdullah Yusuf Ali)|
|Al Imran (Arabic: آل عمران)||144||3:144||Muhammad is only a messenger: many Were the messenger that passed away before him. If he died or were slain, will ye then Turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah; but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve Him) with gratitude.|
|Al-Ahzab (Arabic: سورة الأحزاب)||40||33:40||Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things.|
|Muhammad (Arabic: سورة محمد)||2||47:2||But those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, and believe in the (Revelation) sent down to Muhammad - for it is the Truth from their Lord,- He will remove from them their ills and improve their condition.|
|Al-Fath (Arabic: سورة الفتح)||29||48:29||Muhammad is the messenger of Allah; and those who are with him are strong against Unbelievers, (but) compassionate amongst each other. Thou wilt see them bow and prostrate themselves (in prayer), seeking Grace from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. On their faces are their marks, (being) the traces of their prostration. This is their similitude in the Taurat; and their similitude in the Gospel is: like a seed which sends forth its blade, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick, and it stands on its own stem, (filling) the sowers with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the Unbelievers with rage at them. Allah has promised those among them who believe and do righteous deeds forgiveness, and a great Reward.|
|As-Saff (Arabic: سورة الصف)||6||61:6||And remember, Jesus, the son of Mary, said: "O Children of Israel! I am the messenger of Allah (sent) to you, confirming the Law (which came) before me, and giving Glad Tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad." But when he came to them with Clear Signs, they said, "this is evident sorcery!" |
There are also references to Muhammad as "Messenger", "Messenger of God", and "Prophet" (such as in Quran 2:101, 2:143, 2:151, 3:32, 3:81, 3:144, 3:164, 4:79–80, 5:15, 5:41, 7:157, 8:1, 9:3, 33:40, 48:29, and 66:9). Other terms are used, including "Warner", "bearer of glad tidings", and the "one who invites people to a Single God" (12:108, and 33:45–46), "Seal of the Prophets" (Khatam an-Nabiyyin)33:41 i.e. there will be no more prophets after him), a "Summoner unto Allah" and "a Lamp that gives bright light" 33:47
Verse 21:107. "And you did not recite before it any scripture, nor did you inscribe one with your right hand. Otherwise the falsifiers would have had [cause for] doubt", is thought to indicate that Muhammad was illiterate and had not read any earlier scriptures.
The Quran disclaims any superhuman characteristics for Muhammad but describes him as a man possessing the highest moral excellence (Quran 68:5 "And thou dost, surely, possess sublime moral excellences"). God made him a good example or a "goodly model" for Muslims to follow (68:4, and 33:21). full of sympathy for Muslims ("Grievous to him is what you suffer; [he is] concerned over you and to the believers is kind and merciful." 9:128) In Islamic tradition, Muhammad's relation to humanity is as a bringer of truth (God's message to humanity), and as a blessing (39:33, and 21:107) whose message will give people salvation in the afterlife. It is believed by at least one pious commentator that it is Muhammad's teachings and the purity of his personal life alone that keep alive the worship of God.
While the Quran does not tell the story of the Prophet's life, a number of verses of the Quran concerning Muhammad affect Islamic doctrine, or refer to Muhammad's mission or personal life.
Some verses concerning Muhammad have an important effect on the character/theology of the religion, specifically those that command or encourage Muslims to obey Muhammad and to follow his teachings. These include:
These verses provide the basis for adherence to the words, actions, and the silent approval of Muhammad -- a record of which is called a hadith (pl. ahadith) -- and provides the bulk of the source for Islamic law. (Quranic injunctions have primary importance but are much fewer in number.)
Many important events and turning points in the mission of The Prophet were connected with revelations from the Quran, although the verses are not necessarily addressed to Muhammad. (Like many verses in the Quran, they often refer to an event/story/moral without explaining the dispute/issue involved. These are made clear by Quranic commentary, prophetic biography and/or hadith.)
After migrating to Medina, the Muslims began raiding Meccan caravans. In their first successful raid, the caravan's merchandise was captured, one caravan guard killed and two captured and later ransomed. However, the raid happened when warfare was banned, i.e. during one of the Arab "sacred months" (the 1st, 7th, 11th and 12th months of the Arab calendar). While his followers were reportedly dismayed at this violation of tradition, Muhammad received a revelation reassuring them raids against unbelievers by Muslims during the four months were now permitted by God.
The first battle the Muslims fought against their unbeliever enemies at Badr in 624 CE was a victory where Muslims killed several important Meccan leaders. The battle is mentioned in the Quran as an example of how God helped Muslims who should show gratitude in return.
A year later Muslims suffered a setback against a superior force of Meccans at the Battle of Uhud when several dozen Muslims were killed and Muhammad was wounded. A verse revealed soon after explained why if Muslims had God's favor they had not won the battle as they had at Badr: they disobeyed the Prophets orders and were hasty in collecting loot before the battle was won.
Verses 33:10–22 recalls the doubts and fears of some of inhabitants of Medina in the pivotal Battle of the Trench where Muhammad led the Muslims in digging a protective trench and overcame a siege by 10,000 Meccan unbelievers. (Some had lost faith and abandoned the city.) In response to his followers abandoning of work on the trench without Muhammad's permission (prior to the battle), a verse was revealed telling them not to:
After the Quraish tribe was vanquished and Makka conquered, the Muslims' position under Muhammad was much stronger and (according to Western scholar Alfred Guillaume), the Islamic position towards Arab Christians who had not yet converted to Islam was "modified". A verse was revealed requiring Christians ( and Jews) to pay a special tax (jizyah) and be "humbled".
While the Quran’s message is eternal and universal, a number of Quranic verses refer to specific issues in the life of the Prophet.
Some verses pertaining to the Prophet's marital relations, these include
While some have criticized these revelations as "convenient", suggesting that the verses may actually have been concocted by Muhammad and not revealed by God, Muslims have pointed out various reasons for their wisdom. At that time, it was a common practice for men to have slave concubines and was not considered adultery; "Why must he (or anyone else, for that matter) prohibit something for themselves when God has not prohibited it for them?" The Prophet had special obligations, such as praying at night (Tahajjud), as well as privileges. The wives of the prophet were forbidden from remarrying because they were considered to be the "mothers of the believers" (33:6).