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Modern Painters (1843–60) is a five-volume work by the eminent Victorian art critic, John Ruskin, begun when he was 24 years old. Ruskin argues that recent painters emerging from the tradition of the picturesque are superior in the art of landscape to the old masters. The book was primarily written as a defence of the later work of J.M.W. Turner. Ruskin used the book to argue that art should devote itself to the accurate documentation of nature. In Ruskin's view, Turner had developed from early detailed documentation of nature to a later more profound insight into natural forces and atmospheric effects. It was in his 1842 visit to Switzerland that Ruskin collected material used to form the basis of Vol One. 
Ruskin added later volumes in subsequent years. Volume two (1846) placed emphasis on symbolism in art, expressed through nature. The second volume was influential on the early development of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. He produced three more volumes, with the fifth and final volume appearing in 1860.
The fifth volume marked the end of the formational and important part of Ruskin's life in which his father had a great influence.
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