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Miss Venezuela

Miss Venezuela
Miss Venezuela logo.png
Formation1952
TypeBeauty pageant
HeadquartersCaracas
Location
Membership
Miss Universe
Miss World
Miss International
Official language
Spanish
Executive Committee
Gabriela Isler
Jacqueline Aguilera
Nina Sicilia
Key people
Osmel Sousa
Ignacio Font Coll
Parent organization
Cisneros Group
Websitemissvenezuela.com

Miss Venezuela is the national beauty pageant in Venezuela, considered to be the most important within the country. The pageant is traditionally held in September, preceded by two or three months of preliminary events, including the awarding of corporate prizes. The final competition telecast generally lasts about four hours and is broadcast live across Latin America by Venevisión and produced by the networks parent company Cisneros Group, with edited versions to the United States and Mexico on the Univision and Telemundo networks. From 2013 to 2015, the national contest was splited into two separate pageants: Miss Venezuela (to select representatives to Miss Universe and Miss International) and Miss Venezuela Mundo (to select representative to Miss World).

Under the direction of Osmel Sousa, Venezuela has accumulated more Big Four international pageant titles than any other country, including seven Miss Universe winners, six Miss World winners, eighth Miss International winners and two Miss Earth winners. Sousa allegedly resigned amid accusations surrounding sexual exploitation of Miss Venezuela contestants.[1]

In recent years, allegations arose that Miss Venezuelan participants have commonly been involved in prostitution and sex acts with wealthy individuals as well as government officials in order to receive sponsorship, cosmetic surgeries and other support.[2][1] As the crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela worsened, Venezuelan women have relied on the pageant to find a way out of the poverty-stricken country.[1] Due to corruption and prostitution scandals surrounding participants, 2018 Miss Venezuela events were postponed.[3][4]

Since 2018, the national director of Venezuela is Gabriela Isler.

Contestants


Number of wins under Miss Venezuela

Current franchises
Pageant Titles Winning year(s)
Miss Universe 7 1979, 1981, 1986, 1996, 2008, 2009, 2013
Miss World 6 1955, 1981, 1984, 1991, 1995, 2011
Miss International 8 1985, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2010, 2015, 2018
Miss Earth 2

2005, 2013

Manuela Victoria Mujica from Lara, Miss Venezuela 1905. The first Venezuelan woman to win the title of Miss Venezuela by popular vote.

A girl wishing to compete in the pageant starts at either the local level, if a regional contest is held in her state, or goes directly to the pageant's headquarters in Caracas. Regional contests generally select three to six candidates (except for the massive Miss Centroccidental pageant, which covers six to seven midwestern states) who will likely represent the state or one nearby: i.e. a candidate who is a finalist for Miss Carabobo will usually expect to represent Carabobo or a neighboring state such as Yaracuy in the final pageant.

Thousands of entrants apply for the pageant each year. Some young women would try for up to five or six years consecutively trying to get one of the 24 to 32 titles that will enable them to compete in the final pageant. Venezuela's 23 states, capital district, islands and the Costa Oriental region of Zulia State are almost always represented; some years other regions of the country will have representatives in the pageant. Although some major states and regions such as Zulia, Táchira, Lara, Bolivar and Carabobo will hold their own preliminaries, many of the states are assigned by geographical proximity or even random drawing to the final contestants. There is therefore considerably less emphasis on state titles than there is in other national pageants such as Miss USA, although certain areas such as Miranda, Nueva Esparta, Capital District, Guarico, Vargas and Carabobo always seem to achieve high results.

External video
The strict beauty standards Venezuelan women experience, resulting in insecurity and surgeries on YouTube

Osmel Sousa, former president of the pageant, always sat on the selection panel regardless of whether it was a final regional contest or the direct "auditions", and it was not uncommon for him to overturn the entire regional results in favor of his own choices. For example, none of the candidates in 2004 for Vargas state were deemed fit for competition, so a candidate from Caracas was appointed Miss Vargas. Winners therefore have often never visited the state they represent. In this fashion, rather than waste five or six candidates from a strong area of the country such as Zulia in a system wherein only one can represent the state, the pageant distributes "spare states" to them so all have an opportunity to demonstrate their capabilities in the final night. Traditionally, strong candidates have been pulled from Caracas, Zulia and Carabobo states, although they can come from all over the country; e.g. in 2003 the Miss Centroccidental pageant sent seven candidates to the pageant, while in 2005 only one proceeded to the finals. In 2000, the casting made in Zulia State (called Miss Venezuela Zulia at that time) sent 7 girls to that year's finals.

The pageant reserves the right to remove any candidate that is deemed not to be performing up to standard, so there is no guarantee that a contestant may participate in the final night of competition. However, such decisions are usually made before the delegates are convened and the various state sashes are handed out. The pageant keeps a "reserve" pool of willing candidates always available to replace any last minute rejected contestant. Many aspirants will also make it into the final 50 or 60, only to be eliminated from the final roster of 26–32 contestants. Such eliminations have no real bearing on how well the contestant will do in the future. Mariangel Ruiz, Miss Venezuela 2002, did not place into the final 120 in 1998; Barbara Clara, second runner-up in 2004, had previously tried for the pageant three times before winning a title at the last minute in 2004.

Reentry into the final pageant is rare, although the rules are arbitrary and not as restrictive as those in other countries. Only one contestant has ever participated in the official Miss Venezuela pageant twice: Maria Fernanda Leon, who represented Guárico in 1999 and Portuguesa in 2002, making the top 10 in her second attempt. Aida Yespica competed in Miss Venezuela World 2001 but withdrew before being assigned a state for the final pageant her year; she returned in Miss Venezuela 2002 for Amazonas state. The majority of the contestants in 2000 and 2001 competed in both the Miss Venezuela World and Miss Venezuela contests of their respective years; they were assigned numbers for the Miss World preliminary, with the most desirable contestants being allowed to proceed to the final Miss Venezuela pageant with state titles. The ten contestants for Miss Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Miss Venezuela for Miss Universe 2000) and the six for Miss Venezuela Mundo 2006 (Miss Venezuela for Miss World 2006) were "recycled" from previous years. This situation was expected to be repeated during the 2007 pageant, in which some contestants were expected to compete again, though it didn't happen.

State titles

There is an unofficial formula to determine the states and regions represented in Venezuela. The base number of contestants over the last decade has been 26–28, which can be increased or decreased by pageant's management.

Official states (23)

  * Denotes that state has a preliminary pageant – which may or may not still be held – as of 2005 only Táchira, Zulia-Falcón, Lara, Aragua and Sucre held preliminaries.

  ** Denotes that state has been represented through the Miss Centroccidental preliminary. Additionally, three states, Carabobo, Falcon and Mérida hold their own individual pageants.

Official regions (3)

Together, these 26 regions form the "base" of the Miss Venezuela contest. However, at times other regions and territories have been represented. If there are 27 sashes, the 27th candidate is Miss Peninsula Goajira. If there are 28 sashes, either Canaima (a national park in Bolivar state) or Peninsula de Paraguaná (a region of Falcon state) is represented. In 2003, additional titles of Península de Araya (a region of Sucre State) and Roraima (a national park in Bolivar State) were created to bring the pageant to its highest ever number of contestants: 32. Surprisingly, in 2008 Península de Araya was used again, and there was no Miss Península Goajira or Miss Costa Oriental that year. In the mid-1990s, the districts of Municipio Libertador and Municipio San Francisco were also represented, the last one only in 1997 and 1998. Also, only in 2003, Guayana Esequiba (part of Guyana that historically Venezuela claims as its own) was represented. Vargas State, the most recent modification to Venezuela's map (1999) was always present in the pageant, but with other names: Departamento Vargas (until 1986), Municipio Vargas (1987 to 1997), Territorio Federal Vargas (1998), and Vargas State since 1999. In 2009, only 20 delegates competed for the crown, the same number that competed on the final night in 2003, so some "traditional" states didn't have a representative.

Regional rankings

State Titles Winning years
Guárico
9
1963, 1966, 1978, 1982, 1985, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014
Miranda
7
1955, 1964, 1981, 1988, 1999, 2009, 2010
Distrito Capital 1956, 1957, 1960, 1961, 1965, 1968, 2001
Lara
4
1980, 1989, 2003, 2015
Carabobo 1953, 1970, 1973, 1996
Nueva Esparta 1972, 1975, 1976, 1987
Vargas 1967, 1969, 1977, 1979
Sucre
3
1958, 2005, 2011
Delta Amacuro
2
1998, 2017
Monagas 1971, 2016
Costa Oriental 1994, 2013
Trujillo 1986, 2008
Amazonas 1991, 2007
Aragua 1992, 2002
Apure 1993, 2000
Bolívar 1952, 1990
Zulia 1974, 1984
Táchira
1
1997
Yaracuy 1995
Portuguesa 1983
Anzoátegui 1962
  • Venezuela's international titleholders represented the following states during their Miss Venezuela competition (indicates year of international victory): Miss Universe: Vargas (1979), Miranda (1981), Trujillo (1986; 2009), Yaracuy (1996), Amazonas (2008) and Guárico (2013); Miss World: Miranda (1955; 1984), Aragua (1981), Zulia (1991), Nueva Esparta (1995) and Amazonas (2011); and Miss International: Monagas (1985), Miranda (1997), Costa Oriental (2000), Carabobo (2003), Barinas (2006), Trujillo (2010) and Anzoátegui (2015).

Training

There are Miss Venezuela schools and "beauty factories" in which girls as young as 5 years old are trained to be the next potential Miss Venezuela. At both the schools and factories the young girls and women are taught how to walk properly, given beauty tips, and given lessons in proper etiquette.

Once a candidate is shortlisted for the pageant, she begins an intensive training program which can last for six months. She receives coaching in speech, physical fitness, make-up, modelling, and all the other skills required for the competition. Plastic surgery and cosmetic dentistry are optional, and some delegates elect to use padding. As the Miss Venezuela broadcast lasts up to four hours long, with countless musical numbers and dances, rehearsals require weeks of preparation. Contestants also participate in official photo-shoots and also fittings by fashion designers.

The evening gowns worn by candidates are a major source of politicking by Venezuela's domestic fashion houses, with top designers such as Mayela Camacho, Ángel Sanchez, Durant & Diego, Jose María Almeida, and Gionni Stracia selecting candidates that they will dress for the final night, while other, newer designers compete to present designs for the pageant.[citation needed] As a general rule the evening gowns are always custom-designed for each of the candidates on the final night, and always by a Venezuelan designer. By tradition, Nidal Nouaihed dresses the representatives of his home state of Zulia (Miss Costa Oriental, Miss Peninsula Goajira, Miss Zulia); Ángel Sanchez designs the gown for Miss Trujillo; Jose María Almeida designs the dress for Miss Mérida and the national costume for Miss Venezuela to Miss Universe. In 1999, 26 different designers took part in the evening gown competition, one candidate for each one. Also, in 2006, for the first time ever, the designers appeared on stage with the delegates, showing their fabulous creations. For the first time, in 2008, a "best evening gown" prize was given to a designer; the winner was Gionni Stracia for Miss Monagas' dress. He also made the gown for Dayana Mendoza in the Miss Universe finals.

The winners chosen to represent Venezuela in the major pageants undergo continuous preparation before they compete internationally. These efforts are funded by corporate sponsors like Pepsi-Cola, Palmolive, Colgate, Ebel and Lux who were attracted to the pageant by its high ratings.

Participation in international pageants

Between 1983 and 2003, Miss Venezuela placed into the Miss Universe semi-finals each consecutive year, and placed in the top six or higher every year from 1991 to 2003. This streak was ended in 2004 when Ana Karina Áñez was not chosen as a semi-finalist at Miss Universe 2004. Venezuela has also held the Miss Universe and Miss World titles simultaneously: in 1981 with Irene Saez (Miss Universe) and Pilin Leon (Miss World). In total, Venezuela has won over seventy international crowns under the guidance of the pageant, and the country's representatives have won at least one international title each year. It was said that Osmel Sousa would have retired from his two decades of directing the pageant after seeing a Venezuelan crown another Venezuelan as Miss Universe. Until recently, when Venezuelan Dayana Mendoza, Miss Universe 2008, crowned her compatriot Stefania Fernandez as Miss Universe 2009, no country had ever won in this pageant in consecutive years (Three countries have done it in Miss World: Sweden, United Kingdom and India). Venezuela also has the record of more Continental Queen Awards: 12. Another impressive record is having a crown of one of three major pageants during consecutive years: World-International-Universe (1984, 85, 86), World-Universe-International (1995, 96, 97), and Universe-Universe-International-World (2008, 09, 10, 11). Pageant committees from Venezuela meticulously choose the best representative for international beauty pageants. It is a real fact that this country has a strong potential to compete in different prestigious beauty pageants.[5]

In 2013 Venezuela has also held the Miss Universe and Miss Earth titles simultaneously: Gabriela Isler (Miss Universe) and Alyz Henrich (Earth). Simultaneous titles of Big 4 pageants in the same year hadn't occurred since 1981. Winning Miss Earth 2013 put Venezuela on the map of pageantry as the first country to win all the Big Four international beauty pageants more than once.

Success in other fields

Competing in the pageant can get a contestant noticed and launched on a successful television or print career. At least a dozen well-sought models come out of the pageant. Virtually all of Venezuela's female top models and television personalities are alumni of the pageant, including Maite Delgado (who competed in 1986 against future Miss Universe Bárbara Palacios), Alexandra Braun (Miss Earth 2005) and Dominika van Santen (Top Model of the World 2005).[6][7] In fact, only Gaby Espino and several other entertainment figures stand out as never having competed in the pageant. Many of today's top young models, such as Onelises Brochero and Wendy Medina, have repeatedly been rejected by Miss Venezuela; on the other hand, Goizeder Azua and Desiree Pallotta, who have variously been considered the top domestic supermodels in the country, joined the pageant after establishing their careers.

Nowadays, familiar faces on Spanish TV networks around the world, from Venezuela, include Ruddy Rodríguez, Catherine Fulop, Carolina Perpetuo, Norkys Batista, Daniela Kosán, Viviana Gibelli, Marjorie de Sousa, Chiquinquirá Delgado, Alicia Machado and Natalia Streignard. Two of the Latin world's best known people, supermodel Patricia Velásquez and singer/actress María Conchita Alonso, also participated, in 1989 and 1975, respectively. Miss Universe 1981, Irene Sáez, is perhaps most famous as the beauty queen who became mayor of Chacao (part of metropolitan Caracas), governor of Nueva Esparta State, and then a candidate in the Venezuelan presidential election, 1998. The Times of London ranked her 13th in its list of the 100 most powerful women in the world.[8]

Miss Venezuela and other countries

Some delegates in the pageant have been able to use their training to achieve success in other national pageants. Natascha Börger became the first Venezuelan to switch countries, when she won the Miss Germany title in 2002 after placing 14th at Miss Venezuela 2000. She went on to place sixth at Miss Universe 2002 behind Miss Venezuela Cynthia Lander. Miss Trujillo 2005 Angelika Hernandez Dorendorf also ended 3rd finalist at Miss Germany 2007 and cancelled her participation at the Miss Intercontinental of that same year in order to continue her master's degree. In 2006, Francys Sudnicka, who placed in the top 10 representing Trujillo in Miss Venezuela 2003, won the Miss Poland Universe title. She represented Poland at Miss Universe 2006, and later represented Poland in Miss Earth 2006, taking a place in the Top 8. Three Venezuelans who have won the Miss Italia nel Mondo (Miss Italy in the World) pageant placed in the final five of Miss Venezuela: Barbara Clara (Miss Amazonas 2004), Valentina Patruno (Miss Miranda 2003) and Silvana Santaella (Miss Península de Paraguaná 2003). Patruno, though born Venezuelan, represented the United States.

Other countries such as Colombia, Philippines, and Brazil have sent their titleholders to be trained by Osmel Sousa and the Venezuela pageant organization. In 2003, Amelia Vega of the Dominican Republic received training from them before going on to win the Miss Universe pageant; Mariangel Ruiz, Miss Venezuela 2002 placed second behind her.

In recent years the pageant organization has begun to "import" expatriates who have been working as international models. Miami has produced Valentina Patruno (Miss World Venezuela 2003), Andrea Gómez (Miss International Venezuela 2004), Mónica Spear (Miss Venezuela 2004), Ileana Jiménez (Miss Portuguesa 2005), and María Alessandra Villegas (Miss Península de Paraguaná 2008).

Further notes of interest

Between 2000 and 2002, the Miss Venezuela pageant was split into two contests: the Miss World Venezuela pageant, to elect the representative to Miss World, from which a reduced group of contestants would go on to compete in Miss Venezuela to go to the Miss Universe contest. In 2002, the organization merged the Miss World Venezuela contest with the Gala de Belleza, making the final "state cut" before the election of the Miss World representative. The two pageants were rejoined in 2003.

The most coveted symbol of the pageant, its crown, is a specially designed masterpiece by engineer George Wittels. It is changed about every five years, and is currently a heavy piece made out of white gold, platinum, silver, Austrian crystals and pearls. Since 2000 Miss World Venezuela carries a crown inlaid with turquoise. Winners retain their sash but are not allowed to keep the costly crowns which are passed from year to year and held in the headquarters at La Quinta Miss Venezuela.

The great pride the organization carries in its winners is never in dispute, although there remains, according to popular legend, regret for only one "stolen" crown: Carolina Izsak, Miss Venezuela 1991, considered by some the greatest winner produced. She was considered all but assured the Miss Universe 1992 crown when a mediocre interview score dropped her out of the final three. Michelle McLean of Namibia won the title that year, but was only a finalist several months before at Miss World 1991 which was won by Venezuelan Ninibeth Leal, who had lost the Miss Venezuela 1991 title to Carolina.

Order of succession

There has been considerable controversy in a number of major national pageants as to how to direct their contestants to Miss Universe, Miss World, and the other international contests. The reason for this issue is the dispute between the international pageants, who generally desire that the winner of a national contest be sent. Although many nations such as Italy and Germany have completely separate pageants for Miss Universe and Miss World, in the case of Miss Venezuela the national pageant organization must field candidates to almost all of the major world contests.

As of 2003, when the current system was put into place, the winners of the Miss Venezuela title (who goes to Miss Universe) and Miss World Venezuela are equal in rank. Nevertheless, the representative to Miss Universe is still announced last, and she is still considered the holder of the one single Miss Venezuela title. Nowadays, the final five finalists are announced during the telecast, followed by the elimination of the second and first runners-up, then Miss Venezuela to Miss International, Miss Venezuela to Miss World, and Miss Venezuela to Miss Universe. Since 2010, yet another new system has been introduced, with the fifth-place finisher as the 1st. runner-up, fourth place being designated as a "representative" to Miss Earth, the third place as a "representative" to Miss International and two 'equal' crowned winners—Miss Venezuela World and Miss Venezuela Universe. While this system is similar to that of Mexico and India, in Mexico the first runner-up is known as the "substitute" and in the order of succession automatically fills into any title above her that is emptied. For example, if "Nuestra Belleza Mexico Mundo" (Miss Mexico to Miss World) is unable to fulfill her duties, the first runner-up assumes her title. While the Miss Universe representative is similarly considered the "greater of the two equals", if her position is vacated, the first runner-up ascends to her crown, instead of Miss Mexico-World becoming Miss Mexico-Universe and the first runner-up going to Miss World. In India, however, the succession does follow the other option: the top three titles go Earth->Universe->World in rising order of importance (although they are also emphasized as "equals").

In Venezuela, neither policy of succession is explicitly laid down. Osmel Sousa made the final decisions as to who is appointed when a vacancy arises; i.e. in 2003, there were significant rumors that Mariangel Ruiz might be replaced by Amara Barroeta, the first runner-up, to Miss Universe (and not Goizeder Azua, who was Miss World Venezuela). In fact, in 2003, the Miss International Pageant was concurrent with Miss Venezuela, meaning that it would be impossible to send a "fresh" contestant, and Osmel actually opted not to send Amara, who should have gone (as the first runner-up then was almost always automatically titled Miss Venezuela International) and instead replaced her with Goizeder Azua, who won Miss International 2003. Due to scheduling conflicts between Miss International and Miss Venezuela, a similar situation occurred in 2002 when Cynthia Lander, Miss Venezuela (Universe), gave up her crown to the next Miss Venezuela and immediately boarded a flight for Japan to participate in Miss International. The reasoning was that her first runner-up had already participated the year before, and it would have been ridiculous to crown a Miss Venezuela (International) and immediately send her on a plane to her contest with no specific preparation whatsoever. Incidentally in 2006 the Miss World pageant shifted its pageant date from its usual November–December timeframe to September when the organization announced Poland as the competition venue. Due to the change in dates; it resulted to a timing conflict with the Miss Venezuela pageant. The Miss Venezuela organization decided to hold a snap pageant called "Miss Venezuela Mundo" to elect a representative for Miss World 2006. The said competition was composed of former Miss Venezuela contestants from previous editions. At the end of the night Federica Guzman who represented the state of Miranda in 2001 was the winner. Thus, all four winners, Miss Earth Venezuela, Miss Venezuela International, Miss Venezuela World and Miss Venezuela Universe now compete in the year after their coronation.

Ironically, the only time in the "modern" pageant that the famous "if the winner should not fulfill her duties, the first runner-up will take over" statement was made for Miss Venezuela was in 1999. The decision was made to send whoever won to Miss World first, and then to Miss Universe if she did not win. This policy was adopted after the consecutive eliminations of Christina Dieckmann and Veronica Schneider in 1997 and 1998, both of whom were considered amongst the strongest Miss World Venezuelas in history and whose eliminations were seen by the organization as a signal that it needed to send its winner to Miss World. Therefore, in 1999, there were no Miss World Venezuela or Miss Venezuela International titles, only an official Miss Venezuela, who was Martina Thorogood. Her first runner-up, Norkys Batista, was told that she would become Miss Venezuela to Miss Universe only if Martina won the Miss World crown outright. Martina came in second at Miss World and she was expected continue on to Miss Universe 2000 the next year. However, due to a number of major controversies, she was barred from Miss Universe 2000 on the grounds that as the first runner-up to Miss World, she was contracted to the organization and would have to succeed to that title if Yukta Mookhey, the winner that year, did not complete her reign. Osmel also declared that Miss Universe demanded a winner from Venezuela, thereby barring Norkys Batista from succeeding to the title. The only option for Norkys to go was for Martina to renounce the Miss Venezuela title, which neither she or the organization was willing to do. Therefore, a new emergency (and temporary) pageant was held, called Miss Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, which was conducted among ten former contestants (some semi-finalists and other non-finalists) from the previous five years. The winner, Claudia Moreno, had placed as seventh in the semi-finals behind Martina and Norkys in Miss Venezuela 1999, and she ended up performing excellently and becoming first runner-up to Miss Universe 2000. In years to come, 2002's first runner-up Amara Barroeta would join Norkys Batista as one of several runners-ups to be "denied" the chance to compete at a "big three" pageant.

In the USA and many other countries, an occasion when the order of succession comes into play is when the reigning titleholder wins her international contest, e.g. in 1997 when Brook Mahealani Lee became Miss Universe and her first runner-up Brandi Sherwood became Miss USA. However, Venezuela does not have this official provision, even when the two "equal" winners both win Miss Universe and Miss World. In 1981, Miriam Quintana was considered somewhat unofficially as the serving Miss Venezuela, because both Irene Saez and Pilin Leon had won their respective pageants. However, in 1995–1996, when Alicia Machado took the Miss Universe title and Jacqueline Aguilera the Miss World crown, no new "Miss Venezuela" was appointed to hold the crown while they reigned internationally, though some newspapers said that Carla Steinkopf, Miss International Venezuela 1995, would give the crown to the 1996 winner. In general, all the times Venezuela has won the Miss Universe Pageant, it's Miss Universe herself who returns to crown the new Miss Venezuela, not Miss World Venezuela from the previous year or another finalist.

From 2013 and forward the Miss World delegate is no longer crowned at the Miss Venezuela final but is crowned in a separate Miss Venezuela World pageant, and competes in the same year of her coronation. In 2014, Maira Alexandra Rodriguez was crowned as Miss Earth Venezuela to compete in the 2015 edition, but due to the destitution of her predecessor, Stephanie de Zorzi, she was sent to Miss Earth 2014, in which she ended as Miss Water (2nd runner-up). So, from 2015, Miss Earth Venezuela will compete in the same year of her coronation.

In 2017 election, the announcing was made as it was years before: Top 5 consisting of 2nd and 1st runners-up, then Miss Venezuela International, Miss World Venezuela and Miss Venezuela Universe, all three competing in 2018. This avoids the rumours of major pageants not allowing contestants to participate if they weren't in their current reign year, and also confirming that the Miss Venezuela Organization keeps all three franchises until today.

Controversy

Objectification

Esther Pineda, a Venezuelan women's studies expert, stated that the popularity of Miss Venezuela and other pageants in Venezuela reveals how the country is "deeply sexist". Despite controversies facing Miss Venezuela, the Me Too movement has not carried any significance in Venezuela. According to Pineda, in Venezuela “[p]hysical beauty is seen as a value. ... And it’s given more importance than any other attribute".[1]

Sexual exploitation

Miss Venezuela contestants are often subject to prostitution and sexual exploitation. Young contestants are passed to powerful individuals in Venezuelan society for sexual favors. In a poverty-filled country, vulnerable women turn to wealthy individuals for funds. With participation often costing tens of thousands of United States dollars, these participants perform sexual favors for their wardrobe, cosmetic surgery, photo shoots and for sponsorships in order to "create the illusion of 'perfect' beauty" that is held in esteem in Venezuelan culture. Some contestants allegedly involved in such acts include Miss Venezuela 1989 participant Patricia Velásquez and Miss Venezuela 2006 runner-up Claudia Suárez.[2][9][10][11][12][13]

Titleholders

The following women have been crowned Miss Venezuela:[14]

Year Miss Venezuela Province Venue
1952 Sofía Silva Inserri Bolívar Valle Arriba Golf Club, Caracas
1953–54 Gisela Bolaños Scarton Carabobo Valle Arriba Golf Club, Caracas
1955 Carmen Susana Duijm Zubillaga Miranda Hotel Tamanaco, Caracas
1956 Blanca "Blanquita" Heredia Osío Distrito Federal Hotel Tamanaco, Caracas
1957 Consuelo Leticia Nouel Gómez Distrito Federal Hotel Tamanaco, Caracas
1958–59 Ida Margarita Pieri Sucre Hotel Ávila, Caracas
1960 Gladys "Laly" Ascanio Arredondo Distrito Federal Hotel Tamanaco, Caracas
1961 Anasaria "Ana" Griselda Vegas Albornoz Distrito Federal Hotel Tamanaco, Caracas
1962 Olga "Olguita" Antonetti Núñez Anzoátegui Teatro París, Caracas
1963 Irene Amelia Morales Machado Guárico Teatro París, Caracas
1964 Sonia Mercedes Revenga De La Rosa Miranda Teatro París, Caracas
1965 María Auxiliadora De Las Casas Mc. Gill Distrito Federal Teatro del Círculo Militar, Caracas
1966 Magaly Beatriz Castro Egui Guárico Teatro del Este, Caracas
1967 Mariela Pérez Branger Dep. Vargas Teatro de la Escuela Militar, Caracas
1968 Peggy Kopp Arenas Distrito Federal Teatro Altamira, Caracas
1969 María José de las Mercedes Yellici Sánchez (Resigned) Aragua Teatro París, Caracas
Marzia Rita Gisela Piazza Suprani Dep. Vargas
1970 Bella Teresa de Jesús La Rosa de la Rosa Carabobo Teatro Nacional de Venezuela, Caracas
1971 Jeanette Amelia de la Coromoto Donzella Sánchez Monagas Teatro Nacional de Venezuela, Caracas
1972 María Antonieta Cámpoli Prisco Nueva Esparta Teatro París, Caracas
1973 Ana Paola Desirée Facchinei Rolando Carabobo Club de Sub-Oficiales, Caracas
1974 Neyla Chiquinquirá Moronta Sangronis Zulia Club de Sub-Oficiales, Caracas
1975 Maritza Pineda Montoya Nueva Esparta Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
1976 Elluz Coromoto Peraza González (Resigned) Guárico Teatro París, Caracas
Judith Josefina Castillo Uribe Nueva Esparta
1977 Cristal del Mar Montañez Arocha Dep. Vargas Teatro París, Caracas
1978 Marisol Alfonzo Marcano Guárico Teatro del Club de Sub-Oficiales, Caracas
1979 Maritza Sayalero Fernández Dep. Vargas Hotel Caracas Hilton, Caracas
1980 María Xavier "Maye" Brandt Angulo Lara Hotel Macuto Sheraton, Caraballeda, Vargas
1981 Irene Lailín Sáez Conde Miranda Hotel Macuto Sheraton, Caraballeda, Vargas
1982 Ana Teresa Oropeza Villavicencio Guárico Hotel Macuto Sheraton, Caraballeda, Vargas
1983 Paola Laura Ruggeri Ghigo Portuguesa Hotel Macuto Sheraton, Caraballeda, Vargas
1984 Carmen María Montiel Ávila Zulia Hotel Macuto Sheraton, Caraballeda, Vargas
1985 Silvia Cristina Martínez Stapulionis Guárico Hotel Macuto Sheraton, Caraballeda, Vargas
1986 Bárbara Palacios Teyde Trujillo Teatro Municipal de Caracas, Caracas
1987 Inés María Calero Rodríguez Nueva Esparta Teatro Municipal de Caracas, Caracas
1988 Yajaira Cristina Vera Roldán Miranda Teatro Municipal de Caracas, Caracas
1989 Eva Lisa Larsdotter Ljung Lara Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
1990 Andreína Katarina Goetz Blohm Bolívar Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
1991 Carolina Eva Izsak Kemenify Amazonas Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
1992 Milka Yelisava Chulina Urbanich Aragua Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
1993 Minorka Marisela Mercado Carrero Apure Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex, Caracas
1994 Denyse del Carmen Floreano Camargo Costa Oriental Teresa Carreño Cultural Complex, Caracas
1995 Yoseph Alicia Machado Fajardo Yaracuy Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
1996 Marena Josefina Bencomo Giménez Carabobo Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
1997 Veruska Tatiana Ramírez Táchira Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
1998 Lucbel Carolina Indriago Pinto Delta Amacuro Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
1999 Martina Thorogood Heemsen Miranda Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
2000 Eva Mónica Anna Ekvall Johnson Apure Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
2001 Cynthia Cristina Lander Zamora Distrito Capital Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
2002 Mariángel Ruiz Torrealba Aragua Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
2003 Ana Karina Áñez Delgado Lara Estudio 1, Venevisión, Caracas
2004 Mónica Spear Mootz Guárico Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
2005 Jictzad Nakarhyt Viña Carreño Sucre Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
2006 Lidymar Carolina "Ly" Jonaitis Escalona Guárico Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
2007 Dayana Sabrina Mendoza Moncada Amazonas Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
2008 Stefanía Fernández Krupij Trujillo Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
2009 Marelisa Gibson Villegas Miranda Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
2010 Vanessa Andrea Gonçalves Gómez Miranda Palacios de Eventos, Maracaibo
2011 Irene Sofía Esser Quintero Sucre Estudio 1, Venevisión, Caracas
2012 María Gabriela de Jesús Isler Morales Guárico Salón Naiguatá, Hotel Tamanaco Intercontinental, Caracas
2013 Migbelis Lynette Castellanos Romero Costa Oriental Poliedro de Caracas, Caracas
2014 Mariana Coromoto Jiménez Martínez Guárico Estudio 1, Venevisión, Caracas
2015 Mariam Habach Santucci Lara Estudio 1, Venevisión, Caracas
2016 Keysi Mairin Sayago Arrechedera Monagas Estudio 1, Venevisión, Caracas
2017 Sthefany Yoharlis Gutiérrez Gutiérrez Delta Amacuro Estudio 5, Venevisión, Caracas
2018 Maryuris Isabel (Isabella) Rodríguez Guzmán Portuguesa Estudio 5, Venevisión, Caracas

Winners gallery

Representatives at Miss Universe, Miss World and Miss International

The following women have represented Venezuela in the Big Four international beauty pageants, the four major international beauty pageants for women.[15][16] These are Miss Universe, Miss World, Miss International and Miss Earth.[17][18][19]

Miss Universe Venezuela

Color key
  •      Declared as Winner
  •      Ended as Runner-up
  •      Ended as one of the Finalists or Semi-finalists
Year Miss Venezuela State/Region Placement Special Awards
1952 Sofía Silva Bolívar
1953 Gisela Bolaños Carabobo
1955 Carmen Susana Duijm Zubillaga Miranda Top 15
1956 Blanca Heredia Distrito Federal Top 15
1957 Consuelo Nouel Distrito Federal
1958 Ida Margarita Pieri Sucre
1960 Mary Quiroz Delgado† Yaracuy
1961 Ana Griselda Vegas Distrito Federal
1962 Virginia Elizabeth Bailey Lázzari Nueva Esparta
1963 Irene Amelia Morales Machado Guárico
1964 Mercedes Revenga Miranda Top 15
1965 María de las Casas Distrito Federal
1966 Magaly Castro Egui Guárico
1967 Mariela Pérez Branger Vargas 1st Runner-Up
1968 Peggy Kopp Arenas Distrito Federal 3rd Runner-Up
1969 María José Yéllici Aragua Top 15
1970 Bella La Rosa Carabobo Top 15
1971 Jeannette Donzella Monagas
1972 María Antonietta Cámpoli Prisco Nueva Esparta 2nd Runner-Up
1973 Desireé Rolando Carabobo
1974 Neyla Moronta Zulia
1975 Maritza Pineda Nueva Esparta
1976 Judith Castillo Uribe Nueva Esparta 1st Runner-Up Best National Costume (1st Runner-Up)
1977 Cristal Montañez Vargas Top 12 Best National Costume (1st Runner-Up)
1978 Marisol Alfonzo Guárico
1979 Maritza Sayalero Fernández Vargas Miss Universe 1979
1980 Maye Brandt Lara
1981 Irene Sáez Conde Miranda Miss Universe 1981 Best National Costume (1st Runner-Up)
1982 Ana Teresa Oropeza Guárico
1983 Paola Ruggeri Portuguesa Top 12
1984 Carmen María Montiel Zulia 2nd Runner-Up
1985 Silvia Martínez Guárico 3rd Runner-Up
1986 Bárbara Palacios Trujillo Miss Universe 1986
1987 Inés María Calero Nueva Esparta 3rd Runner-Up
1988 Yajaira Vera Miranda Top 10
1989 Eva Lisa Ljung Lara Top 10
1990 Andreína Goetz Bolívar Top 10
1991 Jackeline Rodríguez (elected by the organization) Miranda Top 6
1992 Carolina Izsak Amazonas Top 6
1993 Milka Chulina Aragua 2nd Runner-Up Miss Herbal Essences
1994 Minorka Mercado Apure 2nd Runner-Up Best in Swimsuit & Miss Photogenic
1995 Denyse Floreano Zulia Top 6
1996 Alicia Machado Yaracuy Miss Universe 1996 Best in Swimsuit & Best Style Finesse
1997 Marena Bencomo Carabobo 1st Runner-Up Best in Swimsuit
1998 Veruska Ramírez Táchira 1st Runner-Up Best in Swimsuit
1999 Carolina Indriago Delta Amacuro Top 5 Best National Costume (1st Runner-Up)
2000 Claudia Moreno Distrito Capital 1st Runner-Up
2001 Eva Ekvall Apure 3rd Runner-Up
2002 Cynthia Lander Zamora Distrito Capital 4th Runner-Up
2003 Mariangel Ruiz Aragua 1st Runner-up
2004 Ana Karina Áñez Lara
2005 Mónica Spear Guárico 4th Runner-Up
2006 Jictzad Viña Sucre
2007 Ly Jonaitis Guárico 2nd Runner-Up
2008 Dayana Mendoza Amazonas Miss Universe 2008
2009 Stefanía Fernández Trujillo Miss Universe 2009
2010 Marelisa Gibson Villegas Miranda
2011 Vanessa Gonçalves Gómez Miranda Top 16 Best National Costume (3rd Runner-Up)
2012 Irene Esser Quintero Sucre 2nd Runner-Up
2013 Gabriela Isler Morales Guárico Miss Universe 2013
2014 Migbelis Castellanos Romero Zulia Top 10
2015 Mariana Jiménez Martínez Guárico Top 10
2016 Mariam Habach Santucci Lara
2017 Keysi Sayago Arrechedera Monagas Top 5
2018 Sthefany Gutiérrez Gutiérrez Delta Amacuro TBA TBA

Miss World Venezuela

The Vice Miss Venezuela represents Venezuela in Miss World, although from 2013 to 2015 the Miss World delegate was crowned by the separate Miss Venezuela Mundo pageant.[citation needed]

Color key
  •      Declared as Winner
  •      Ended as Runner-up
  •      Ended as one of the Finalists or Semi-finalists
Year Miss Venezuela State/Region Placement Special Awards
1955 Carmen Susana Duijm Zubillaga Miranda Miss World 1955
1956 Celsa Drucila Pieri Pérez Sucre
1957 Consuelo Nouel Distrito Federal
1958 Ida Margarita Pieri Sucre
1960 Miriam Maritza Estévez Acevedo Distrito Federal Withdrew
1961 Bexi Cecilia Romero Tosta Distrito Federal
1962 Betzabé Franco Blanco Aragua Top 15
1963 Milagros Galíndez Castillo Miranda Top 15
1964 Mercedes Hernández Nieves Portuguesa Top 16
1965 Nancy Elizabeth González Aceituno Anzoátegui
1966 Jeannette Kopp Arenas Distrito Federal
1967 Irene Margarita Böttger González Bolívar
1968 María Dolores (Cherry) Núñez Rodríguez Miranda
1969 Marzia Piazza Nueva Esparta 4th Runner-Up
1970 Tomasa Nina (Tomasita) de las Casas Mata Miranda
1971 Ana María Padrón Ibarrondo Miranda Top 15
1972 Amalia del Carmen Heller Gómez Sucre
1973 Edicta de los Angeles García Oporto Zulia
1974 Alicia Rivas Serrano Vargas
1975 María Conchita Alonso Distrito Federal 6th Runner-Up Miss World America
1976 Maria Genoveva Rivero Giménez Lara Top 15
1977 Jacqueline van den Branden Distrito Federal
1978 Patricia Tóffoli Falcón Top 15
1979 Tatiana Capote Barinas Disqualified
1980 Hilda Abrahamz Vargas Top 15
1981 Pilin Leon Aragua Miss World 1981 Miss World America
1982 Michelle Shoda Falcón
1983 Carolina Cerruti Apure
1984 Astrid Carolina Herrera Miranda Miss World 1984 Miss World America & Miss Photogenic
1985 Ruddy Rodríguez Anzoátegui 3rd Runner-Up
1986 María Begoña Juaristi Zulia 4th Runner-Up
1987 Albany Lozada Portuguesa 1st Runner-Up Miss World America
1988 Emma Rabbe Ramírez Distrito Federal 3rd Runner-Up Miss World America
1989 Fabiola Candosin Distrito Federal Miss Photogenic
1990 Sharon Luengo Zulia 2nd Runner-Up Miss Photogenic
1991 Ninibeth Leal Zulia Miss World 1991 Miss World America
1992 Francis Gago Bolívar 2nd Runner-Up Miss World America
1993 Mónica Lei Scaccia Distrito Federal 4th Runner-Up Miss World America
1994 Irene Ferreira Miranda 2nd Runner-Up Miss World America & Best National Costume
1995 Jacqueline Aguilera Nueva Esparta Miss World 1995 Miss World America & Miss Photogenic
1996 Ana Cepinska Miszczak Nueva Esparta 4th Runner-Up Miss Photogenic
1997 Christina Dieckmann Nueva Esparta
1998 Veronica Schneider Monagas
1999 Martina Thorogood Miranda 1st Runner-Up Miss World America
2000 Vanessa Cárdenas Zulia
2001 Andreína Prieto Zulia
2002 Goizeder Azua Carabobo Top 10 Miss Photogenic
2003 Valentina Patruno Miranda Top 20 Miss World Talent (Top 20)
2004 Andrea Milroy Trujillo Miss World Beach Beauty (Top 20)
2005 Susan Carrizo Zulia
2006 Federica Guzmán Miranda Top 17 Miss World Beach Beauty, Best World Dress Designer (Top 20)
2007 Claudia Suárez Mérida Top 16 Miss World Beach Beauty (Top 20), Miss World Top Model (Top 10)
2008 Hannelly Quintero Cojedes Top 15 Miss World America, Miss World Beach Beauty (Top 10), Miss World Top Model (Top 10)
2009 María Milagros Véliz Anzoátegui Miss World Sports (Top 6)
2010 Adriana Vasini Zulia 2nd Runner-Up Miss World Top Model (Top 20), Miss World Talent (Top 11)
2011 Ivian Sarcos Amazonas Miss World 2011 Miss World America, Miss World Beach Beauty (Top 20), Miss World Top Model (Top 20), Miss World Talent (Top 20), Miss World Sports (Top 6)
2012 Gabriella Ferrari Distrito Capital Miss World Top Model (Top 46)
2013 Karen Soto Zulia Miss World Beach Beauty (Top 33), Dances Of The World (Top 11)
2014 Debora Menicucci Amazonas
2015 Anyela Galante Portuguesa Miss World People's Choice Award (Top 10), Miss World Top Model (Top 30)
2016 Diana Croce Nueva Esparta Miss World Top Model (Top 30)
2017 Ana Carolina Ugarte Monagas Top 40 Miss World Top Model (Top 30), Miss World People's Choice Award (Top 10), Miss World Multimedia (Top 10), Winner - Head to Head Challenge
2018 Veruska Ljubisavljević Vargas Top 30 Winner - Head to Head Challenge (Round 1 and 2), Miss World Multimedia (Top 10)
2019 Isabella Rodríguez Portuguesa TBA

Miss World Venezuela gallery

Miss International Venezuela

Color key
  •      Declared as Winner
  •      Ended as Runner-up
  •      Ended as one of the Finalists or Semi-finalists
Year Miss Venezuela State/Region Placement Special Awards
1960 Gladys Ascanio Arredondo Distrito Federal Top 15
1961 Gloria Lilué Chaljub Distrito Federal
1962 Olga Antonetti Nuñez Anzoátegui Top 15
1963 Norah Luisa Duarte Rojas Carabobo
1964 Lisla Vilia Silva Negrón Zulia Top 15
1965 Thamara Josefina Leal Zulia
1967 Cecilia Picón-Febres Mérida
1968 Jovann Navas Ravelo Aragua
1969 Cristina Mercedes Keusch Pérez Miranda Top 15
1970 Marzia Rita Gisela Piazza Suprani Nueva Esparta
1971 Sonia Zaya Ledezma Corvo Monagas
1972 Marilyn Plessmann Martínez Guárico Top 15
1973 Hilda Elvira Carrero García Táchira Top 15
1974 Marisela Carderera Marturet Distrito Federal
1975 María del Carmen Yamel Díaz Rodríguez† Carabobo
1976 Betzabeth Ayala Miranda Top 15
1977 Betty Paredes Lara
1978 Dora Maria Fueyo Moreno Anzoátegui
1979 Nilza Josefina Moronta Sangronis Zulia
1980 Graciela Lucía Rosanna La Rosa Guarneri Amazonas Top 10
1981 Miriam Quintana Distrito Federal Top 15
1982 Amaury Martínez Macero Amazonas
1983 Donnatella Bottone Tiranti Miranda
1984 Miriam Leyderman Eppel Nueva Esparta 1st Runner-Up
1985 Alejandrina "Nina" Sicilia Hernandez Monagas Miss International 1985
1986 Nancy Josefina Gallardo Quiñones Portuguesa Top 15 Best National Costume
1987 Begoña Victoria García Varas Municipio Libertador Top 15 Best National Costume
1988 María Eugenia Duarte Lugo Peninsula Goajira
1989 Beatriz Carolina Omaña Trujillo Nueva Esparta 2nd Runner-Up
1990 Vanessa Cristina Holler Noel Portuguesa Top 15
1991 Niurka Auristela Acevedo Monagas
1992 María Eugenia Rodríguez Noguera Portuguesa Top 15
1993 Rina Faviola Mónica Spitale Baiamonte Yaracuy Top 15
1994 Milka Yelisava Chulina Urbanich Aragua Top 15
1995 Ana Maria Amorer Guerrero Apure 1st Runner-Up
1996 Carla Andreína Steinkopf Struve Zulia Top 15
1997 Consuelo Adler Hernández Miranda Miss International 1997 Miss Photogenic
1998 Daniela Kosán Montcourt Aragua 1st Runner-Up Miss Photogenic
1999 Andreína Mercedes Llamozas González Vargas Top 15
2000 Vivian Ines Urdaneta Rincón Zulia Miss International 2000
2001 Aura Consuelo Zambrano Alejos Táchira 1st Runner-Up
2002 Cynthia Cristina Lander Zamora Distrito Capital
2003 Goizeder Victoria Azua Barrios Carabobo Miss International 2003 Miss Photogenic
2004 Eleidy María Aparicio Serrano Zulia
2005 María Andrea Gómez Vásquez Distrito Capital Top 12 Miss Photogenic
2006 Daniela Anette di Giacomo di Giovanni Barinas Miss International 2006
2007 Vanessa Jacqueline Gómez Peretti Sucre Top 15
2008 Dayana Carolina Colmenares Bocchieri Carabobo Top 12
2009 Laksmi Rodríguez de la Sierra Solórzano Monagas Top 15
2010 Ana Elizabeth Mosquera Gómez Trujillo Miss International 2010
2011 Jessica Cristina Barboza Schmidt Distrito Capital 1st Runner-Up Miss Photogenic
2012 Blanca Cristina Aljibes Gallardo Guárico Top 15
2013 Nicelín Elián Herrera Vásquez Aragua
2014 Michelle Marie Bertolini Araque Guárico
2015 Edymar Martínez Blanco Anzoátegui Miss International 2015 Miss Perfect Body
2016 Jessica María Duarte Volweider Trujillo
2017 Diana Macarena Croce García Nueva Esparta 2nd Runner-Up
2018 Mariem Claret Velazco García Barinas Miss International 2018

Former titles

Miss Earth Venezuela

Since its establishment in 2001 Miss Earth Venezuela is chosen by another organization, called Sambil Model Organization. From 2010 to 2015 Miss Earth Venezuela was chosen by the beauty czar Osmel Sousa. Because Miss Venezuela Organization is not related to Sambil Model Organization or Miss Earth Venezuela Organization, here are Venezuela's Miss Earth representatives only sent by the Miss Venezuela Organization:

Color key
  •      Declared as Winner
  •      Ended as Runner-up
  •      Ended as one of the Finalists or Semi-finalists
Year Miss Venezuela State/Region Placement Special Awards
2001 Lirigmel Gabriela Ramos Salazar Distrito Capital
2002 Dagmar Catalina Votterl Peláez Distrito Capital
2003 Driva Ysabella Cedeño Salazar Nueva Esparta
2004 No contest
2005 Alexandra Braun Waldeck Nueva Esparta Miss Earth 2005 Best in Swimsuit
2006 Marianne Pasqualina Puglia Martinez Aragua 3rd Runner-Up/Miss Earth Fire Best in Swimsuit
2007 Silvana Santaella Arellano Península de Paraguaná 2nd Runner-Up/Miss Earth Water Best in Swimsuit
Best in Evening Gown
2008 María Daniela Torrealba Pacheco Trujillo Top 8 Best in Evening Gown
2009 Jessica Cristina Barboza Schmidt Distrito Capital 2nd Runner-Up/Miss Earth Water
2010 Mariángela Haydée Manuela Bonanni Randazzo Táchira Top 8
2011 Caroline Gabriela Medina Peschiutta Aragua 3rd Runner-Up/Miss Earth Fire
2012 Osmariel Maholi Villalobos Atencio Yaracuy 2nd Runner-Up/Miss Earth Water Miss Photogenic
Best in Resort Wear
2nd, silver medalist(s) Best in Swimsuit
2013 Alyz Sabimar Henrich Ocando Falcón Miss Earth 2013 Best in Evening Gown
Best in Resort Wear
Miss Earth Golden Sunset
Miss Ever Bilena
Miss Hannah's Beach Resort
3rd, bronze medalist(s) Most Child Friendly
2014 Maira Alexandra Rodríguez Herrera Amazonas 2nd Runner-Up/Miss Earth Water 2nd, silver medalist(s) Darling of the Press
2nd, silver medalist(s) Cocktail Wear
2nd, silver medalist(s) Best in Evening Gown
2015 Andrea Carolina Rosales Castillejos Amazonas Top 8 3rd, bronze medalist(s) Best National Costume

Gallery of Miss Earth Venezuela

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "In beleaguered Venezuela, young women use beauty pageants to escape poverty". NBC News. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  2. ^ a b "Patricia Velásquez confiesa que se prostituyó para ingresar al Miss Venezuela". Diario La Prensa (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  3. ^ Laya, Patricia (21 March 2018). "Cisneros Suspends Miss Venezuela Pageant After Corruption Scandal". Bloomberg.
  4. ^ "Suspenden Miss Venezuela 2018 por orden de tribunal". El Universal (in Spanish). 2018-08-18. Retrieved 2018-08-19.
  5. ^ Prestigious Beauty Pageants (7 February 2014). "Miss Venezuela Universe 2014 is Migbelis Castellanos". Prestigious Beauty Pageants. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  6. ^ "Arrancó el Miss Venezuela 2005". El Mundo. Archived from the original on 8 August 2005. Retrieved 2005-07-30.
  7. ^ "Venezuela: País donde las mujeres nacen y se hacen las más bellas". Nueva Prensa Guayana. Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2008.
  8. ^ Jones (2008:208)
  9. ^ "¿Cuánto vale una Miss Venezuela?". Climax. 2015-10-14. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  10. ^ Lozano, Daniel (15 March 2018). "Miss Venezuela, envuelto en una trama de prostitución que involucra al chavismo". La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  11. ^ Mozo, Ana Carolina Griffin, Reynaldo (12 November 2017). "Miss Venezuela Pageant: Saints and Beauty Make Toxic Mix". Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  12. ^ [www.bloomberg.com]
  13. ^ [www.bbc.com]
  14. ^ "They Have Been Miss Venezuela". Retrieved 2008-07-20.[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ Jun, Kwanwoo (2003-12-03). "Lost in Storm's Debris: A Beauty Pageant". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
  16. ^ Kenya, News (2011-07-15). "Beauty with scandals". Standard Digital News. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
  17. ^ Vietnam, News (2008-10-08). "Những scandal của Miss World". Vietnam Express. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
  18. ^ Ibrahim, Lynda (2013-09-13). "The misses and missuses of the world". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
  19. ^ Lowe, Aya (2016-01-25). "Philippines' Miss Universe returns home, ignites dreams". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 2016-01-25.

External links