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Mirjana Marković

Mirjana Marković
Mirjana Marković.webp
Marković in 1989
First Lady of Yugoslavia
In office
23 July 1997 – 7 October 2000
Preceded byLjubica Brković Lilić
Succeeded byZorica Radović
Personal details
Born(1942-07-10)10 July 1942
Požarevac, German-occupied Serbia
Died14 April 2019(2019-04-14) (aged 76)
Moscow, Russia
Resting placePožarevac, Serbia
Political partyLeague of Communists – Movement for Yugoslavia (1990–1994)
Yugoslav Left (1994–2003)
Spouse(s)
Slobodan Milošević
(m. 1965; d. 2006)
ChildrenMarko and Marija Milošević
ParentsMoma Marković (father)
Vera Miletić (mother)
OccupationProfessor of Sociology
EmployerUniversity of Belgrade
Criminal chargeAbuse of Office by Incitement
Criminal statusFugitive; Died during trial in absentia

Mirjana "Mira" Marković (Serbian Cyrillic: Мирјана Мира Марковић, pronounced [mǐrjana mǐːra mǎːrkɔʋit͡ɕ]; 10 July 1942 – 14 April 2019) was a Serbian politician, academic and the wife of Yugoslav and Serbian president Slobodan Milošević.[1]

She was the leader of the Yugoslav United Left (JUL) which governed in coalition with Milošević's Socialist Party of Serbia in the aftermath of the Bosnian War. She was reported to have huge influence over her husband and was increasingly seen as the power behind the throne.[1][2] Among her opponents, she was known as The Red Witch and the Lady Macbeth of Belgrade.[3]

Marković was accused of abuse of office, inciting several associates to allocate a state-owned apartment for her grandson’s nanny in September 2000. She was indicted in December 2002 and fled Belgrade on 23 February 2003. In June 2018, she was declared guilty in absentia by a court in Belgrade, and sentenced to a year's imprisonment,[4] but the verdict was overturned on appeal in March 2019.[5]

Marković lived under political asylum in Russia from February 2003 until her death on 14 April 2019 in Moscow.

Life

Early life

Marković was the daughter of Moma Marković and Vera Miletić, who were both fighting for the Yugoslav Partisans at the time of her birth. Her aunt was Davorjanka Paunović, private secretary and alleged mistress of Josip Broz Tito. Her mother Vera was captured by German troops and allegedly released sensitive information, under torture.[6] She was then executed in the Banjica concentration camp by the Nazis.

Marković met Slobodan Milošević when they were in high school together. They married in 1965.[3] The couple had two children, son Marko and daughter Marija, who founded TV Košava in 1998 and was its owner until 5 October 2000.

Education and career

Marković held a Ph.D. in Sociology and taught the subject at the University of Belgrade. Later, she became an honorary member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

She was considered to be the only person her husband trusted, her influence being considered a source for the increase in Milošević strong anti-western rhetoric and actions. "She invented him", Milošević biographer Slavoljub Djukic told the Ottawa Citizen in 1998. "There has never been such a powerful woman in the history of Serbia as Mirjana Markovic. And she has been fatal for Serbia."[7] As the leader of her own political party, Yugoslav United Left she held some political influence.[2] Marković was largely responsible for erecting the Eternal Flame monument, shortly before the overthrow of Slobodan Milošević in 2000.[8] She was believed, though not formally accused, of being involved in the murders of her husband's political rivals including the Serbian politician Ivan Stambolić, Milošević's former mentor, in 2000, and the journalist Slavko Ćuruvija the previous year.[7][3] "Milosevic has never had any political ideas of his own", Stambolić said in 2000. "They’ve all been hers."[7] She wrote a political column in the weekly Serbian magazine Duga during the sequence of wars in the 1990s. Observers read it for any coded messages. In the old Yugoslavia, she once wrote "Serbs, Muslims and Croats were able to live side by side", though her husband and his associates presided over its destruction.[9]

Marković was the author of many books, which were translated and sold in Canada, Russia, China and India.[10]

Political views

Marković's political views tended to be hard-line Communist. Although she often claimed that she agreed with her husband on everything, Milošević seems to have had fewer authoritarian tendencies than Marković.[11] She claimed also to be a feminist.[12]

Marković reportedly had little respect for the Bosnian Serb leaders. Vojislav Šešelj appeared before a court on 18 June 1994 to face charges of breaking microphone cables in Parliament. He read a statement, saying, "Mr. Judge, all I can say in my defense is that Milošević is Serbia's biggest criminal." Marković replied by calling Šešelj a "primitive Turk who is afraid to fight like a man, and instead sits around insulting other people's wives."[13] Radovan Karadžić was apparently unable to telephone Milošević because Marković would not tolerate his calls.

Commenting on her husband's arrest to face war crimes charges, Marković stated:

Neither East nor West has betrayed him. The only person that can betray him is me. But people have short memories and you have to remind everyone of everything. In the early 1990s, my husband was accused by many circles, in Yugoslavia and abroad, that he had wanted to keep Yugoslavia alive, even though it was falling apart and the Croats and the Slovenes wanted to leave. That was his big sin. "Crazy Serbs and Crazy Slobo," they said, they want Yugoslavia. Now, in The Hague, they say he broke up Yugoslavia. Let them make up their minds.[14]

Asylum in Russia and death

Pursued by legal authorities, Marković settled in Russia in 2003.[3] The authorities of Serbia issued an arrest warrant for her on fraud charges which was circulated via Interpol, but the Russian authorities refused to arrest her.

In March 2012, a collection of her columns for Pravda from 2007 to 2008, as well as for online portal Sloboda from 2010 to 2011, titled Destierrada e imperdida was published in Belgrade by Treći milenijum, a publishing house owned by Hadži Dragan Antić.[15][16]

After the 2012 elections, a government minister, Milutin Mrkonjić of the Socialist Party (which he co-founded with Milošević) said that Marković and her son were welcome to return.[17] In June 2018, Marković was found guilty in absentia of real estate fraud charges, and sentenced to a year in prison.[4] The Serbian Appeals Court in March 2019 rejected her conviction, finding it unsound, and ordered a new trial.[5]

Marković underwent several operations, and died in Moscow on 14 April 2019.[9] Her body was cremated and interred in Požarevac alongside her husband on 20 April 2019.[18]

Books

  • Night and Day: A Diary - Dragisa Nikolic, December 1995 - 978-8682005223
  • Night & Day: A Diary - Quarry Press, May 1997 - 978-1550821680
  • Answer - Quarry Press, March 1997 - 978-1550821697

References

  1. ^ a b Prentice, Eve-Ann (15 April 2019). "Mira Marković obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Mira Markovic: Power behind Milosevic". BBC. 13 January 2001. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d Roberts, Sam. "Mirjana Markovic, the 'Lady Macbeth' of War-Torn Serbia, Dies at 76". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  4. ^ a b "Serbian court sentences Milosevic's wife for real estate fraud - report". Reuters. 27 June 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  5. ^ a b "Serbia appeals court overturns verdict for Milosevic's widow". MSN. Associated Press. 26 March 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  6. ^ Dai Richards (Series Producer/Director) (January 2003). The Fall of Milosevic (Documentary). BBC TWO.
  7. ^ a b c Schudel, Matt (20 April 2019). "Mirjana Markovic, wife and political adviser to Serbia's Slobodan Milosevic, dies at 76". -The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  8. ^ Mučibabić, Daliborka (13 July 2010). ""Večna vatra" – paljenje ili rušenje". Politika (in Serbian). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  9. ^ a b Lebor, Adam (18 April 2019). "Mirjana Markovic, Serbian politician, 1942-2019". Financial Times. Retrieved 22 April 2019. Some sources have said she died in Sochi.
  10. ^ "Yugoslav Left". Free Serbia. 10 December 1999. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  11. ^ LeBor 2002, pp. 183-5.
  12. ^ LeBor 2002, pp. 114-6.
  13. ^ Djukić 2001, p. 93.
  14. ^ Harden, Blaine (20 January 2002). "The Unrepentant". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 28 March 2019.[failed verification]
  15. ^ "Mirina knjiga okupila drugove" (in Serbian). B92. 20 March 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  16. ^ "Nova knjiga Mirjane Marković" (in Serbian). RTS. 21 March 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  17. ^ "Official: Milosevic family welcome back in Serbia". Associated Press. 19 September 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  18. ^ Politika (21 April 2019). "Opelo pod lipom" (in Serbian). Retrieved 5 July 2019.

Sources

External links

Quotations related to Mirjana Marković at Wikiquote