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Minangkabau language

Minangkabau
Baso Minangkabau
باسو مينڠكاباو
Native toIndonesia (West Sumatra)
RegionWest Sumatra, Riau, Jambi, Bengkulu, North Sumatra, Aceh (Indonesia), Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia)
EthnicityMinangkabau
Native speakers
5.5 million in Indonesia (2007)[1]
901,000 Malaysia (2016)[citation needed]
Dialects
Latin (Malay alphabet)
Arabic script (Jawi alphabet)
Official status
Official language in
West Sumatra (West Sumatra)
Negeri Sembilan (Negeri Sembilan)
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byBadan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa
Language codes
ISO 639-2min
ISO 639-3Either:
min – Minangkabau
zmi – Negeri Sembilan Malay
Glottologmina1268  Minangkabau[2]
nege1240  Negeri Sembilan Malay[3]
Sumatra Ethnic Groups Map en.svg
Map of Minangkabau language in Sumatra is shown by light and dark olive

Minangkabau (Minangkabau: Baso Minang(kabau); Indonesian: Bahasa Minangkabau) is an Austronesian language spoken by the Minangkabau of West Sumatra, the western part of Riau, South Aceh Regency, the northern part of Bengkulu and Jambi, also in several cities throughout Indonesia by migrated Minangkabau.[4] The language is also a lingua franca along the western coastal region of the province of North Sumatra, and is even used in parts of Aceh, where the language is called Aneuk Jamee. It is also spoken in some parts of Malaysia, especially Negeri Sembilan.

Due to the huge proximity between the Minangkabau language and Malay, there is some controversy regarding the relationship between the two. Some see Minangkabau as a nonstandardized dialect of Malay, while others think of Minangkabau as a distinct (Malay) language.

Minangkabau language in Arabic script on Minangkabau royal seal from the 19th century

Geographic distribution

Outside Indonesia

Besides Indonesia, Minangkabau is also spoken in Malaysia, by some descendants of migrants from the Minang-speaking region in Sumatra (Ranah Minang, Tanah Minang, or Land of the Minang). Significant numbers of the early migrants settled in what is now the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan; this Negeri Sembilan Malay is known as Bahaso Nogori / Baso Nogoghi. More recent immigrants are known as Minang.

Subdialects

The Minangkabau language has several dialects, sometimes differing between nearby villages (e.g. separated by a river). The dialects are Rao Mapat Tunggul, Muaro Sungai Lolo, Payakumbuh, Pangkalan-Lubuk Alai, Agam-Tanah Datar, Pancungsoal, Kotobaru, Sungai Bendung Air, and Karanganyar.[5] In everyday communication between Minangkabau people of different regions, the Agam-Tanah Datar dialect (Baso Padang or Baso Urang Awak "our [people's] language") is often used and has become a kind of standard.

The Tapan language, spoken in the town of Tapan in southern West Sumatra province, is a recently discovered Malayan language which has been proposed as related to but not part of Minangkabau. Together, Tapan and Minangkabau would form a Greater Minangkabau subgroup.[6] The two languages Tapan and Muko-Muko form a Lunangic subgroup within the Minangic (Greater Minangkabau) language group.[6][7]

The Minangic subgroup is characterized by the following word-final sound changes.[7]

  • *V[hi]ŋ > V[hi]ăŋ
  • *us > uĭh
  • *at > eʔ
  • *as > eh
  • *is > ih

Phonology

The sound inventory of Minangkabau is listed below[8]:

Consonants
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless p [p] t [t] k [k] ' [ʔ]
voiced b [b] d [d] g [ɡ]
Fricative s [s] h [h]
Affricate voiceless c [tʃ]
voiced j [dʒ]
Nasal m [m] n [n] ny [ɲ] ng [ŋ]
Lateral l [l]
Rhotic r [r]
Approximant w [w] y [j]
Vowels
Front Central Back
Close i [i] u [u]
Mid e [e] o [o]
Open a [a]

Diphthongs: [iə̯], [uə̯], [ui̯], [ai̯], [au̯].

Example

Sentences

English Minangkabau Malay
(both Indonesian and Malaysian)
How are you now? Ba'a kaba sanak kini? Bagaimana k(h)abar anda sekarang?
I'm well. How about you? Lai elok-elok se nyo. Sanak ba'a? Saya baik-baik sa(ha)ja. Anda bagaimana?
What is your name? Sia namo sanak? Siapa nama kamu?
My name is ... Namo ambo ... Nama saya ...
Thank you. Tarimo kasih. Terima kasih.
The trees in the jungle don't have the same height, moreover the people. (Proverb) Sadang kayu di rimbo 'ndak samo tinggi, apo lai manusia. (Pribaso) Sedang pohon di hutan tidak sama tinggi, apalagi manusia. (Peribahasa)
"As the frog swims, so he/she swims too." (He/she is doing something without having a goal.) "Co a koncek baranang co itu inyo" ba'arti mangarajokan suatu tapi indak punyo tujuan. "Bagaimana katak berenang seperti itulah dia" berarti mengerjakan sesuatu tanpa punya tujuan.
Don't throw the rubbish here! (Command) Indak buliah mambuang sarok di siko! (Parintah) Dilarang membuang sampah di sini! (Perintah)
Do not touch! You will burn your hand. Ijan dipacik! Beko tangan angku tabaka. Jangan disentuh! Nanti tanganmu terbakar.

Numerals

Number Minangkabau Malay
(both Indonesian and Malaysian)
English
1 cie' satu one
2 duo dua two
3 tigo tiga three
4 ampe' empat four
5 limo lima five
6 anam enam six
7 tujuah tujuh seven
8 lapan (de)lapan eight
9 sambilan sembilan nine
10 sapuluah sepuluh ten
11 sabaleh sebelas eleven
15 limo baleh lima belas fifteen
50 limo puluah lima puluh fifty
100 saratuih seratus one hundred/a hundred
150 saratuih limo puluah seratus lima puluh one hundred and fifty
500 limo ratuih lima ratus five hundred
#,000 ribu ribu thousand
#,000,000 juta juta million
#,000,000,000 millia milliar/bilion billion

See also

References

  1. ^ Minangkabau at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Negeri Sembilan Malay at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Minangkabau". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Negeri Sembilan Malay". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Kajian Serba Linguistik : Untuk Anton Moeliono Pereksa Bahasa (2000)
  5. ^ Nadra, Reniwati, and Efri Yades, Daerah Asal dan Arah Migrasi Orang Minangkabau di Provinsi Jambi Berdasarkan Kajian Variasi Dialektikal (2008)
  6. ^ a b Kurniati, S., Putri, Y. P., Wichmann, S., & Gil, D. (2011). Tapan: An Exploration in Malayic Subgrouping. Paper presented at the 15th International Symposium on Malay Indonesian Linguistics (ISMIL 15).
  7. ^ a b Gil, D. & McKinnon, T. (2015). Excrescent Nasals in Malayic Dialects of Western Sumatra. Paper presented at the 13th International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics (13-ICAL).
  8. ^ Adelaar, K. Alexander (1992). Proto-Malayic: The Reconstruction of its Phonology and Parts of its Lexicon and Morphology. Pacific Linguistics, Series C, no. 119. Canberra: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, the Australian National University.

Further reading

  • Nurlela Adnan, Ermitati, Rosnida M. Nur, Pusat Bahasa (Indonesia), Balai Pustaka (Persero), PT. 2001 - Indonesian-Minangkabau dictionary (Kamus bahasa Indonesia-Minangkabau), 841 pages.
  • Marjusman Maksan, Yulina Kasim, Tamsin Medan, Syamsir Arifin, Basri, A. Razak Sikumbang, 1984, Geografi Dialek Bahasa Minangbakau, Jakarta, Pusat Pembinaan Dan Pengembangan Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan Dan Kebudayaan, 1984.
  • Tata Bahasa Minangkabau, Gerard Moussay (original title La Langue Minangkabau, translated from French by Rahayu S. Hidayat), ISBN 979-9023-16-5.

External links