With the desegregation of the U.S. military in 1948, segregated Asian American units ceased to exist, and Asian Americans served in integrated armed forces. Asian American combatants in the Korean and Vietnam conflicts were awarded the Medal of Honor, and Asian Americans have continued to serve into the present day.
Edward Day Cohota was born in Shanghai, China, and was "adopted" by the captain of the merchant ship Cohota, Sargent S. Day. He served in the 23rd Massachusetts Infantry during the American Civil War. After the war, he rejoined the Army and served for 30 years. Cohota believed he was a U.S. citizen by virtue of having served in the Union Army, but his service had not automatically conferred citizenship upon him, and the passing of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 kept him from becoming a naturalized citizen.
William Ah Hang, a Chinese American, became one of the first Asian Americans to enlist in the U.S. Navy in 1863. In total more than 50 Chinese Americans fought, on both sides, in the Civil War. Of those who served, only a handful received recognition of their service in the form of pension, benefits, or citizenship. An exception was Ching Lee, who took the alias Thomas Sylvanus and served in the 81st Pennsylvania Regiment.
During the Civil War, the Bunker family, of Mount Airy, North Carolina, were supporters of the Confederacy, to include giving medical aid to Confederate Soldiers. Christopher Wren Bunker and his brother Stephen Bunker, were the eldest sons of Chang and Eng Bunker, the original "Siamese Twins", whose fathers who were of Chinese ancestry from Siam and married white women joined different Confederate cavalry units. In 1864, Christopher Wren Bunker was captured, and was sent to Camp Chase.
Anthony F. Gomez, who was born in Lahore in 1837 as Conjee Rustumjee Cohoujee Bey to an aristocratic Parsi family, joined the United States Navy in 1863 after settling in Brooklyn, New York and converting to Christianity, serving during the Civil War. After the Civil War, he moved to San Francisco in 1867, married a local woman, and worked for the Navy until his death in 1911 from pneumonia.
19th-century Asian American military academy graduates
In the late 1860s, Asian Americans were accepted into the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis. Matsumura Junzo was the first to graduate in 1873. Matsumura was a foreign national, and like the other Asian graduates who then attended and went on to serve their own nations' militaries, he served in the Imperial Japanese Navy, eventually reaching the rank of captain. Nearly forty years passed before the first Asian American US nationals followed in the footsteps of those foreign nationals and were accepted into the various US military academies.
Another lull in recordings of Asian American service followed the end of the Civil War until the Spanish–American War. When the USS Maine sank in Havana Harbor, seven of the casualties were Japanese Americans and one was a Chinese American. Later in the war it was recorded that Japanese Americans served aboard U.S. warships in the Battle of Manila Bay; the Philippine–American War, previously known as the Philippine Insurrection, followed.
Vicente Lim was one of the first Asian Americans to graduate. A Filipino American and US noncitizen national from the Philippines, Lim graduated from West Point in the class of 1914 and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Philippine Scouts. He was the first of a handful of Filipinos accepted into West Point under a quota system that required one Filipino to be appointed in each class, with no more than four being enrolled at any one time.
In 1916, Filipinos Americans began to be accepted into Annapolis; the first batch would enroll in 1919. The graduates lost their status as US nationals in 1935, and many went on to serve in the fledgling Armed Forces of the Philippines.
In the early 20th century, while the rest of the world was engulfed in the depths of World War I, the U.S. was looking to its south. Mexico had been embroiled in a civil war since 1910, and in 1916 the violence spilt north over the border when Pancho Villaraided Columbus, New Mexico, killing 16 Americans. This culminated with a U.S. response, officially known as the Mexican Expedition, led by Major General John Pershing. A large number Chinese Mexicans assisted U.S. forces in Mexico during the expedition and upon its completion in early 1917, they were threatened with hanging by Villa. Despite the provisions of the Chinese Exclusion Act, Pershing sought permission for these people to be allowed to resettle in the U.S. A total of 527 eventually entered the country, settling mostly in San Antonio, and they later became known as "Pershing's Chinese".
During the interwar period U.S. forces were involved in several minor actions, including the Russian Civil War and multiple events in the Caribbean that have since become known as the Banana Wars; also, the Yangtze Patrol was directly and indirectly affected by the Second Sino-Japanese War and other events. Between 1918 and 1933, at least 3,900 Filipino Americans served in the U.S. Navy at any given time as mess stewards, having largely replaced African Americans in that rating. Up to World War I, Filipino sailors were able to serve in a range of occupations in the U.S. Navy; however, after World War I, a rule restricted Filipinos to the ratings of officer's steward and mess attendant. These restrictions did not extend to the Insular Force, which was limited to 500 individuals from Guam or the Philippines.
In 1934, Gordon Pai'ea Chung-Hoon became the first Asian American U.S. citizen to graduate from the Naval Academy, and the first Asian American West Point graduate, Wing Fook Jung, graduated in 1940. In 1940, Japanese Americans were the largest ethnicity of Asian Americans, followed by (in order of population) Chinese Americans, Filipino Americans, Hindu Americans, and Korean Americans.
In September 1939, war broke out in Europe following the German invasion of Poland. The U.S. officially remained neutral, but Americans became involved in combat while serving in other countries' militaries in units such as the Flying Tigers in China and the Eagle Squadrons that served with the Royal Air Force shortly after the Battle of Britain; U.S. forces also provided logistic support through the cash and carry program, and by undertaking convoy escort duties in the Atlantic. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the U.S. officially declared war, and from that point on Asian Americans were on the front lines as U.S. civilians. Asian Americans from Oahu, including Japanese Americans, assisted with aid efforts following the attack. On the other side of the Pacific Ocean, Philippine Commonwealth forces, under U.S. command since July 1941, prepared for an attack that would come nine hours later.
Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese Americans in the Hawaii National Guard activated and began to guard the beaches, clear rubble, donate blood and aid the wounded but three days later, they were disarmed because of their ancestry. The next day, however, they were authorized to rearm, but an uneasy tension lasted until 5 June 1942. At the same time, Japanese Americans who had been undertaking the ROTC program at the University of Hawaii, and who had been activated in the Hawaii Territorial Guard, were discharged on 19 January 1942. Many of these discharged soldiers formed a Corps of Engineers auxiliary, known as the "Varsity Victory Volunteers", in February 1942. On 5 June 1942, 1,400 Nisei of the Hawaii National Guard shipped out from Hawaii bound for Oakland and on 12 June, after docking, they were formed into the 100th Infantry Battalion. Afterwards, all Japanese American men, not already in the military, were classified as enemy aliens; this policy was reversed in 1943.
Eight months later the decision was made to raise an all-Nisei regiment, known as the 442nd Regimental Combat Team. Progress was slow at first, and another four months passed before the 442nd began training; two months after that, though, the 100th shipped out to Europe. Initially, the notion of employing Japanese American soldiers was rejected by GeneralDwight D. Eisenhower's staff at the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force, but they were eventually accepted by Lieutenant GeneralMark Clark's Fifth Army. While the 442nd was training in the U.S., the 100th sustained heavy losses, eventually earning the title the "Purple Heart Battalion." On 26 June 1944, two weeks after the 442nd arrived in Europe, the two Nisei units combined to form one single unit, but those who had been a part of the 100th wanted to keep their numerical designation, so they replaced the regiment's 1st Battalion. Keeping with the policy at the time, the unit was segregated, and large number of the other members of the 442nd RCT were previously interned Japanese Americans from the continental United States, commanded by mostly white officers. The combat chronicle of the regiment became a highly storied one, resulting in it becoming one of the most decorated units in the European Theater, taking part in numerous actions in Italy, France and Germany, including the liberation of Dachau concentration camp.
The 442nd Regiment was the most decorated unit for its size and length of service in the history of American warfare. The 4,000 men who initially made up the unit in April 1943 had to be replaced nearly 2.5 times. In total, about 14,000 men served, earning 9,486 Purple Hearts. The unit was awarded eight Presidential Unit Citations (five earned in one month).:201
In 1946, one of the 442nd's soldiers, PFC Sadao Munemori, was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions during the regiment's service in Italy. His award was one of two made to Asian Americans during, or in the immediate aftermath of, the war, and the only one made to a Japanese American. However, in 2000, after a review of other medals awarded to the 442nd, 21 were elevated to Medals of Honor. One of those 21 was presented to Hawaiʻi Senator, and former Captain, Daniel K. Inouye. On 5 October 2010, Congress created the Congressional Gold Medal recognizing the 442nd Regimental Combat Team and the 100th Infantry Battalion, as well as the 6,000 Japanese Americans who served in the Military Intelligence Service during the war.
It has been estimated that between 12,000 and 20,000 Chinese American men, representing up to 22 percent of the men in their portion of the U.S. population, served during World War II. Of those serving about 40 percent were not citizens, and unlike Japanese and Filipino Americans, 75 percent served in non-segregated units. Chinese Americans distinguished themselves from Japanese Americans, and suffered less discrimination. A quarter of those would serve in the U.S. Army Air Forces, some of which were sent to the Chinese-Burma-India theater for service with the 14th Air Service Group and the Chinese-American Composite Wing. Another 70 percent would go on to serve in the U.S. Army in various units, including the 3rd, 4th, 6th, 32nd and 77th Infantry Divisions. Prior to the war, the U.S. Navy had recruited Chinese Americans but they had been restricted to serve only as stewards; this continued until May 1942, when restrictions ceased and they were allowed to serve in other ratings. In 1943, Chinese American women were accepted into the Women's Army Corps in the Military Intelligence Service. They were also recruited for service in the Army Air Force, with a few later becoming civilian Women Airforce Service Pilots.
Captain Francis Wai of the 34th Infantry was posthumously awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for actions on the island of Leyte in late 1944; this awarding was later elevated to a Medal of Honor in the 2000 review. Wilbur Carl Sze became the first Chinese American officer commissioned in the Marine Corps.
In the U.S., Filipinos were initially blocked from enlisting, until the laws were revised a day before Japan had begun its invasion back in the Philippines. Of the Filipinos who lived in California, two-fifths, or sixteen thousand Filipinos, attempted to enlist into the U.S. Army. Some would serve in non-segregated units, yet a segregated infantry battalion was established, which continued to grow and at its peak was split into two units known as the 1st and 2nd Filipino Infantry Regiments. These soldiers were subjected to discrimination during their time training at Camp Beale and Fort Ord, sometimes being mistaken for Japanese Americans when off base. Nevertheless, these units would serve with distinction similar to that of the 442d Infantry Regiment, although their deeds were not as well documented or widely known. By the end of the war, a total of 50,000 decorations, awards, medals, ribbons, certificates, commendations and citations had been awarded to personnel assigned to these two regiments for their service in the New Guinea and Philippines campaigns.
Back in the Philippines, some individual service members and units refused to heed orders to surrender. They began a guerilla campaign to resist the Japanese occupation and were later joined by paroled Filipino USAFFE soldiers, as well as Filipino civilians, and other Allied forces that had been inserted into the islands. Allied forces returned to the Philippines in significant numbers during the Battle of Leyte. These included the Filipino infantry units which had been reduced in size from their peak. Later that year the Philippine Division was reconstituted, and in 1945 those members who elected to remain in the Philippines at the end of the war were transferred to the PCAUS. In all approximately 142,000 Filipinos served during World War II. When recognized guerrillas are taken into account, the number of Filipinos who served increases to over 250,000, and possibly up to over 400,000. This number though is smaller than that recognized for serving in World War II by the Philippines.
Sergeant Jose Calugas became the third Asian American ever and first Asian American during World War II, to receive the Medal of Honor; he would not receive the medal until after the occupation had ended. Later, in the 2000 review of medals awarded to Asian Americans, First Lieutenant Rudolph Davila's Distinguished Service Cross was elevated to a Medal of Honor. While in New Guinea, Lieutenant Colonel Leon Punsalang became the first Asian American to command white troops in combat. For their actions in aiding Allied prisoners of war during the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines, Josefina Guerrero and Florence Finch were both awarded the Medal of Freedom; Finch later enlisted in the Coast Guard Women's Reserve after being liberated from the Philippines and taken to New York.
After a treaty was signed in 1882, Koreans had begun migrating to the U.S. This came to an end when Japan annexed Korea in 1910. When the war began, Korean Americans were treated as enemy aliens, although this changed in 1943, when they were exempted from enemy alien status. About 100 enlisted in the U.S. Army over the course of the war, some of whom served as translators. Over a hundred joined the California National Guard in Los Angeles alone and formed a unit that became known as the "Tiger Brigade".Young-Oak Kim, who had initially been rejected by the Army before being drafted, served as an enlisted soldier in the engineers until he was selected for commissioning in 1943. He went on to serve in the mainly Japanese American 442nd Infantry Regiment, and he was subsequently awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for his actions at the Battle of Anzio. The only Korean American to be awarded that medal during the war, he also received a Silver Star and Purple Heart for actions earlier in the campaign.Fred Ohr, who initially enlisted as a trooper in the 116th Cavalry in 1938, became the only Korean American fighter ace of World War II, shooting down a total of six enemy aircraft and eventually rising to command the 52nd Fighter Group's 2d Fighter Squadron in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations. As of 8 March 2012, he is the only Korean American to achieve the status of ace, and for his actions, Ohr received several medals including the Silver Star with one bronze oak leaf cluster.
After the surrender of Japan, World War II came to an end, and the U.S. military began to demobilize. Millions of service-members were transported home, including the 442nd Regimental Combat Team. In 1946, the regiment was reviewed by President Truman who awarded them their seventh Distinguished Unit Citation. They were subsequently deactivated, but they were reorganized a year later as part of the U.S. Army Reserve. That same year, Truman signed the Rescission Act of 1946, which denied Filipinos who served during World War II in the Commonwealth military and guerrillas, benefits that were afforded to other veterans. With the consent of the Philippine government, 50,000 Philippine Scouts were authorized by Congress, retained, and recruited. As part of the Philippine Division, this force undertook occupation duty on Okinawa until 1947, when the Philippine Scouts were disbanded by presidential order after Truman came to view them as a mercenary organization. In 1947, the signing of the U.S.-Philippine Military Bases Agreement formalized Filipino enlistment in the U.S. Navy without immigrant credentials. In 1948, Truman ordered the desegregation of the U.S. military.
Following Truman's order for the integration of the U.S. military, the majority of segregated Asian American units were disbanded by 1951. Many individuals continued to serve in integrated units following desegregation, although the exact number of Asian Americans who served during the Korean War has not been determined. Despite the official acceptance of the desegregation policy, some units, including the 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry Regiment, and the 5th Regimental Combat Team, retained strong racial ties, with a predominant number of Asian Americans serving in these units. Of the 36,572 who died during the Korean War, 241 were Asian Americans.
During the Vietnam War 35,000 Asian Americans served as part of the more than eight million U.S. service personnel that were deployed to South Vietnam, in fully integrated units. Three of them were posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor, including Corporal Terry Kawamura who was, as of March 2014, the last Asian American to receive that medal. During the conflict, in addition to the Asian American personnel who served in conventional units, the Army also formed a special forces team of Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, and Native American Rangers called Team Hawaii, as they could pass for Vietnamese and conduct long range reconnaissance. Discrimination and racism continued to be experienced by Asian Americans who served during the conflict. Their loyalty was questioned, and during basic training they were sometimes described as being similar to Viet Cong. In country, some were fired upon when mistaken for Viet Cong, and some had medical care delayed after being mistaken for North Vietnamese. Additionally, the Viet Cong especially targeted Asian American service members, sometimes putting a price on their heads. Proportionally, Asian Americans suffered fewer casualties compared to other ethnic groups in Vietnam, with a total of 139 Asian American servicemen dying during the conflict.
Throughout the war, Filipino American sailors remained restricted to the rating of steward, with 80% of the almost seventeen thousand Filipino American sailors being stewards. In 1970, there were more Filipinos serving in the U.S. Navy than there were in the Philippine Navy; that same year, the number of Filipinos recruited into the United States Navy was reduced from the thousands per year down to 35 a month, while Filipinos re-enlistment rates were 95% (which made them eligible for naturalization). The rating restriction ended in 1973, after the U.S. Senate investigated civil rights issues in the U.S. Navy and opened all ratings to Filipino Americans. In the White House, Filipinos Navy stewards, continued to serve as valets after the restriction was lifted, as late as into the 1990s. A few years later, in 1976, there were over seventeen thousand Filipino Americans in the U.S. Navy, including just under a hundred officers. By 1989, Asian Americans made up approximately 2.3 percent of the total armed services, slightly greater than their proportion of the total U.S. population at that time (1.6 percent).
During the Persian Gulf War, many Asian Americans served in the U.S. military, with some filling senior officer positions, including Major General John Fugh who was promoted to the position of Army Judge Advocate General during the conflict. One Asian American service member died during the conflict.
In 1992, the U.S. Navy stopped recruiting Filipino nationals due to the end of the 1947 Military Bases Agreement.
Recent trends show that Asian Americans, particularly those from California, are enlisting at rates greater than their proportion of population; they are more likely to take up non-combat jobs. In 2009, the Army had Asian Americans serving as 4.4 percent of its commissioned officers, and 3.5 percent of its enlisted personnel. In 2008, Filipinos made up the largest immigrant population servicing in the U.S. Military, with Korean immigrants also serving in significant numbers. In 2010, Asian Americans made up 3.7 percent of active duty service members, mostly in the Army and Navy, and 3.9 percent of the officers. In 2012, there were about 65,000 immigrants serving in the U.S. armed forces; of those, about 23 percent were from the Philippines. Due to the numerous Filipinos serving in the Navy, when seen together, they've been described as the "Filipino Mafia". As of 2018[update], Filipinos made up the largest immigrant population serving in the U.S. Military. That same year, it was found that Asian Americans are over represented in the military compared to their proportion of the total population, and were increasingly choosing to become commissioned officers over choosing to enlist. Yet in 2013, it was found that Asian Americans are under represented in the Marine Corps, leading to a targeted effort to recruit more Asian Americans into the Corps.
As of April 2017[update], out of the 2,346 deaths that have occurred in Operation Enduring Freedom, 62 have been Asian Americans (47 Soldiers, 8 Marines, 6 Sailors, and 1 Airman). As of September 2018[update], an additional 390 Asian American service-members have been wounded (307 Soldiers, 58 Marines, 18 Sailors, and 7 Airmen).
Asian American Marines were part of the first conventional units to enter into Afghanistan in late 2001; including Pakistani American marine Lieutenant Colonel Asad A. Khan. Khan would return to Afghanistan in command of 1st Battalion 6th Marines in 2004; only to be later relieved of command. In 2011, Private Danny Chen and Lance Corporal Harry Lew both committed suicide in Afghanistan following hazing; prosecution of several of their unit members followed. Also in 2011, Petty Officer, third class Jonathan Kong, as a corpsman risked his life to save Corporal Michael Dawers who had been shot in a battle near the village of Kotozay; in 2014, Kong was awarded a Silver Star for his actions in 2011
Hundreds of Asian Americans have deployed to Iraq out of the 59,000 plus that are serving in active duty as of May 2009, with one study stating that 2.6 percent have been Asian American. The 100th Infantry Battalion (USAR) was activated in 2004 for its first deployment in Iraq, their first activation since the Vietnam War. At the end of that deployment the unit was authorized to wear the 442nd's shoulder sleeve insignia as a combat patch, the first time this had occurred since World War II. The 100th Infantry Battalion was activated, and deployed to Iraq, for second time from 2008 to 2009. With Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn having ended, 78 Asian American service members died during the conflict.
Brigadier General Albert Lyman, first Asian American general officer was of part Chinese and Hawaiian roots
In recent years, Asian Americans have been significantly overrepresented at the military academies compared to their share of the national population. Although Asian/Pacific Islander Americans are 3.49% of the national population aged 18–24, they are about 9–10% of the classes of 2014 at West Point, the Naval Academy, and the Air Force Academy.
In popular culture
The following television shows, movies, songs, and operas have depicted events that relate to this article:
^The city of Bombay was, and under its modern name of Mumbai is, one of the great ports of India. During the British Raj, it was the seat of government of the Bombay Presidency. It is possible that "Bombay" in the source refers not only to the city itself, but also to that much larger region which it controlled.
^Canton has multiple meanings. The source is unspecific, but only two of the meanings relate to Asia (more precisely, to China). Those are the old romanized names of the city of Canton (modern Guangzhou), which was the capital of the province of Canton (modern Guangdong). It is unclear whether the narrower or the broader meaning was intended.
^There are two cities, both in China, whose names were at one time romanized as Changchow: Changzhou in Jiangsu Province and Zhangzhou in Fujian Province. Both are sizable port cities. The source does not say which one, or both, was meant.
^ abAllerfeldt, Kristofer (January 2009). "Work or Fight!". Reviews in History. The Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 4 February 2013. He shows that while the Dawes Act and Alien Land Laws explicitly barred non-whites – Native Americans and Asians rather than 'coloreds' (African Americans) – from the ownership of land, the San Diego draft still included 'American Indians, Japanese Americans, Chinese Americans and Mexican Americans', all called as part of the '"white" quota'. Perhaps unsurprisingly none of these groups ever saw combat, but at least for the Native Americans it contributed to their gaining of citizenship, en masse, in 1924.
^ abDr. Betty D. Maxfield (30 September 2009). "FY09 Army Profile"(PDF). Headquarters, Department of the Army. United States Army. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
^ abcWilliams, Rudi (19 May 1999). "An Asian Pacific American Timeline". American Forces Press Service. U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 27 August 2009. 21-1861 Chinese American John Tomney joins New York Infantry, later dies of wounds at Battle of Gettysburg (1863).
^Dr. Robert Winslow. "Philippines". A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World. San Diego State University. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013. Although Americans have historically used the term "the Philippine Insurrection," Filipinos and an increasing number of American historians refer to these hostilities as the Philippine–American War (1899–1902), and in 1999 the U.S. Library of Congress reclassified its references to use this term.
^"The Philippine Independence Act (Tydings-McDuffie Act)". Philippine laws, statutes and codes. Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved 8 July 2012. For the purposes of the Immigration Act of 1917, the Immigration Act of 1924 [except section 13 (c)], this section, and all other laws of the United States relating to the immigration, exclusion, or expulsion of aliens, citizens of the Philippine Islands who are not citizens of the United States shall be considered as if they were aliens. For such purposes the Philippine Islands shall be considered as a separate country and shall have for each fiscal year a quota of fifty.
^"Europe in 1914". Community Television of Southern California. Public Broadcasting Service. 2004. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
^Slotkin, Richard (2006). Lost Battalions: The Great War and the Crisis of American Nationality. Macmillan. p. 199. ISBN9780805081381. Retrieved 26 August 2012. Sing Kee would receive the Distinguished Service Cross and be promoted to color sergeant, the highest rank attained by a Chinese-American in the AEF. Nancy Wey (17 November 2004). "Quarantine And Its Aftereffects". Five Views: An Ethnic Historic Site Survey for California. National Park Service. Retrieved 26 February 2013. On June 13, 1919, Sing Kee returned home to San Jose after receiving the Distinguished Service Cross for bravery in action with the 77th or "Liberty" Division in the Argonne Forest. "Valor awards for Sing Kee". Military Times Hall of Valor. Gannett Government Media Corporation. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
^"Bhagat Singh Thind". Public Broadcasting System. 2000. Retrieved 28 November 2009. "Japanese Americans in America's Wars: A Chronology". Japanese American National Museum. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2009. Coulson, Doug (2015). "British Imperialism, the Indian Independence Movement, and the Racial Eligibility Provisions of the Naturalization Act: United States v. Thind Revisited". Georgetown Journal of Law & Modern Critical Race Perspectives. 7: 1–42. SSRN2610266.
^McKay, Kevin; Chang, Diane (9 May 2012). "Seven posthumous degrees to be awarded at ROTC Commissioning Ceremony". News release archive. The University of Hawaii System. Retrieved 31 December 2012. In the hours following the bombing, all UH ROTC cadets were told to report to duty, forming the Hawai'i Territorial Guard (HTG), which was assigned to guard military installations on O'ahu. A month later, members who were of Japanese ancestry were expelled from the HTG because of their ethnicity.
^Miho, Katsugo (2006). "Home Frot". The Hawaii Nisei Project. University of Hawaii. Retrieved 31 December 2012. On January 19, 1942, all men of Japanese ancestry in the Hawaii Territorial Guard are discharged.
^"Sadao S. Munemori". Military Times Hall of Valor. Gannett Government Media Corporation. Retrieved 30 October 2012. Sadao Munemori was the ONLY Japanese-American awarded the Medal of Honor during or immediately after World War II. With prejudice still strong, it required intervention by Congress to at last see him posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.
^Major Karen J. Gregory, USAFR. "Asian Pacific American Heritage Month"(PDF). Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute. Archived from the original(PDF) on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011. On December 15, 1943, Wilbur Carl Sze was commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant and the first Chinese-American officer in the U.S. Marine Corps "apa-usmc02". Asian Pacific American Heritage Month 2002. Department of Defense. 2002. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
^Louis Morton. "Chapter 6". Center of Military History. United States Army. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
^(Nota Bene: These combat chronicles, current as of October 1948, are reproduced from The Army Almanac: A Book of Facts Concerning the Army of the United States, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950, pp. 510–592.)
^Dr. Steven M. Graves. "Geography 417". Geography 417. California State University, Northridge. Retrieved 18 May 2011. Lt. Col. Leon Punsalang, a West Point graduate, command of the 1st Battalion marking the first time in that an Asian American commanded white troops in combat.
^"World War II American Fighter Aces at Museum". The Museum of Flight. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2012. The Museum will host a panel of three fighter pilots: Capt. Fred Ohr, who is the only American ace of Korean ancestry, and had six aerial victories and 17 ground victories; Lt. Col. Richard W. Asbury, who participated in 240 combat missions spanning three wars; and Lt. Col. Stan Richardson, who flew P-38s and P-51s in the European Theater during World War II, and participated in the D-Day Invasion.
^ abWilson, John B.; Jeffrey J. Clarke (1998). Maneuver and Firepower. Washington D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army. p. 212. Retrieved 22 November 2009. As the nation demobilized, Congress approved, with the consent of the Philippine government, the maintenance of 50,000 Philippine Scouts (PS) as occupation forces for Japan. On 6 April 1946 Maj. Gen. Louis E. Hibbs, who had commanded the 63d Infantry Division during the war, reorganized the Philippine Division, which had surrendered on Bataan in 1942, as the 12th Infantry Division (PS). Unlike its predecessor, the 12th's enlisted personnel were exclusively Philippine Scouts. The War Department proposed to organize a second Philippine Scout division, the 14th, but never did so. After a short period President Harry S. Truman decided to disband all Philippine Scout units, determining that they were not needed for duty in Japan. The United States could not afford them, and he felt the Republic of the Philippines, a sovereign nation, should not furnish mercenaries for the United States. Therefore, the Far East Command inactivated the 12th Infantry Division (PS) in 1947 and eventually inactivated or disbanded all Philippine Scout units.
^Batalova, Jeanne (15 May 2008). "Immigrants in the U.S. Armed Forces". Migration Information Source. Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved 9 April 2018. The Philippines, with 22.8 percent (14,854), accounted for the largest percentage of the foreign born in the armed forces in February 2008. In addition, 9.5 percent (6,188) of the immigrants were born in Mexico; 4.7 percent (3,064) in Jamaica; 3.1 percent (2,007) in Korea; and 2.5 percent (1,372) in the Dominican Republic.
^Quismundo, Tarra (26 October 2012). "US Navy feasts on adobo, pansit, lumpia, chopsuey". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 5 March 2017. But there's certainly more adobo, lumpia, pansit and pan de sal—at least in the mess hall of the USS George Washington, thanks to the "Filipino Mafia" aboard the US Navy's Japan-based aircraft carrier on a goodwill visit to the Philippines. Aben, Elena L. (6 September 2010). "'Filipino mafia' on US warship". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on 8 September 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2017. Filipinas. Vol. 13. Daly City, California: Filipinas Pub. 2004. p. 19. Missing or empty |title= (help) "Dictionary of Navy Slang"(PDF). Goatlocker.org. MMCM(SS) Greg Peterman USN Ret. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
^Mishan, Ligaya (4 April 2018). "Filipino food finds place in America's mainstream". Star-Adviser. Honolulu. New York Times. Retrieved 9 April 2018. Americans of Filipino heritage now make up one in five of all Asian-Americans, second only to Chinese in number, and the largest percentage of immigrants serving in the U.S. military were born in the Philippines.
^"Asians Asians and Pacific Islanders and in the United States Navy"(PDF). Naval History & Heritage Command. United States Navy. 12 April 2011. Archived from the original(PDF) on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2011. Gordon Chung-Hoon, a Hawaiian-born Chinese American and a 1934 U.S. Naval Academy graduate, was the first Asian American to command a Navy warship, USS Sigsbee (dd 502). When a kamikaze attacked caused explosions and flooding on board the destroyer, Chung-Hoon directed damage control, enabling the crew to save the ship. Awarded the Navy Cross for his actions, he was later promoted to rear admiral, making him the first Asian American flag officer.