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|Mid central vowel|
The mid central vowel (also known as schwa) is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ə⟩, a rotated lowercase letter e.
While the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association does not define the roundedness of [ə], it is more often unrounded than rounded. The phonetician Jane Setter describes the pronunciation of the unrounded variant as follows: "[ə] is a sound which can be produced by basically relaxing the articulators in the oral cavity and vocalising." To produce the rounded variant, all that needs to be done in addition to that is to round the lips.
Some languages, such as Danish and Luxembourgish, have a mid central vowel that is variably rounded. In some other languages, things are more complicated, as the change in rounding is accompanied with the change in height and/or backness. For instance, in Dutch, the unrounded allophone of /ə/ is mid central unrounded [ə], but its word-final rounded allophone is close-mid near-front rounded [ʏ̞], practically the same as the main allophone of /ʏ/.
The symbol ⟨ə⟩ is often used for any unstressed obscure vowel, regardless of its precise quality. For instance, the English vowel transcribed ⟨ə⟩ is a central unrounded vowel that can be close-mid [ɘ], mid [ə] or open-mid [ɜ], depending on the environment.
The mid central unrounded vowel is frequently written with the symbol [ə]. If greater precision is desired, the symbol for the close-mid central unrounded vowel may be used with a lowering diacritic, [ɘ̞]. Another possibility is using the symbol for the open-mid central unrounded vowel with a raising diacritic, [ɜ̝].
|Afrikaans||Standard||lig||[ləχ]||'light'||Also described as open-mid [ɜ]. See Afrikaans phonology|
|Many speakers||lug||'air'||Many speakers merge /œ/ with /ə/, even in formal speech. See Afrikaans phonology|
|Bulgarian||пара||[ˈparə]||'steam'||Possible realization of unstressed /ɤ/ and /a/ in post-stressed syllables. See Bulgarian phonology|
|Catalan||Eastern Catalan||amb||[əm(b)]||'with'||Reduced vowel. It can be raised, lowered, advanced, retracted or rounded. See Catalan phonology|
|Some Western accents|
|Central Valencian||poc||[ˈpɔ̞kːə̆]||'little'||Vocalic release found in final consonants. It may vary in quality.|
|Chinese||Mandarin||根 / gēn||[kən˥] (help·info)||'root'||See Standard Chinese phonology|
|[kəŋ¹]||'to follow'||Allophone of /ə/ before nasals.|
|Danish||Standard||hoppe||[ˈhɒ̜̽b̥ə]||'mare'||Sometimes realized as rounded [ɵ̞]. See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Standard||renner||[ˈrɛnər]||'runner'||The backness varies between near-front and central, whereas the height varies between close-mid and open-mid. Many speakers feel that this vowel is simply an unstressed allophone of /ʏ/. See Dutch phonology|
|English||Most dialects||Tina||[ˈtʰiːnə]||'Tina'||Reduced vowel; varies in height between close-mid and open-mid. Word-final /ə/ can be as low as [ɐ]. See English phonology|
|Cultivated South African||bird||[bəːd]||'bird'||May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɜː⟩. Other South African varieties use a higher, more front and rounded vowel [øː~ ø̈ː]. See South African English phonology|
|Received Pronunciation||Often transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɜː⟩. It is sulcalized, which means the tongue is grooved like in [ɹ]. 'Upper Crust RP' speakers pronounce a near-open vowel [ɐː], but for some other speakers it may actually be open-mid [ɜː]. This vowel corresponds to rhotacized [ɝ] in rhotic dialects.|
|Geordie||bust||[bəst]||'bust'||Spoken by some middle class speakers, mostly female; other speakers use [ʊ]. Corresponds to /ɜ/ or /ʌ/ in other dialects.|
|Indian||May be lower. Some Indian varieties merge /ɜ/ or /ʌ/ with /ə/ like Welsh English.|
|Wales||May also be further back; it corresponds to /ɜ/ or /ʌ/ in other dialects.|
|Yorkshire||Middle class pronunciation. Other speakers use [ʊ]. Corresponds to /ɜ/ or /ʌ/ in other dialects.|
|Faroese||vildi||[ˈvɪltə]||'wanted'||Unstressed allophone of certain short vowels. See Faroese phonology|
[citation check needed]
|German||Standard||bitte||[ˈbɪtə]||'please'||Also described as close-mid [ɘ]. See Standard German phonology|
|Southern German accents||oder||[ˈoːdə]||'or'||Used instead of [ɐ]. See Standard German phonology|
|Inuit||West Greenlandic||[example needed]||Allophone of /i/ before and especially between uvulars. See Inuit phonology|
|Kensiu||[təh]||'to be bald'|
|Kurdish||Central Kurdish||kirdibetmânawa||[kɯɾ dɯ bɛt mɑː'nəwæː]||'that we have opened it'||see Kurdish phonology|
|Limburgish||besjeemp||[bəˈʃeːmp]||'embarrassed'||Occurs only in unstressed syllables. The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.|
|Luxembourgish||dënn||[d̥ən]||'thin'||More often realized as slightly rounded [ɵ̞]. See Luxembourgish phonology|
|Norwegian||Urban East||sterkeste||[²stæɾkəstə]||'the strongest'||Also described as close-mid [ɘ]; occurs only in unstressed syllables. Some dialects (e.g. Trondheimsk) lack this sound. See Norwegian phonology|
|Ossetic||Iron||ӕз||[əʒ]||'I'||Usually fronted to [ӕ] in Kudairag|
|Plautdietsch||bediedt||[bəˈdit]||'means'||The example word is from the Canadian Old Colony variety, in which the vowel is somewhat fronted [ə̟].|
|Portuguese||European||pagar||[pəˈɣäɾ]||'to pay'||Often corresponds to a near-open [ɐ] in Brazilian Portuguese. See Portuguese phonology|
|São Paulo||cama||[ˈkəmɐ]||'bed'||Shorter nasal resonance or complete oral vowel in São Paulo and Southern Brazil, while nasal vowel in many other Portuguese dialects.|
|Some speakers||conviver||[kũviˈveə̯ɾ]||'to coexist'|
|Sema||akütsü||[ɐ˩ kə t͡sɨ̞]||'black'||Possible word-medial allophone of /ɨ/.|
|Serbo-Croatian||vrt / врт||[ʋə̂rt̪]||'garden'||[ər] is a possible phonetic realization of the syllabic trill /r̩/ when it occurs between consonants. See Serbo-Croatian phonology|
|Swedish||Central Standard||bädd||[ˈbɛ̝dːə̆]||'bed'||An epenthetic vowel frequently inserted after word-final lenis stops. See Swedish phonology|
|Southern||vante||[²väntə]||'mitten'||Corresponds to a slightly retracted front vowel [ɛ̠] in Central Standard Swedish. See Swedish phonology|
|West Frisian||sinne||[ˈsɪnə]||'sun'||Occurs only in unstressed syllables. See West Frisian phonology|
|Mid central rounded vowel|
Languages may have a mid central rounded vowel (a rounded [ə]), distinct from both the close-mid and open-mid vowels. However, since no language is known to distinguish all three, there is no separate IPA symbol for the mid vowel, and the symbol [ɵ] for the close-mid central rounded vowel is generally used instead. If precision is desired, the lowering diacritic can be used: [ɵ̞]. This vowel can also be represented by adding the more rounded diacritic to the schwa symbol, or by combining the raising diacritic with the open-mid central rounded vowel symbol, although it is rare to use such symbols.
|Afrikaans||Standard||lug||[lɞ̝χ]||'air'||Also described as open-mid [ɞ], typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ⟩. Many speakers merge /œ/ and /ə/, even in formal speech. See Afrikaans phonology|
|[dò̞sɵ̞̀nũ̂]||'swim!'||Allophone of /o/ in casual speech that occurs when the next syllable contains one of the close vowels /i, u/.|
|Danish||Standard||hoppe||[ˈhɒ̜̽b̥ɵ̞]||'mare'||Possible realization of /ə/. See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Standard Belgian||neus||[nɵ̞ːs]||'nose'||Also described as close-mid near-front [ø̠ː]; usually transcribed in IPA with ⟨øː⟩. Diphthongized to [ø̠ʏ̯] in the Standard Northern accent. See Dutch phonology|
|English||New England English||most||[mɵ̞st]||'most'||Some speakers. Diphthongized to [ɵ̞ə̯] before /n, t, d/; many speakers tend to merge it with /oʊ/. See English phonology|
|French||je||[ʒɵ̞]||'I'||Only somewhat rounded; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɵ⟩ or ⟨ə⟩. May be more front for a number of speakers. See French phonology|
|German||Chemnitz dialect||Wonne||[ˈʋɞ̝n̪ə]||'bliss'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɞ⟩. See Chemnitz dialect phonology|
|Irish||Munster||scoil||[skɞ̝lʲ]||'school'||Allophone of /ɔ/ between a broad and a slender consonant. See Irish phonology|
|Luxembourgish||dënn||[d̥ɵ̞n]||'thin'||Slightly rounded; less often realized as unrounded [ə]. See Luxembourgish phonology|
|Plautdietsch||Canadian Old Colony||butzt||[bɵ̞t͡st]||'bumps'||Mid-centralized from [ʊ], to which it corresponds in other dialects.|
|Romanian||chemin de fer||[ʃɵ̞ˌme̞n̪ d̪ɵ̞ ˈfe̞r]||'chemin de fer'||Found only in loanwords. See Romanian phonology|
|Swedish||Central Standard||full||[fɵ̞lː] (help·info)||'full'||Pronounced with compressed lips, more closely transcribed [ɵ̞ᵝ] or [ɘ̞ᵝ]. See Swedish phonology|