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|Mid central vowel|
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
The mid central vowel (also known as schwa) is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ə⟩, a rotated lowercase letter e.
While the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association does not define the roundedness of [ə], it is more often unrounded than rounded. The phonetician Jane Setter describes the pronunciation of the unrounded variant as follows: "[ə] is a sound which can be produced by basically relaxing the articulators in the oral cavity and vocalising." To produce the rounded variant, all that needs to be done in addition to that is to round the lips.
Some languages, such as Danish and Luxembourgish, have a mid central vowel that is variably rounded. In some other languages, things are more complicated, as the change in rounding is accompanied with the change in height and/or backness. For instance, in Dutch, the unrounded allophone of /ə/ is mid central unrounded [ə], but its word-final rounded allophone is close-mid front rounded [ø̜], close to the main allophone of /ʏ/.
The symbol ⟨ə⟩ is often used for any unstressed obscure vowel, regardless of its precise quality. For instance, the English vowel transcribed ⟨ə⟩ is a central unrounded vowel that can be close-mid [ɘ], mid [ə] or open-mid [ɜ], depending on the environment.
The mid central unrounded vowel is frequently written with the symbol [ə]. If greater precision is desired, the symbol for the close-mid central unrounded vowel may be used with a lowering diacritic, [ɘ̞]. Another possibility is using the symbol for the open-mid central unrounded vowel with a raising diacritic, [ɜ̝].
|Afrikaans||Standard||lig||[ləχ]||'light'||Also described as open-mid [ɜ]. See Afrikaans phonology|
|Many speakers||lug||'air'||Many speakers merge /œ/ with /ə/, even in formal speech. See Afrikaans phonology|
|Arabic||Najdi||قلت||[ɡəlt]||'said'||reduced vowel found in Peninsular Arabic (except for urban Hejazi) and in Bedouin influenced dialects across the Arab world|
|Bulgarian||пара||[ˈparə]||'steam'||Possible realization of unstressed /ɤ/ and /a/ in post-stressed syllables. See Bulgarian phonology|
|Catalan||Eastern Catalan||amb||[əm(b)]||'with'||Reduced vowel. The exact height, backness and rounding are variable. See Catalan phonology|
|Some Western accents|
|Central Valencian||poc||[ˈpɔ̞kːə̆]||'little'||Vocalic release found in final consonants. It may vary in quality.|
|Chinese||Mandarin||根 / gēn||[kən˥] (help·info)||'root'||See Standard Chinese phonology|
|Shanghainese||跟 / ken (T1)||[kəŋ˥˧]||'to follow'||Allophone of /ə/ before nasals.|
|Danish||Standard||hoppe||[ˈhʌ̹b̥ə]||'mare'||Sometimes realized as rounded [ə̹]. See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Standard||renner||[ˈrɛnər]||'runner'||The backness varies between near-front and central, whereas the height varies between close-mid and open-mid. Many speakers feel that this vowel is simply an unstressed allophone of /ʏ/. See Dutch phonology|
|English||Most dialects||Tina||[ˈtʰiːnə]||'Tina'||Reduced vowel; varies in height between close-mid and open-mid. Word-final /ə/ can be as low as [ɐ]. See English phonology|
|Cultivated South African||bird||[bɜ̝ːd]||'bird'||May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɜː⟩. Other South African varieties use a higher, more front and rounded vowel [øː~ ø̈ː]. See South African English phonology|
|Received Pronunciation||Often transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɜː⟩. It is sulcalized, which means the tongue is grooved like in [ɹ]. 'Upper Crust RP' speakers pronounce a near-open vowel [ɐː], but for some other speakers it may actually be open-mid [ɜː]. This vowel corresponds to rhotacized [ɝ] in rhotic dialects.|
|Geordie||bust||[bəst]||'bust'||Spoken by some middle class speakers, mostly female; other speakers use [ʊ]. Corresponds to /ɜ/ or /ʌ/ in other dialects.|
|Indian||May be lower. Some Indian varieties merge /ɜ/ or /ʌ/ with /ə/ like Welsh English.|
|Wales||May also be further back; it corresponds to /ɜ/ or /ʌ/ in other dialects.|
|Yorkshire||Middle class pronunciation. Other speakers use [ʊ]. Corresponds to /ɜ/ or /ʌ/ in other dialects.|
|Faroese||vildi||[ˈvɪltə]||'wanted'||Unstressed allophone of certain short vowels. See Faroese phonology|
[citation check needed]
|German||Standard||Beschlag||[b̥əˈʃläːk] (help·info)||'fitting'||See Standard German phonology|
|Southern German accents||oder||[ˈoːdə]||'or'||Used instead of [ɐ]. See Standard German phonology|
|Inuit||West Greenlandic||[example needed]||Allophone of /i/ before and especially between uvulars. See Inuit phonology|
|Kensiu||[təh]||'to be bald'|
|Kurdish||Central Kurdish||kirdibetmânawa||[kɯɾ dɯ bɛt mɑː'nəwæː]||'that we have opened it'||see Kurdish phonology|
|Limburgish||besjeemp||[bəˈʃeːmp]||'embarrassed'||Occurs only in unstressed syllables. The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.|
|Luxembourgish||dënn||[d̥ən]||'thin'||More often realized as slightly rounded [ə̹]. See Luxembourgish phonology|
|Mapudungun||füta||[ˈfɘtə]||"elderly person"||Unstressed allophone of /ɐ/.|
|Norwegian||Many dialects||sterkeste||[²stæɾkəstə]||'the strongest'||Occurs only in unstressed syllables. The example word is from Urban East Norwegian. Some dialects (e.g. Trondheimsk) lack this sound. See Norwegian phonology|
|Ossetic||Iron||ӕз||[əʒ]||'I'||Usually fronted to [ӕ] in Kudairag|
|Plautdietsch||bediedt||[bəˈdit]||'means'||The example word is from the Canadian Old Colony variety, in which the vowel is somewhat fronted [ə̟].|
|Sema||akütsü||[ɐ˩ kə t͡sɨ̞]||'black'||Possible word-medial allophone of /ɨ/.|
|Serbo-Croatian||vrt||[ʋə̂rt̪]||'garden'||[ər] is a possible phonetic realization of the syllabic trill /r̩/ when it occurs between consonants. See Serbo-Croatian phonology|
|Swedish||Central Standard||bädd||[ˈbɛ̝dːə̆]||'bed'||An epenthetic vowel frequently inserted after word-final lenis stops. See Swedish phonology|
|Southern||vante||[²väntə]||'mitten'||Corresponds to a slightly retracted front vowel [ɛ̠] in Central Standard Swedish. See Swedish phonology|
|West Frisian||sinne||[ˈsɪnə]||'sun'||Occurs only in unstressed syllables. See West Frisian phonology|
|Mid central rounded vowel|
Languages may have a mid central rounded vowel (a rounded [ə]), distinct from both the close-mid and open-mid vowels. However, since no language is known to distinguish all three, there is no separate IPA symbol for the mid vowel, and the symbol [ɵ] for the close-mid central rounded vowel is generally used instead. If precision is desired, the lowering diacritic can be used: [ɵ̞]. This vowel can also be represented by adding the more rounded diacritic to the schwa symbol, or by combining the raising diacritic with the open-mid central rounded vowel symbol, although it is rare to use such symbols.
|Afrikaans||Standard||lug||[lɞ̝χ]||'air'||Also described as open-mid [ɞ], typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ⟩. Many speakers merge /œ/ and /ə/, even in formal speech. See Afrikaans phonology|
|Cipu||Tirisino dialect||[dò̞sɵ̞̀nũ̂]||'swim!'||Allophone of /o/ in casual speech that occurs when the next syllable contains a close vowel.|
|Danish||Standard||hoppe||[ˈhʌ̹b̥ə̹]||'mare'||Possible realization of /ə/. See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Southern||hut||[ɦɵ̞t]||'hut'||Found in certain accents, e.g. in Bruges. Close-mid [ɵ] in Standard Dutch. See Dutch phonology|
|French||je||[ʒə̹]||'I'||Only somewhat rounded; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩ or ⟨ɵ⟩. Also described as close-mid [ɵ]. May be more front for a number of speakers. See French phonology|
|German||Chemnitz dialect||Wonne||[ˈv̞ɞ̝nə]||'bliss'||Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɞ⟩.|
|Irish||Munster||scoil||[skɞ̝lʲ]||'school'||Allophone of /ɔ/ between a broad and a slender consonant. See Irish phonology|
|Luxembourgish||dënn||[d̥ə̹n]||'thin'||Only slightly rounded; less often realized as unrounded [ə̜]. See Luxembourgish phonology|
|Norwegian||Urban East||nøtt||[nɞ̝tː]||'nut'||Also described as open-mid front [œ̫]; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ⟩ or ⟨ø⟩. See Norwegian phonology|
|Plautdietsch||Canadian Old Colony||butzt||[bɵ̞t͡st]||'bumps'||Mid-centralized from [ʊ], to which it corresponds in other dialects.|
|Romanian||chemin de fer||[ʃɵ̞ˌme̞n̪ d̪ɵ̞ ˈfe̞r]||'chemin de fer'||Found only in a handful of French loanwords. See Romanian phonology|
|Swedish||Central Standard||full||[fɵ̞lː]||'full'||Pronounced with compressed lips, more closely transcribed [ɵ̞ᵝ] or [ɘ̞ᵝ]. Less often described as close-mid [ø̈]. See Swedish phonology|