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Mid back unrounded vowel

Mid back unrounded vowel
ɤ̞
ʌ̝
IPA Number315 430
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɤ​̞
Unicode (hex)U+0264 U+031E

The mid back unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is a mid back-central unrounded vowel.[1] Although there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the exact mid back unrounded vowel between close-mid [ɤ] and open-mid [ʌ] because no language is known to distinguish all three, ⟨ɤ⟩ is normally used. If more precision is desired, diacritics can be used, such as ⟨ɤ̞⟩ or ⟨ʌ̝⟩.

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bulgarian[2] път [pɤ̞t̪] 'path' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɤ⟩. See Bulgarian phonology
Chinese Shanghainese[3] [kɤ̞¹] 'ditch' Tends to be diphthongized to [ɤ̞ɯ̞] by younger speakers.[3]
Danish Standard[4] læger [ˈleːɤ̞] 'doctors' One of possible realizations of the sequences /ər, rə, rər/.[4] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɐ⟩. See Danish phonology
English Cardiff[5] plus [pl̥ʌ̝s] 'plus' May be [ə], [ɜ], [ɜ̟] or [ë̞] instead.[5] It corresponds to [ʌ] in other dialects. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.
Norfolk[6] Corresponds to [ʌ] in other dialects. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩. See English phonology
Philadelphia[7] [pɫ̥ʌ̝s] May be either open-mid [ʌ] or a lowered and unrounded /uː/ ([ɯ̽]) instead.[7] It corresponds to [ʌ] in other dialects. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩. See English phonology
Gayo[8] kule [kuˈlɤ̞ː] 'tiger' One of the possible allophones of /ə/.[8]
German Chemnitz dialect[9] Schirm [ʃʌ̝ˤːm] 'umbrella' Pharyngealized; may be an opening diphthong [ɪːɒ̯] instead.[9]
Ibibio[10] [dʌ̝k˦] 'enter' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.[10]
Vietnamese Hanoi[11] t [t̻ɤ̞˧˨] 'sheet' Realization of /ɤ/ (also transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩) according to Kirby (2011). See Vietnamese phonology

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  2. ^ Ternes & Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999), p. 56.
  3. ^ a b Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  4. ^ a b Basbøll (2005), p. 58.
  5. ^ a b Collins & Mees (1990), p. 93.
  6. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 168.
  7. ^ a b Gordon (2004), p. 290.
  8. ^ a b Eades & Hajek (2006), p. 111.
  9. ^ a b Khan & Weise (2013), p. 236.
  10. ^ a b Urua (2004), p. 106.
  11. ^ Kirby (2011), p. 384.

References

  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
  • Chen, Yiya; Gussenhoven, Carlos (2015), "Shanghai Chinese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45 (3): 321–327, doi:10.1017/S0025100315000043
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (1990), "The Phonetics of Cardiff English", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard (eds.), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 87–103, ISBN 1-85359-032-0
  • Eades, Domenyk; Hajek, John (2006), "Gayo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 107–115, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002416
  • Gordon, Matthew J. (2004), "New York, Philadelphia, and other northern cities: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 282–299, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Khan, Sameer ud Dowla; Weise, Constanze (2013), "Upper Saxon (Chemnitz dialect)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (2): 231–241, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000145
  • Kirby, James P. (2011), "Vietnamese (Hanoi Vietnamese)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 41 (3): 381–392, doi:10.1017/S0025100311000181
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2
  • Ternes, Elmer; Vladimirova-Buhtz, Tatjana (1999), "Bulgarian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 55–57, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Urua, Eno-Abasi E. (2004), "Ibibio", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 105–109, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001550

External links