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Mexican Canadians

Mexican Canadians
Canadiens mexicains
Mexicanos canadienses
Mexican Dancers at Heritage Days, Edmonton.jpg
Mexican heritage days in Edmonton.
Total population
128,380 (by ancestry, 2016 Census)[1]
80,590 (by birth, 2016 Census)[2]
Regions with significant populations
 Canada
Ontario Ontario31,685 (0.25%)
Quebec Quebec25,040 (0.32%)
British Columbia British Columbia15,950 (0.37%)
Alberta Alberta14,465 (0.41%)
Manitoba Manitoba6,420 (0.55%)
Languages
English, French, Spanish, and a minority of indigenous Mexican languages.
Religion
Roman Catholicism, Protestantism and Indigenous beliefs.
Related ethnic groups
Mexican people, Mestizo, Spanish people, Latinos, Native Americans.

Mexican Canadians (Spanish: Mexicano-canadiense, French: Mexicain canadien) are Canadian citizens of Mexican origin, either through birth or ethnicity, who reside in Canada. According to the National Household Survey in 2011, 96,055 Canadians indicated that they were of full or partial Mexican ancestry (0.3% of the country's population).[3] those born in Mexico are the largest subgroup of Latin American Canadians.

The Mexico-origin population in Canada is small despite Canada's proximity to Mexico and especially when compared to the United States where as of July 2014 there were 35,320,579 Mexican Americans[clarification needed] comprising 11.1% of the population (see Mexican Americans).

Mexico-related Canadians trace their origins to Mexico, a country located in North America, bounded south from the United States. Some originate ethnically from many European countries, especially Spain, its colonial ruler for over three centuries.

Demographics

The metropolitan areas with the largest populations of people with Mexico-related origins are: Montreal (15,195; 0.9%), Greater Toronto Area (15,160; 0.3%), Vancouver (10,965; 0.5%), Calgary (4,865; 0.4%), Edmonton (3,630; 0.3%), Ottawa (3,165; 0.3%).[3]

Geographical extent

Most Mexican-Canadian settlement concentrations are found in Canada's metropolitan areas, with the highest concentrations in Greater Toronto and Quebec, also in other provinces of Canada such as British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba.

Some Canadians of Texan ancestry are in Alberta, dating a presence since the first oil industry booms in the 1930s.

While approximately 5,000 people of Mexico origins enter Canada each year as temporary students or contract workers for agriculture, these are not counted as immigrants because of their explicitly temporary legal status. Unlike the United States’ Bracero program, the temporary-worker program in Canada has various mechanisms to discourage workers from overstaying their permits.[4] Migrant workers from Mexico are prevalent in Leamington, Ontario's cucumber and tomato harvesting industry. Leamington has one of the largest Mexico-born communities in Canada.[5][6] There are 2,700 Mexican immigrants living in Leamington, as of 2011.[7]

In the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia, Mexico-born labourers are employed in the wine and orchard industries. Kelowna has a sizeable community of Mexico-born.[8][9][10] In the summer of 2016, about 2,000 of Mexico-origin labourers were working on Okanagan Valley farms.[11]

Statistics

Population by ancestry by Canadian province or territory (2016)
Province Population Source
 Ontario 43,120 [12]
 Quebec 26,935 [13]
 British Columbia 23,055 [14]
 Alberta 22,470 [15]
 Manitoba 8,790 [16]
 Saskatchewan 2,125 [17]
 Nova Scotia 810 [18]
 New Brunswick 695 [19]
 Newfoundland and Labrador 240 [20]
 Prince Edward Island 95 [21]
 Yukon 90 [22]
 Northwest Territories 55 [23]
 Nunavut 10 [24]
 Canada 128,380 [1]
Number of Mexican nationals granted permanent residence in Canada by year[25]
Year Number of Mexican nationals admitted Total number of permanent residents admitted Proportion of permanent residents admitted
2002 1,918 229,048 0.8%
2003 1,738 221,349 0.8%
2004 2,245 235,823 1%
2005 2,854 262,242 1.1%
2006 2,830 251,640 1.1%
2007 3,224 236,753 1.4%
2008 2,831 247,246 1.1%
2009 3,104 252,174 1.2%
2010 3,866 280,691 1.4%
2011 3,642 248,748 1.5%

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Canada, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data". Canada 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. 2019-02-20. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  2. ^ "Immigrant population by place of birth, period of immigration, 2016 counts, both sexes, age (total), Canada, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data". Canada 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. 2019-02-20. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  3. ^ a b [1], National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-10-07. Retrieved 2008-03-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "Migrant workers: Who they are, where they're coming from". CBC.ca. February 7, 2012. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
  6. ^ Garrity, Shaun (December 10, 2014). "Leamington worker tells stories of cartels in Mexico". The MediaPlex. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
  7. ^ "NHS Profile, Leamington, MU, Ontario, 2011". NHS Statistics. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
  8. ^ Stueck, Wendy. Mexican labourers keep B.C. wine flowing, The Globe and Mail, October 14, 2011
  9. ^ NHS Profile, Kelowna, CY, British Columbia, 2011, National Household Survey
  10. ^ Oliver gets a taste of Mexico, Penticton Western News, April 28, 2011
  11. ^ Seymour, Ron (March 27, 2016). "Mexican labour in Okanagan will increase 10-15 per cent this summer". Penticton Herald. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
  12. ^ "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Ontario, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data". Canada 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  13. ^ "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Quebec, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data". Canada 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  14. ^ "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), British Columbia, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data". Canada 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  15. ^ "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Alberta, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data". Canada 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  16. ^ "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Manitoba, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data". Canada 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  17. ^ "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Saskatchewan, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data". Canada 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  18. ^ "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Nova Scotia, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data". Canada 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  19. ^ "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), New Brunswick, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data". Canada 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  20. ^ "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Newfoundland and Labrador, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data". Canada 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  21. ^ "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Prince Edward Island, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data". Canada 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  22. ^ "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Yukon, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data". Canada 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  23. ^ "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Northwest Territories, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data". Canada 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  24. ^ "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Nunavut, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data". Canada 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  25. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-12-30. Retrieved 2013-01-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), Facts and figures 2011 — Immigration overview: Permanent and temporary residents — Permanent residents[dead link]