The classical city of Metropolis (Ancient Greek: Μητρόπολις) is situated in western Turkey near Yeniköy village in Torbali municipality - approximately 40 km SE of Izmir. Occupation at the site goes back to the Neolithic period. The Hittite period is also attested.
Classical, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods are well represented at the site.
The earliest known settlement at the site is from the Neolithic showing evidence of contact and influence with the Troy I littoral culture (needed reference).
An as yet undeciphered seal written in hieroglyphics similar to those of the Hittites has been found in the acropolis of Metropolis. The Hittite kingdom of Arzawa had its capital Apasas (later Ephesus) some 30 km to the south west. During the Hittite period, the city was known as Puranda.
The Mycenaean remains are also found. Bademgedigi Tepe is the archaeological site in the area with large amounts of local Mycenaean pottery, ranging from the 14th to 12th century BC, and later.
A Mycenaean-age representation of a ship on a vase from Bademgediği Tepe is an important find that casts light on the development of ship technology and iconography on ceramic vessels.
Metropolis was a part of the Hellenistic kingdom of Pergamum and during this period the city reached a zenith of cultural and economic life. A temple dedicated to the war god Ares, one of only two known such temples, has been located here.
The theatre at Metropolis, restored in 2001. Photo taken 2007.
The city was noted by numerous classical authors including Strabo and Ptolemy, and described as a town in the Caystrian plain in Lydia, on the road from Smyrna to Ephesus, at a distance of 120 stadia from Ephesus, and 180 from Smyrna. Strabo relates that the district of Metropolis produced excellent wine. The town was still noted by Byzantine authors such as Stephanus of Byzantium and Hierocles.
What is visible today is primarily a Hellenistic city heavily Romanised, and with Byzantine remains laid across it – a church to the east of the city, and fortification walls laid across city that connect to the Hellenistic defenses on the Acropolis.
The city was first investigated through archaeological field work from 1972 by Professor Recep Meriç from the Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir. Metropolis has been excavated since 1989.
In 1995, archaeologists discovered a Hellenistic marble seat of honor with griffins in the Ancient Theatre. The original seat of honor is displayed at the İzmir Archeological Museum and a replica has been placed at the theatre.
- ^ Hawkins, J. D. 2009. The Arzawa letters in recent perspective. British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan 14:73–83
- ^ Meriç, R., Mountjoy, P., “Three Mycenaean Vases from Ionia”, Istanbuler Mitteilungen, 51, 2001, s. 133-137
- ^ Jorrit Kelder (2006), Mycenaeans in Western Anatolia academia.edu
- ^ Meriç, R., Mountjoy, P. (2002), “Mycenaean Pottery from Bademgedigi Tepe (Puranda) in Ionia: A Preliminary Report.” Istanbul Mitteilungen 52:79–98
- ^ P.A. Mountjoy, A Bronze Age Ship from Ashkelon with Particular Reference to the Bronze Age Ship from Bademgediği Tepe. American Journal of Archaeology Vol. 115, No. 3 (July 2011), pp. 483–488 doi:10.3764/aja.115.3.0483
- ^ Strab., Geography, XIV, i, 2; XIV i, 15.
- ^ Ptol., Geography, 5.2.17.
- ^ Strab., Geography, XIV i, 15.
- ^ Steph. B., Ethnica, s.v.
- ^ Hierocl., Synecdemus, p. 600.
- ^ Meriç, R., Metropolis, City of the Mother Goddess, İstanbul, 2003
- ^ Theater of ancient Metropolis crowned with reproduction of griffin seat
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Metropolis". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
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- Meriç, R., Metropolis, İstanbul, 1992.
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- Meriç, R., “Metropolis”, W. Radt ed. içinde, Byzas 3; Stadtgrabungen und Stadtforschung im westlichen Kleinasien, 2006, s. 227-240.
- Meriç, R., “Excavation at Bademgeiği Tepe (Puranda) 1999–2002: A Preliminary Report, Istanbuler Mitteilungen, 2003, s. 79-98.
- Meriç, R., Mountjoy, P., “Three Mycenaean Vases from Ionia”, Istanbuler Mitteilungen, 51, 2001, s. 133-137.
- Meriç, R., Mountjoy, P. (2002), “Mycenaean Pottery from Bademgedigi Tepe (Puranda) in Ionia: A Preliminary Report.” Istanbul Mitteilungen 52:79–98
- Meriç, R., Schachner, A., “Ein Stempelsiegel des spaeten 2. Jahrtausends v. Chr. aus Metropolis in Ionien”, Studi Micenei ed Egeo-Anatolici, XLII/1-2000, s. 85-102.