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|Mental Disorders Diagnosed in Childhood|
|Classification and external resources|
|Specialty||psychiatry, child and adolescent psychiatry|
Mental disorders diagnosed in childhood are divided into two categories: childhood disorders and learning disorders. These disorders are usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, as laid out in the DSM-IV-TR and in the ICD-10. The DSM-IV-TR includes ten subcategories of disorders including mental retardation, Learning Disorders, Motor Skills Disorders, Communication Disorders, Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders, Feeding and Eating Disorders, Tic Disorders, Elimination Disorders, and Other Disorders of Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence.
Mental retardation is coded on Axis II of the DSM-IV-TR. The diagnostic criteria necessary in order to diagnose intellectual disability consists of:
There are varying degrees of intellectual disability, which are identified by an IQ test.
Mental retardation, Severity Unspecified: This unspecified diagnosis is given when there is a strong assumption that the child is mentally retarded, but cannot be tested because the individual is too impaired, not willing to take the IQ test or is an infant.
Intellectual disability in children can be caused by genetic or environmental factors. The individual could have a natural brain malformation or pre or postnatal damage done to the brain caused by drowning or a traumatic brain injury, for example. Nearly 30 to 50% of individuals with intellectual disability will never know the cause of their diagnosis even after thorough investigation.
Prenatal causes of intellectual disability include:
Single-gene disorders that result in intellectual disability include:
These single-gene disorders are usually associated with atypical physical characteristics. About 1/4 of individuals with intellectual disability have a detectable chromosomal abnormality. Others may have small amounts of deletion or duplication of chromosomes, which may go unnoticed and therefore, undetermined.
As an infant, the individual with intellectual disability might sit up, crawl, or walk later than what is developmentally appropriate. They may have trouble talking or learn to talk late. The infants with intellectual disability will probably have trouble learning to potty train, feeding themselves, remembering things, with problem-solving, and may have recurrent explosive tantrums. Some symptoms that a child with intellectual disability might show are continued infant-like behavior, a lack of curiosity, the inability to meet educational demands, learning ability that is below average, and the failure to meet developmentally appropriate intellectual goals. Some children with severe intellectual disability may have seizures, mobility problems, vision problem, or hearing problems.
There is no treatment for intellectual disability but there are plenty of services offered for those diagnosed to help them function in their everyday lives. Professionals will sometimes work out an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP), which documents the child's needs, as well as the services that would best help them specifically. Speech, physical, and occupational therapy may be offered. Intellectually disabled children can be placed in special education classes through the public school system, where the school and parents will map out an Individualized Education Program (IEP). This program lays out all of the services and classes the child will become involved in during their time in school.
Learning disorders are believed to be caused by a nervous system abnormality. The abnormality could either be in the structure of the brain or in the functioning of chemicals in the brain. Because of this, individual has problems receiving, processing or communicating information normally. Some causes of the nervous system abnormality include problems during pregnancy, birth or early infancy, brain trauma at a young age, exposure to toxins, and prematurity.
Children with a learning disorder may display the following traits:
There is no specific treatment for children with learning disorders, but there are special programs and services offered to help them cope with their disorder. Children are taught new ways to interpret and understand information. Often, children with learning disorders can remain in their class, but may be pulled away to focus on trying to enhance their learning skills. Speech and language therapy is offered to those with learning disorders. Tutors are often beneficial.
The cause behind motor skills disorders is not exact, but the cause is usually genetic or environmental. Motor skills disorders are often associated with physiological or developmental abnormalities including ADHD, learning disorders, developmental disabilities and prematurity.
In infants, some babies may be hypotonia, a loose and floppy baby, or hypertonia, a stiff and rigid baby. Toddlers may have trouble feeding themselves or may stand, sit or walk later than what is developmentally normal. Other signs of motor skills disorders may be children that are clumsy or have excessive accidents, such as knocking things over. Children who have trouble with complex physical activities such as dancing, swimming, catching or throwing a ball, or drawing may avoid these activities completely.
Different therapies are offered to children with motor skills disorders to help them improve their motor effectiveness. Many children work with an occupational and physical therapist, as well as educational professionals. This helpful combination is beneficial to the child. Cognitive therapy, sensory integration therapy, and kinesthetic training are often favorable treatment for the child.
The cause of communication disorders in children are usually biological, developmental or environmental. These causes include abnormalities in brain development, exposure to certain toxins during pregnancy, or genetic factors.
Some children with communication disorders may not speak or may have a very limited vocabulary for their developmental period. Children with communication disorders may have trouble following directions or naming simple objects. During childhood, he or she may have trouble comprehending or forming sentences. As they get older, the child may have more trouble expressing or understanding abstract ideas.
Speech and language therapists are often very reliable for helping children with communication disorders. Remedial techniques are often used to help the child communicate more and work on their existing problems. Another technique is to help push the child to work on their strengths to improve their communication skills.
Pervasive developmental disorders have no known cause yet, but researchers are interested in finding a connection between the disorders and problems in the nervous system. Studies are being done on the brain and spinal cord in children with PDDs to try to find a link.
Children with pervasive developmental disorders may exhibit the following symptoms:
A specific treatment plan is usually laid out for the child because of the wide range of behaviors and abilities in each child. Treatment often involves promoting better communication and socializing, and reducing behaviors that can be disruptive. Children with pervasive developmental disorders may be placed in special education classes, receive behavior modification training, speech, physical or occupational therapy, or medication.
With ADHD being one of the most common disorders diagnosed in childhood, the causes are often studied, yet still inconclusive. Many researchers say ADHD is caused by genetic factors, yet other studies are being done to expand on the cause. One research study showed that children who carry a certain gene associated with ADHD had a thinner layer of tissue in the areas of the brain associated with attention. As the children grew older, the brain tissue thickened and their ADHD symptoms improved. Environmental factors, such as the mother smoking or drinking during pregnancy is connected to children with ADHD. Children exposed to lead at a young age will also have an increased chance of developing ADHD. Brain injuries could cause ADHD, yet only a small number of children diagnosed fit into this category. Researchers have looked into sugar intake as the cause of ADHD, but have found little to support that theory.
Children with attention deficit and disruptive behavior disorders may show the following symptoms:
Medication is often used to treat children with attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders. Individualized programs are available for children with these disorders in order to help them function in and complete school. It is the common belief that many of these disorders will disappear as the children get older, but recent research shows that it can carry on into adulthood.
There are a number of factors that could potentially contribute to the development of feeding and eating disorders of infancy or early childhood. These factors include:
Physical and emotional changes are often the most indicative symptoms of feeding and eating disorders of infancy or early childhood. The child's growth and development may be delayed due to the lack of necessary nutrients. The child will usually weigh much less than other children. Withdrawal and irritability are often associated with children that are malnourished.
Since feeding and eating disorders in children can cause dangerous risks to the child, it is important to seek treatment as soon as possible. Cognitive behavioral therapy can be incredibly beneficial to children with feeding or eating disorders. Family therapy is usually encouraged in order to keep all members involved in nourishing the child.
No definitive cause of tic disorders has been declared, but for the most part, the cause lies within biological, chemical, or environmental factors. Studies have shown that abnormal neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and serotonin, which are active in chemical messages in the brain, can serve as a cause of tic disorders. Researchers have also found abnormal changes in certain parts of the brain that cause strain on the blood flow within the brain, which is likely a contributor of tic disorders. 75% of tic disorders have a genetic component. It appears that tic disorders can be caused or worsened by recreational or prescription drug use. Tics can form simply if a person repeats sounds or words they hear over the course of a normal day.
Children with a tic disorder may exhibit the following symptoms:
As part of the treatment, family members and friends are advised not to call attention to the tics when the child is performing them. If they do, the child may develop more tics more frequently. Behavioral therapy and medication are often the choices of treatment for tic disorders in children.
Encopresis: The most common cause of encopresis is constipation. When a child becomes constipated, feces build up in and stretch the rectum. This stretching causes the nerve endings to become dull. The child may not feel when they need to eliminate the feces or if the waste is coming out. Inside the rectum, the feces could become too large or solid to eliminate without feeling pain. While the mass of feces is stuck in the child's rectum, liquid feces could leak from around the mass and out of the child's body. The main causes of constipation are diet, lack of sufficient amounts of water, stress, not enough exercise, and inconsistent bathroom routines.
Enuresis: The cause of enuresis is thought to be unclear and usually is attributed to many factors.
The majority of children with enuresis show no other symptoms besides wetting the bed at night. If other symptoms are present, such as blood stains in their underwear or unusual pain, the child is likely to have a more serious medical problem. Children with encopresis are likely to exhibit symptoms such as; loss of appetite, loose or watery stools, abdominal pain, scratching or itching of anal area because of irritation, withdrawal from friends, or secretive attitude associated with bowel movements.
Children usually "grow out" of their elimination disorders by the time they reach their teens. If treatment is necessary, the most effective choice for enuresis is behavior modification, which involves a special pad that the child sleeps on at night. If the pad gets wet, an alarm goes off and the child is directed to go to the bathroom. Stool softeners or laxatives are the choice of treatment for encopresis.
There are multiple factors that contribute to the cause of other disorders of infancy, childhood, or adolescence. The majority of the factors are going to be physical or environmental. Some of the disorders could be caused by parental influence, such as their inability to properly take care of their child. Most of the other disorders diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence involve anxiety. If the child is continually put in anxiety producing situations, they could show symptoms of these disorders. Usually, the symptoms will be mild and the child will not get help, which may cause the symptoms to become worse.
Separation anxiety disorder
Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood
Stereotypic movement disorder
Cognitive behavioral therapy is often used to treat separation anxiety disorder. Family therapy may also be helpful to get to the core of the issue. Systemic desensitization techniques are usually used to help the child get used to being comfortable away from home.
It is important not to "enable" the child with selective mutism by allowing them to remain silent in the social settings that they are uncomfortable in. Both parents and teachers need to be involved in the treatment of selective mutism. The most important factor to remember is that the child does not have a speech disorder; it is an anxiety disorder.
Treatment almost always involves the child and their parents or caregivers parents may need to take parenting skills classes and attend family therapy with the child. Individual therapy with the child and therapist is effective. Another technique is keeping close physical contact between the child and their parents.
Behavioral techniques and psychotherapy are the most effective treatment for children with this disorder. It is important to change the child's environment so that they are unable to harm themselves. Medication is also effective.
It is not uncommon for children with mental health disorders to be faced with stigma. Stigma against those with mental health disorders can be seen through stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. This stigma can come from the public (those without the disorder) and by oneself (those with the disorder). Both public and self-stigma can diminish the self-esteem of those with mental health disorders; especially children.
Typically, children with mental health disorders are first exposed to stigma within their family unit before later being exposed to it in the school setting and the public. While some may view stigma as a minor problem when looking at the other obstacles children with mental illness may face, others view it as a major problem because of the negative impact it can have on a child's treatment and self perception.
Stigma within the family can cause a delay in the diagnosis of mental health disorders, delaying treatment. It can also cause children to be hesitant in seeking treatment, even when they are experiencing clear mental health symptoms. This is especially true for boys who are more likely than girls to avoid seeking out treatment because of the fear of experiencing stigma.
There are people such as Thomas Szasz and Peter Breggin who say child psychiatry should be made illegal because behaviours are not diseases. They believe psychiatric drugging is a form of child abuse.