The Maine Avenue Fish Market in February 2009
The Maine Avenue Fish Market also known as the Fish Wharf, or simply, the Wharf is an open-air seafood market located in Southwest Washington, D.C. The Fish Market is one of the few surviving open air seafood markets on the east coast of the United States. A local landmark, the Maine Avenue Fish Market is the oldest continuously operating fish market in the United States, seventeen years older than New York City's Fulton Fish Market.
Located on the Southwest Waterfront of Washington, D.C., just under the shadow of Interstate 395, the Maine Avenue Fish Market stands as a cultural relic popular with locals but unknown to many of the tourists who flock to the monuments and museums just five blocks north. There are over ten stores, each with a specialty. The Maine Avenue Fish Market is open each day of the week, but the largest selection of fish is on display Friday evening through Sunday.
A multitude of fresh seafood is sold on floating barges that line the pier along Water Street. These barges, which rise and fall with the tide, are a tribute to an old tradition dating back to the Civil War. For years, fishmongers would navigate theirs once a week down the Potomac to the Chesapeake. There, they would purchase seafood from the watermen and head back to the Washington, DC wharf. In 1961, refrigerated trucks became more efficient to bring the catch from the Eastern Shore and the "buy boats" were permanently docked and later replaced by the steel barges which exist today.
The Washington wharf has hosted a fish market since the 1790s, when fisherman sold their catch directly off their boats. The Maine Avenue Fish Market has been in continuous operation since 1805, making it the oldest operating fish market in the United States and 17 years older than New York City's Fulton Fish Market, which was moved to the Bronx in 2005. The Maine Avenue Market was moved a few blocks along the Washington Channel in the 1960s.
On March 19, 1823, by Ordinance of the Corporation of the City of Washington established the following sites are established as "fishdocks":
The wharf on the Potomac was located at the end of M Street SW. At the time, the corner of 7th Street SW and M Street SW did not exist. Until 1880, no revenue was paid to the City for the fish wharf until W.A. Wimsatt & Co. least it from the city government. The wharf moved just north to where 11th Street SW lands on the river with rents paid annually in February.
The wharf was leased to W.W. Riley until March 15, 1908, when the lease was not renewed. Litigation ended on March 15, 1913.By 1912, sanitation concerns, as well as the smell emanating from the fish wharf, draw the public to request the building of a municipal fish market managed by the city. Congress looked into the matter in 1912 for the 1914 budget. The District Commissioners recommended the creation of a new office of marketmaster and wharfinger which would be in charge of wharfage, dockage rentals, rents for fish houses and a proposed fish wharf and market. They sought authorization to take over and operate the water front on the Potomac on Water Street SW between 11th Street SW and 12th Street SW. On March 15, 1913, the Fish Wharf is placed under the control of Col. W.C. Haskell, Superintendent of Weights, Measures and Markets of the District. Wharfage fees remain the same. The Riley family had been in possession of the wharf since about 1803, with W.W. Riley's father, T.W. Riley involved in its operation for close to eighty years at the time of his death in 1912 at the age of ninety-three years.
At the time, the three wharves were used for:
On July 12, 1913, the retail of melons at the wharf is ban by the District Commissioners.
In addition, fish were sold in 17 shacks facing Water Street SW between 11th Street SW and 12th Street SWe. A plan for the New Market called for a main building to be built along Water Street SW with wings extending along the wharves. The cost was estimated at $98,000 for the building with an additional $25,000 for the smoking and packing houses. An addition $10,000 would be needed to improve the surroundings.
However, the funds are not approved in 1913 in the District appropriation bill in spite of all the dealers being ready for a new building and having made application for the new quarters. By that time, the existing buildings were in use for close to forty years. No proper sewerage existed and all the water run-offs going in the ground under the buildings. 
Finally, on July 21, 1914, in the District appropriation bill, the post of Market master and wharfinger is created along with funds for the reconstruction of the wharves and preparations of plans. $50,000 is appropriated for this use.  The following year on March 3, 1915, funds for the construction of the buildings on the site of the municipal fish wharf and market, including refrigeration and cold-storage plants to accommodate both retail and wholesale are appropriated. The amount given is $125,000 with a limit of cost is fixed at $185,000.
The building is designed by Municipal Architect Snowden Ashford and built at a cost of $150,000 with an additional $50,000 spend on the three concrete wharves. The building finally opens in the Spring of 1918.
On August 7, 1958, the House District Committee approved the demolition of the Municipal Fish Market and the nearby Farmers' Market. The bill passes soon after. Thirteen restaurants and seafood dealers occupied the building at the time.
The two-story brick building Municipal Fish Market was scheduled to be razed in 1959 to make way for the Southwest Waterfront Renewal Project but the vendors refused to leave and exercised a clause in their leases allowing them to stay for 99 years. The first deadline for the building to be vacated was scheduled for November 1, 1959 and then moved back to January 1, 1960. However that deadline is pushed back as a viable solution was not found at the time to relocate the seafood dealers. However, a Municipal Court ruling decided on January 22, 1960 that the District was not required to relocate the dealers prior to eviction. The next deadline for demolition was set to March 1, 1960. Finally on February 1, 1960, the building is closed. The fishing boats remain on site but their future remains uncertain at the time. After several years of negotiations and planning, decks and a marina along with several buildings are announced on February 25, 1969 By 1965, the displaced businesses were still not relocated. Negotiations were ongoing but yield very little results.
As a result, the current Municipal Pier was built for the market underneath the I-395 12th Street highway offramp, to service the new floating barges. Each waterborne business paid $105 in monthly wharfage fees in 1987.
The Fish Market has been praised by urban planners as an example of the sort of small-scale, integrated streetscape which has been displaced by large-scale urban redevelopment in much of the Washington D.C. area. However, the Market is somewhat isolated from the Mall due to its location under the freeway, and the city has refrained from promoting it as an attraction due to uncertainty about whether it can be preserved as an outdoor floating market.
As late as 2009, plans were underway to once again redevelop the entire length of Maine Avenue and remove the frontage road of Water Street, on which the existing waterfront buildings and wharf are located. It is unclear what will be the impact on the historic market, or whether it will be wholly preserved, but all of the associated support structures on Water Street, including the sole remaining land-based eatery, were scheduled to be razed ”to keep the Fish Market in safe and operable condition until the redevelopment occurs”. According to a website associated with the developer PN Hoffman, "Washington’s historic Fish Market will be preserved and renovated and the maritime heritage of the site promoted."
The District Wharf complex opened with Phase I in October 2017, including residential space, hotels, live music venues, shops and restaurants, many overlooking the redesigned wharves and marina. Water Street SW has also been converted to pedestrian use. Phase II of the redevelopment will take place mid-2018 with an expected completion date of 2022.
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