This page uses content from Wikipedia and is licensed under CC BY-SA.

Mahadevi Varma

Mahadevi Verma
Mahadevi varma.png
Native name महादेवी वर्मा
Born (1907-03-26)26 March 1907
Farrukhabad, United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, British India
Died 11 September 1987(1987-09-11) (aged 80)
Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
Occupation Novelist, poet, short-story writer
Language Hindi
Nationality Indian
Education M.A. Sanskrit Allahabad University
Period Early 20th Century
Literary movement Chhayavaad
Notable works Yama
Mera Parivaar
Path Ke Saathi
Notable awards
Spouse Dr Swarup Narayan Varma

Mahadevi Verma (26 March 1907 – 11 September 1987) was a Hindi poet, freedom fighter, woman's rights activist and educationist from India. She is widely regarded as the "modern Meera".[1] She was a major poet of the Chhayavaad, a literary movement of romanticism in modern Hindi poetry ranging from 1914–1938[2] and a prominent poet in Hindi Kavi sammelans (Gatherings of poets).

She was the Principal, and then the Vice-Chancellor of Prayag Mahila Vidyapeeth, a woman's residential college in Allahabad.


Early life and education

Mahadevi Verma was born on 26 March 1907 in Farukhabad into an orthodox family.

Her marriage was arranged and conducted when she was nine years old, in 1916; however, she remained at her parental home and continued her education at Crossthwaite Girls' School in Allahabad.[3] At this school, she also met fellow student Subhadra Kumari Chauhan, who would later go on to become a prominent Hindi writer and poet, like Verma herself.[3] She stayed with her parents while her husband studied in Lucknow to complete his education, during which time, she received her higher education at the Allahabad University and passed her B.A.examination in 1929 and completed her master's degree-M.A. in Sanskrit in 1933.

Mahadevi was originally admitted to a Convent school, but upon protests and an unwilling attitude, she took admission in Crosthwaite Girls College in Allahabad.[citation needed] According to Mahadevi, she learnt the strength of unity in the hostel at Crosthwaite, where students of different religions lived together and the mess was also according to the religious requirement.[citation needed] Mahadevi started to write poems secretly; but upon discovery of her hidden stash of poems by her roommate and senior Subhadra Kumari Chauhan (known in the school for writing poems), her hidden talent was exposed. Mahadevi and Subhrada now started to write poems together in their free time.[citation needed]

While others used to play outside, me and Subhadra used to sit on a tree, and let our creative thoughts flow together...She used to write in Khariboli, and soon I also started to write in Khariboli...this way, we used to write one or two poems a day...

— Mahadevi Varma, Mere Bachpan Ke Din

She and Subhrada also used to send poems to publications such as weekly magazines, and managed to get some of their poems published. Both poets also attended poetry seminars, where they met eminent Hindi poets, and read out their poems to the audience. This partnership continued till Subhrada graduated from Crosthwaite.[citation needed]

In her childhood biography Mere Bachpan Ke Din (My Childhood Days), Mahadevi Verma has written that at a time when a girl child was considered a burden upon the family, she was very fortunate to be born into a liberal family. Her grandfather reportedly had the ambition of making her a scholar; although he insisted that she comply with tradition and marry at the age of nine,[3] her mother was fluent in Sanskrit and Hindi, and very religious.[citation needed]Mahadevi credits her mother for inspiring her to write poems, and to take an interest in literature.[citation needed]

Following her graduation in 1929, Mahadevi Verma refused to comply with tradition and live with her husband, Dr Swarup Narain Verma; she even unsuccessfully tried to convince him to remarry.[4] She is reported to have considered becoming a Buddhist nun but eventually chose not to, although she studied Buddhist Pali and Prakrit texts as part of her master's degree.[3]

Professional life

In 1930 Varma began teaching at village schools around Allahabad.[3] Although she did not actively participate in political activities, particularly in Gandhian civil disobedience campaigns in Allahabad at this time, she adopted Gandhian ideals, including giving up speaking in English, and dressing primarily in khadi.[3] She was appointed as the first headmistress of Allahabad (Prayag) Mahila Vidyapeeth in 1933, a private college which was started with a view to imparting cultural and literary education to girls through the Hindi medium.[3] Later, she became the chancellor of this institute. During her time at the Prayag Mahila Vidyapeeth, she organised several conferences of poets, or Kavi Sammelans, as well as a conference for writers of short stories (Galpa Sammelan) in 1936, that was presided over by writer Sudakshina Varma.[3]

She also continued to write extensively while teaching, including editorials for the Hindi magazine Chand, which she contributed to, edited, and also illustrated.[3] In her editorials she surveyed Hindi literature, especially literature by women, and argued for women writers to have greater confidence in the value of their literary contributions.[3] These editorials were later collected and published in a volume titled Srinkhala ke Kariyan (The Links of Our Chains) in 1942.[3]

After the death of her husband in 1966, she moved permanently to Allahabad and lived there until her death.


Mahadevi is considered to be one of the four major poets of the Chhayavaadi school of the Hindi literature, others being Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala', Jaishankar Prasad and Sumitranandan Pant. She drew a number of illustrations for her poetic works like Yama. One of her other works is Neelkanth which talks about her experience with a peacock, which is included as a chapter into the syllabus of Central Board of Secondary Education for 7th graders. She has also written Gaura which is based on her real life, in this story she wrote about a beautiful cow. Mahadevi Verma is also known for her childhood memoir, Mere Bachpan Ke Din and Gillu, which was inducted into the syllabus of India's Central Board of Secondary Education for the 9th grade.In addition, her poem "Madhur Madhur Mere Deepak Jal" is a part of CBSE curricullum(Hindi-B) for 10th grade.

What arrests us in Mahadevi's work is the striking originality of the voice and the technical ingenuity which enabled her to create in her series of mostly quite short lyrics throughout her five volumes a consistently evolving representation of total subjectivity measured against the vastness of cosmic nature with nothing, as it were, intervening—no human social relationships, no human activities beyond those totally metaphorical ones involving weeping, walking the road, playing the vina, etc.

— David Rubin, The Return of Sarasvati: Four Hindi Poets




  1. ^ Mahadevi Verma: Modern Meera
  2. ^ "Mahadevi Varma: The woman who began the era of romanticism in Hindi literature". 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Tharu, Susie J.; Lalita, Ke (1991-01-01). Women Writing in India: 600 B.C. to the early twentieth century. Feminist Press at CUNY. pp. 459–469. ISBN 9781558610279. 
  4. ^ Rubin, David. The Return of Sarasvati: Four Hindi Poets. Oxford University Press, 1993, p. 150.
  5. ^ Rubin, David. The Return of Sarasvati: Four Hindi Poets. Oxford University Press, 1993, p. 153.
  6. ^ a b "Padma Awards" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2014. Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
  7. ^ "SAHITYA AKADEMI FELLOWSHIP". Sahitya Akademi. Retrieved 19 February 2018. 
  8. ^ "JNANPITH LAUREATES". Bharatiya Jnanpith. Retrieved 19 February 2018. 

Further reading

External links