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Mace (spray)

Mace
TypeSelf-defense chemical spray
InventorAlan Lee Litman
Inception1960s
ManufacturerMace Security International
AvailableAvailable
Websitemace.com

Mace is the brand name of an early type of aerosol self-defense spray invented by Alan Lee Litman in the 1960s. The first commercial product of its type, Litman's design packaged phenacyl chloride (CN) tear gas dissolved in hydrocarbon solvents into a small aerosol spray can,[1] usable in many environment and strong enough to act as a credible deterrent and incapacitant when sprayed in the face.[citation needed] Its popularity led to the name "mace" being used commonly for other defense sprays regardless of their composition,[2][3] and for the term "maced" to be used to reference being pepper sprayed.[4] It is unrelated to the spice mace.[5]

History

The original formulation consisted of 1% chloroacetophenone (CN) in a solvent of 2-butanol, propylene glycol, cyclohexene, and dipropylene glycol methyl ether.[citation needed] Chemical Mace was originally developed in the 1960s by Allan Lee Litman and his wife, Doris Litman, after one of Doris's female colleagues was mugged in Pittsburgh.[6] In 1987, Chemical Mace was sold to Smith & Wesson and manufactured by their Lake Erie Chemical division. Smith & Wesson subsequently transferred ownership to Jon E. Goodrich along with the rest of the chemical division in what is now Mace Security International, which also owns the trademark to the term "mace".[citation needed]

Though the design has been expanded on, the original Chemical Mace formula using only CN has since been discontinued. Due to the potentially toxic nature of CN and the generally superior incapacitating qualities of oleoresin capsicum (OC) pepper spray in most situations, the early CN has been mostly supplanted by OC formulas in police use, although Mace Security International still retains a popular "Triple Action" formula combining CN, OC and an ultraviolet marker dye.[1]

Studies suggest that reptiles are insensitive to capsicum-based products.[7]

References

  1. ^ a b Leu, Chelsea (1 July 2017). "What's Inside Triple-Action Mace? Chili Peppers and UV Dye". Wired. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  2. ^ Gerhardt, Nick. "27 Trademarked Names That Have Become Commonly Used Terms". The Family Handyman. Retrieved March 11, 2020.
  3. ^ Quirk, Mary Beth (July 19, 2014). "15 Product Trademarks That Have Become Victims Of Genericization". Consumerist. Consumer Reports.
  4. ^ Clankie, Shawn (1999). "Brand Name Use in Creative Writing: Genericide or Language Right?". In Buranen, Lise; Roy, Alice Myers (eds.). Perspectives on Plagiarism and Intellectual Property in a Postmodern World. SUNY Press. pp. 260–261. ISBN 978-0-7914-4080-3.
  5. ^ Aronson, J.K. (2009). Meyler's Side Effects of Herbal Medicines. Elsevier. ISBN 9780444532695.
  6. ^ Gross, Daniel A. (November 4, 2014). "The Forgotten History of Mace, Designed by a 29-Year-Old and Reinvented as a Police Weapon". Smithsonian Magazine.
  7. ^ Jordt, Sven-Eric; Julius, David (February 2002). "Molecular Basis for Species-Specific Sensitivity to 'Hot' Chili Peppers". Cell. 108 (3): 421–430. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00637-2. PMID 11853675.

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