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Luton

Luton
Luton Town Hall
Official logo of Luton
Coat of arms of Luton Borough Council
Luton shown within Bedfordshire
Luton shown within Bedfordshire
Coordinates: 51°52′47″N 0°25′03″W / 51.87972°N 0.41750°W / 51.87972; -0.41750
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Constituent countryEngland
RegionEast of England
Ceremonial countyBedfordshire
BoroughLuton
Government
 • TypeBorough
 • Governing bodyLuton Borough Council
 • Executive:Labour
 • MayorCllr Naseem Ayub[1]
 • MPsKelvin Hopkins (L)
Gavin Shuker (L)
Area
 • Total16.74 sq mi (43.35 km2)
Population
 • Total214,700
 • Density12,820/sq mi (4,951/km2)
 • Ethnicity
54.6% White
29.9% Asian
9.8% Black
4.2% Mixed Race
1.5% Other[3]
Time zoneGMT
 • Summer (DST)British Summer Time
Postcode Area
Area code(s)(01582)
ONS code00KA
DemonymLutonians
Airport codeLTN
Websitewww.luton.gov.uk

Luton (/ˈltən/ (About this soundlisten) LOOT-ən)[5] is a large town, borough and unitary authority area of Bedfordshire, England.[6][7] The town is situated on the River Lea in the south east of the island of Great Britain. It is located about 30 miles (50 km) northwest of London. Earliest settlements in the Luton area can be traced back over 250,000 years, but the town’s foundation dates to the sixth century as a Saxon outpost on the River Lea, from which Luton derives its name.

Luton was for many years famous for hat-making, and also had a large Vauxhall Motors factory. Car production at the plant began in 1905 and continued until 2002. Production of commercial vehicles continues, and the head office of Vauxhall Motors is still in the town.

Today Luton is notable for London Luton Airport, opened in 1938, which is one of Britain's major airports. The University of Bedfordshire is also based in the town. Luton is home to Luton Town Football Club, whose history includes several spells in the top flight of the English league as well as a Football League Cup triumph in 1988. They play at Kenilworth Road, their home since 1905. Luton Carnival held the day before the last Monday in May, a public holiday, is the largest one-day carnival in Europe.[8][n 1] Luton Hoo is an English country house and estate and grade I listing building.

Etymology

Luton's earliest recorded name is Lygea-Byrig, where Lygea means 'a river in an open field' and Byrid means 'a town'[9]. The name shown as gradually converting to Luton over the centuries with 'Lvton' being the used in the charter of Charles I[10]

History

Luton is believed to have been founded by the Anglo-Saxons sometime in the 6th century,[11]

The Domesday Book records Luton as Loitone and also as Lintone.[12] Agriculture dominated the local economy at that time, and the town's population was around 700 to 800.[13]

St Mary's Church, Luton town centre
The Wenlock chapel within St Mary's

In 1121 Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester started work on St Mary's Church in the centre of the town. The work was completed by 1137.[14] A motte-and-bailey castle which gives its name to the modern Castle Street was built in 1139 but demolished by 1154.[15]


The hat making industry began in the 17th century and became synonymous with the town.[16][not in citation given]

The town grew: in 1801 the population was 3,095,[17] but by 1850 it was over 10,000 and by 1901 it was almost 39,000.

Newspaper printing arrived in the town in 1854. The first public cemetery was opened in the same year and Luton was made a borough in 1876.[18]

Luton's hat trade reached its peak in the 1930s,[19] but severely declined after the Second World War and was replaced by other industries.

In 1907, Vauxhall Motors opened the largest car plant in the United Kingdom in Luton, during the Second World War, it built Churchill tanks[20] as part of the war effort. Despite heavy camouflage, the factory made Luton a target for the Luftwaffe and the town suffered a number of air raids. 107 died[21] and there was extensive damage to the town (over 1,500 homes were damaged or destroyed).

The first town hall was destroyed in 1919

The original town hall was destroyed in 1919 during Peace Day celebrations at the end of the First World War. Local people, including many ex-servicemen, were unhappy with unemployment and had been refused the use of a local park to hold celebratory events. They stormed the town hall, setting it alight (see Luton Town Hall). A replacement building was completed in 1936.

Luton Airport opened in 1938, owned and operated by the council. It's now one of the largest employers in the area.

The pre-war years, were something of an economic boom for Luton, as new industries grew and prospered. New private and council housing was built in the 1920s and 1930s, with Luton starting to incorporate nearby villages Leagrave, Limbury and Stopsley between 1928 and 1933.[22]

Post-war, a number of substantial estates of council housing were built, notably at Farley Hill, Stopsley, Limbury, Marsh Farm and Leagrave (Hockwell Ring). The Marsh Farm area of the town was developed in the mid to late 1960s as a large council housing estate, mostly to house the overspill population from London. However, the estate gained a reputation for high levels of crime, poverty and unemployment, which culminated in a riot on the estate in July 1992 and another more serious riot three years later.[23]

Governance

Logo of Luton Borough Council

The town is situated within the historic county of Bedfordshire, but since 1997 Luton has been an administratively independent unitary authority. The town remains part of Bedfordshire for ceremonial purposes. Luton is within the East of England European Parliament constituency.

Luton is represented in Parliament by Kelvin Hopkins who holds the Luton North and Gavin Shuker who holds Luton South

There are 48 councillors on Luton Borough Council representing 19 wards, with the next elections due in May 2015. The Council is controlled by the Labour group, who have 36 Local Councillors compared to the Liberal Democrats with eight seats and the Conservative Party with four.[24]

Wards

The electoral wards in Luton are:

  1. Barnfield
  2. Biscot
  3. Bramingham
  4. Challney
  5. Crawley
  6. Dallow
  7. Farley Hill
  8. High Town
  9. Icknield
  10. Leagrave
Lutonwardmap.jpg
  1. Lewsey
  2. Limbury
  3. Northwell
  4. Round Green
  5. Saints
  6. South ward
  7. Stopsley
  8. Sundon Park
  9. Wigmore
Luton Borough Council coat of arms: granted 25 July 1876

In 1876 the town council was granted its own coat of arms. The wheatsheaf was used on the crest to represent agriculture and the supply of straw used in the local hatting industry (the straw-plaiting industry was brought to Luton by a group of Scots under the protection of Sir John Napier of Luton Hoo). The bee is traditionally the emblem of industry and the hive represents the straw-plaiting industry for which Luton was famous. The rose is from the arms of the Napier family, whereas the thistle is a symbol for Scotland. An alternative suggestion is that the rose was a national emblem, and the thistle represents the Marquess of Bute, who formerly owned the Manor of Luton Hoo.[25][26]

Geography

A pedestrian suspension bridge spans the River Lea in Wardown Park.

Luton is located in a break in the eastern part of the Chiltern Hills. The Chilterns are a mixture of chalk from the Cretaceous period[27] (about 66 – 145 million years ago) and deposits laid at the southernmost points of the ice sheet during the last ice age (the Warden Hill area can be seen from much of the town).

Bedfordshire had a reputation for brick making but the industry is now significantly reduced. The brickworks[28] at Stopsley took advantage of the clay deposits in the east of the town.

The source of the River Lea, part of the Thames Valley drainage basin, is in the Leagrave area of the town. The Great Bramingham Wood surrounds this area. It is classified as ancient woodland; records mention the wood at least 400 years ago.

There are few routes through the hilly area for some miles, this has led to several major roads (including the M1 and the A6) and a major rail-link being constructed through the town.

Climate

Luton has a temperate marine climate, like much of the British Isles, with generally light precipitation throughout the year. The weather is very changeable from day to day and the warming influence of the Gulf Stream makes the region mild for its latitude. The average total annual rainfall is 698 mm (27.5 in) with rain falling on 117 days of the year.

Snow accumulation over the Chiltern hills during October 2008 snowfall, Luton is denoted by the yellow dot.

The local climate around Luton is differentiated somewhat from much of South East England due to its position in the Chiltern Hills, meaning it tends to be 1–2 degrees Celsius cooler than the surrounding towns – often flights at Luton airport, lying 160 m (525 ft) above sea level, will be suspended when marginal snow events occur, while airports at lower elevations, such as Heathrow, at 25 m (82 ft) above sea level, continue to function. An example of this is shown in the photograph to the right, the snowline being about 100 m (328 ft) above sea level. Absolute temperature extremes recorded at Rothamsted Research Station, 5 miles (8 km) south south east of Luton town centre and at a similar elevation range from −17.0 °C (1.4 °F)[29] in December 1981 and −16.7 °C (1.9 °F) in January 1963[30] to 36.0 °C (96.8 °F) in August 2003[31] and 33.8 °C (92.8 °F) in August 1990[32] and July 2006.[33] Records for Rothamsted date back to 1901.

Climate data for Rothamsted 1971–2000 (Weather station 5 miles (8 km) to the south of Luton)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.3
(43.3)
6.7
(44.1)
9.5
(49.1)
11.9
(53.4)
15.7
(60.3)
18.6
(65.5)
21.4
(70.5)
21.4
(70.5)
18.0
(64.4)
13.8
(56.8)
9.4
(48.9)
7.2
(45.0)
13.4
(56.1)
Average low °C (°F) 0.9
(33.6)
0.7
(33.3)
2.3
(36.1)
3.6
(38.5)
6.3
(43.3)
9.2
(48.6)
11.4
(52.5)
11.4
(52.5)
9.5
(49.1)
6.7
(44.1)
3.3
(37.9)
1.9
(35.4)
5.6
(42.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 69.5
(2.74)
47.3
(1.86)
54.0
(2.13)
53.1
(2.09)
49.8
(1.96)
60.4
(2.38)
41.2
(1.62)
53.6
(2.11)
60.9
(2.40)
74.4
(2.93)
66.0
(2.60)
67.6
(2.66)
697.8
(27.47)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 55.2 70.6 107.3 146.7 194.7 190.2 203.4 196.5 142.2 112.2 70.2 48.1 1,537.2
Source: Met Office[34]

Demography

Racial structure, according to the 2011 census

  White (54.6%)
  Asian (30.0%)
  Black (9.8%)
  Mixed (4.1%)
  Other (1.5%)

The United Kingdom Census 2011 showed that the borough had a population of 203,201,[35] a 10.2% increase from the previous census in 2001, when Luton was the 27th[36] largest settlement in the United Kingdom. In 2011, 46,756 were aged under 16, 145,208 were 16 to 74, and 11,237 were 75 or over.[37] The latest population figure for the borough is 214,700 (mid-2017 est.).[6]

Local inhabitants are known as Lutonians.

Ethnicity

Luton has seen several waves of immigration. In the early part of the 20th century, there was internal migration of Irish and Scottish people to the town. These were followed by Afro-Caribbean and Asian immigrants. More recently immigrants from other European Union countries have made Luton their home. As a result of this Luton has a diverse ethnic mix, with a significant population of Asian descent, mainly Pakistani 29,353 (14.4%) and Bangladeshi 13,606 (6.7%).[38]

Since the 2011 census, Luton has become one of three white British-minority towns in the United Kingdom along with Leicester and Slough although the town still has a white majority when non-British whites such as the Irish and Eastern Europeans are included.[38] 81% of the population of Luton define themselves as British.[39]

Luton: Ethnicity: 2011 Census[38]
Ethnic group Population %
White 111,079 54.6
Mixed 8,281 4.1
Asian or Asian British 60,952 30.0
Black or Black British 19,909 9.8
Other Ethnic Group 2,980 1.5
Total 203,201 100

Religion

Religion in Luton (2011 census)

  Christianity (46.4%)
  Islam (25.6%)
  Hinduism (3.3%)
  Sikhism (1.1%)
  Other religions (0.7%)
  Not stated (7.2%)
  No religion (16.5%)
Religion Population %
Christian 96,271 46.4
Muslim 51,992 25.6
Hindu 6,749 1.0
Sikh 2,347 1.0
Buddhist 652 0.3
Jewish 326 0.2
Other 898 0.4
No religion 33,594 16.5
Religion not stated 12,373 6.1

Economy

Griffin House, headquarters of Vauxhall Motors
Hangar 89, EasyJet headquarters

Luton's economy has, traditionally been focused on several different areas of industry including Car Manufacture, engineering and millinery. However, today, Luton is moving towards a service based economy mainly in the retail and the airport sectors, although there is still a focus on light industry in the town.

Notable firms with headquarters in Luton include:

Notable firms with offices in Luton include:

Employment

Of the town's working population (classified 16–74 years of age by the Office for National Statistics), 63% are employed. This figure includes students, the self-employed and those who are in part-time employment. 11% are retired, 8% look after the family or take care of the home and 5% are unemployed.[51]

Principal employers

According to the Luton Borough Council,[52] the principal employers in the town are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Luton Borough Council 8,000+
2 Luton and Dunstable University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust 4,000+
3 Aircraft Service International Group 1,000–1,999
3 Carlisle Security Services 1,000–1,999
5 EasyJet 1,000–1,999
6 Menzies Aviation 1,000–1,999
7 Randstad 1,000–1,999
8 TUI 1,000–1,999
9 University of Bedfordshire 1,000–1,999

Transport

Luton is situated less than 30 miles north of the centre of London, giving it good links with the City and other parts of the country via the motorway network. Luton has three railway stations: [[Luton railway station Leagrave, running from Brighton to Bedford and Luton Airport Parkway that are served by East Midlands Trains and Thameslink services. Luton is also home to London Luton Airport, one of the major feeder airports for London and the southeast. A network of bus services run by Arriva Shires & Essex, Grant Palmer Passenger Services and Centrebus serves the urban area of Luton and Dunstable, and in 2013 a bus rapid transit route opened, the Luton to Dunstable Busway, connecting the town with the Airport, Dunstable and Houghton Regis.

Luton is also served by a large taxi network. As a Unitary Authority, Luton Borough Council is responsible for the local highways and public transport in the Borough and licensing of Taxis.

Education

University of Bedfordshire – Luton

Luton is one of the main locations of the University of Bedfordshire. A large campus of the university is in Luton town centre, with a smaller campus based on the edge of town in Putteridge Bury, an old Victorian manor house. The other main campus of the university is located in Bedford.

The town is home to Luton Sixth Form College and Barnfield College. Both have been awarded Learning & Skills Beacon Status by the Department for Children, Schools and Families.[53][54]

Luton's schools and colleges had also been earmarked for major investment in the government scheme Building Schools for the Future programme, which intends to renew and refit buildings in institutes across the country. Luton is in the 3rd wave of this long term programme with work intending to start in 2009.[55] Some schools were rebuilt before the programme was scrapped by the coalition government.

There are 98 educational institutes in Luton – seven nurseries, 56 primary schools (9 voluntary-aided, 2 Special Requirements), 13 secondary schools (1 voluntary-aided, 1 Special Requirements), four further educational institutes and four other educational institutes.[56]

Culture

Architecture

The town contains 92 listed buildings.[57]

Leisure and entertainment

Luton International Carnival

Luton International Carnival is the largest one-day carnival in Europe. It usually takes place on the late May Bank Holiday. Crowds can reach 150,000[58] on each occasion.

The procession starts at Wardown Park and makes its way down New Bedford Road, around the town centre via St George's Square, back down New Bedford Road and finishes back at Wardown Park. There are music stages and stalls around the town centre and at Wardown Park.

Luton is home to the UK Centre for Carnival Arts (UKCCA), the country's first purpose-built facility of its kind.[59]

Luton St. Patrick's Festival

The festival celebrating the patron saint of Ireland and organised by Luton Irish Forum, St Patrick, is held on the weekend nearest to 17 March.[60] In its 15th year in 2014,[61] the festival includes a parade, market stalls and music stands as well as Irish themed events.[62]

Luton Mela

The first Luton Mela took place in August 2000 and has developed into one of the most significant and well attended south Asian cultural events in the eastern region.

City of Culture Bid and Pilot Year

Luton Council's strategic vision for the Arts, and Cultural and Creative industries includes the plan to bid for City of Culture Status. This plan includes a pilot year with the theme of Peace Riots starting in Spring 2019.[63] Events will be published on the Luton.Events website.

Theatre and performing arts

Luton is home to the Library Theatre, a 238-seat theatre located on the 3rd floor of the town's Central Library. The theatre's programme consists of local amateur dramatic societies, pantomime, children's theatre (on Saturday mornings) and one night shows of touring theatre companies.[64]

Luton is also home to the Hat Factory, originally as its name suggests, this arts centre was in fact a real hat factory. The Hat Factory is a combined arts venue in the centre of Luton. It opened in 2003 and since then has been the area’s main provider of contemporary theatre, dance and music. The venue provides live music, club nights, theatre, dance, films, children's activities, workshops, classes and gallery exhibitions.


Literature, film and television

Radio

Television

  • Television Luton falls at the cross over point between the two regions of Carlton/LWT (ITV London) and Anglia Television (ITV Anglia) which transmits from Norwich. Coverage for most Luton Town FC games and highlights is usually shown on BBC London news and on BBC 1 London's Football League show
  • Days Like These, the British re-make of the popular American sitcom That '70s Show, was set in Luton.

Media references

In the TV series One Foot in the Grave there are often references to places within Luton. The script-writer David Renwick was brought up in the town. The town was mentioned several times in the sketch show Monty Python's Flying Circus. A 1976 episode of the sci-fi series Space: 1999 was called "The Rules of Luton". The comedian Eric Morecambe often made references to Luton Town FC.

Local attractions

Recreation

Parks and open spaces

Luton has a variety of parks ranging from district park, neighbourhood park, local open space and leisure gardens.

Brantwood Park

In the 1880s, the land now known as Brantwood Park was an open field on the south side of Dallow. The Site was purchased by the Town Council in 1894 for use as a recreation ground and there is reference to it as ‘West Ward Recreation Ground in a 1911 year book. It is reported as being one of the first two recreation grounds in Luton; The other being East Ward Recreation Ground, now known as Manor Road Park.[67]

Kidney Wood

Kidney Wood is ancient semi-natural woodland on the southern edge of Luton that has been identified as a County Wildlife Site. The wood was purchased by Luton Borough Council as an area of public open space. The council seeks to maintain and enhance the nature conservation interest of Kidney Wood, including its habitats while allowing public access for informal recreation including play. Kidney Wood includes a way marked nature trail and play dells.

Memorial Park

Sir Julius Wernher purchased the Luton Hoo Estate and the Manor of Luton from Madame de Falbe around 1903. He carried out substantial renovation works to the Manor and grounds. On his death in 1912 the estate passed to Lady Ludlow. Lady Ludlow presented the Park to the people of Luton on 12 June 1920, in memory of her son Alex Piggott Werner, who was killed in action during the First World War. The site is officially named Luton Hoo Memorial Park. Council records state that the area was purchased under the Statutory Powers of the Public Health Acts.

Stockwood Park

Stockwood Park is a large municipal park near Junction 10 of the M1. Located in the park is Stockwood Discovery Centre a free museum that houses Luton local social history, archaeology and geology. The collection of rural crafts and trades held at Stockwood Discovery Centre was amassed by Thomas Wyatt Bagshawe, who was a notable local historian and a leading authority on folk life. The park is an athletics track, an 18-hole golf course, several rugby pitches and areas of open space. The park was originally the estate and grounds to Stockwood house, which was demolished in 1964. The park includes the Mossman Collection of horse-drawn vehicles, which is the largest and most significant vehicle collection of its kind in the country, including originals from the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries.

Part of the Mossman Collection.

Wardown Park

The Daisy-Chain Wall in Wardown Park.

Wardown Park is situated on the River Lea in Luton. The park has sporting facilities, is home to the Wardown Park Museum and contains formal gardens. The park is located between Old Bedford Road and the A6, New Bedford Road and is within walking distance of the town centre.[68] The park houses Wardown House Museum and Gallery, previously known as Luton Museum and Art Gallery, in a large Victorian mansion. The museum collection focusses on the traditional crafts and industry of Luton and Bedfordshire, notably lace-making and hat-making. There are samples of local lace from as early as the 17th century.

Shopping

The Mall Luton, the main shopping destination in Luton.

The main shopping area in Luton is centred on the Mall Luton. Built in the 1960s/1970s and opened as an Arndale Centre, construction of the shopping centre led to the demolition of a number of the older buildings in the town centre including the Plait Halls (a Victorian covered market building with an iron and glass roof). Shops and businesses in the remaining streets, particularly in the roads around Cheapside and in High Town, have been in decline ever since. George Street, on the south side of the Arndale, was pedestrianised in the 1990s.

The shopping centre had some construction and re-design work done to it over the 2011/12 period and now has a new square used for leisure events, as well as numerous new food restaurants such as Toby's Carvery and Costa Coffee.

Contained within the main shopping centre is the market, which contains butchers, fishmongers, fruit and veg, hairdressers, tattoo parlours, ice cream, flower stall, T-shirt printing and the markets original sewing shop for clothes alterations and repairs as well as eating places.

Another major shopping area is Bury Park where there are shops catering to Luton's ethnic minorities.

Sport

Kenilworth Road, home to Luton Town Football Club

Luton has a wide range of sports clubs. It's the home town of Luton Town Football Club who currently play in the Football League 1[69] and whose history includes several spells in the top flight of the English league as well as a Football League Cup triumph in 1988. They play at Kenilworth Road, their home since 1905. Their nickname, "The Hatters", dates back to when Luton had a substantial millinery industry.

Bedfordshire County Cricket Club is based at Wardown Park and is one of the county clubs which make up the Minor Counties in the English domestic cricket structure, representing the historic county of Bedfordshire, while Luton Rugby Club who play in London 1 North league.

There's also a substantial history of sport in the town: Speedway racing was staged at Luton Stadium from 1934 to 1937.[70]

Twin towns

Luton participates in international town twinning; its partners[71][72] are:

Country Place County / District / Region / State Date
Germany DEU Bergisch Gladbach COA.svg Bergisch Gladbach Coat of arms of North Rhine-Westfalia.svg North Rhine-Westphalia 1956
France Blason Bourgoin Jallieu.svg Bourgoin-Jallieu[72] Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes 1956
Sweden Eskilstuna vapen.svg Eskilstuna Södermanland vapen.svg Södermanland 1949
Germany Coat of arms of borough Spandau.svg Berlin-Spandau Coat of arms of Berlin.svg Berlin 1959
Germany DEU Wolfsburg COA.svg Wolfsburg Coat of arms of Lower Saxony.svg Lower Saxony 1950

Notable people

People who were born in Luton or are associated with the town.

By birth

By association

References and notes

References
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  2. ^ Leadership=Mayor & Cabinet
    Executive=Labour
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  4. ^ ONS estimates for total population and density in 2011 and ethnicity in 2009. See the Demography section above for further information.
  5. ^ "Luton". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
  6. ^ a b "Population Estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, Mid-2017". Office for National Statistics. 28 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018. Luton 214,700
  7. ^ "Table PHP01 2011 Census: Usual residents ... wards in England and Wales;". 2011 Census: population and household estimates for Wards and Output Areas in England and Wales. Office for National Statistics. 23 November 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2013.. Dunstable wards 36,253. Houghton Regis wards 17,283.
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  9. ^ Luton, Past and Present: Its History and Antiquities. author. 1874. pp. 98–.
  10. ^ Luton, Past and Present: Its History and Antiquities. author. 1874. pp. 98–.
  11. ^ "Early history of Luton". Retrieved 16 June 2008.
  12. ^ "Domesday book record". Retrieved 16 June 2008.
  13. ^ "A History of Luton".
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  16. ^ "A history hat making in Luton". Plaiting and Straw Hat Making. Luton Libraries. Archived from the original on 27 May 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2008.
  17. ^ "Population figures for 1801, 1901 and 1901". Retrieved 16 June 2008.
  18. ^ "Luton was made a borough". Retrieved 16 June 2008.
  19. ^ "The Hat Industry of Luton and its Buildings". The Hat Industry of Luton and its Buildings. Historic England. 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  20. ^ "Churchill Tanks at Vauxhall". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  21. ^ "Deaths during WWII". Localhistories.org. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
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  24. ^ [2] Archived 9 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ "Luton Town Coat of Arms". Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  26. ^ "Arms of Luton (England)". Archived from the original on 25 September 2008. Retrieved 18 June 2008.
  27. ^ Map of soil distribution in Beds Archived 29 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
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  36. ^ KS01 Usual resident population: Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban areas Archived 6 March 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
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  39. ^ Philipson, Alice. "White Britons a minority in Leicester, Luton and Slough". Telegraph. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
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Notes
  1. ^ Like most long-held UK events on this date, before 1972 it was held during the Christian moving feast and discretionary holiday of Whitsuntide (Pentecost) exactly seven weeks after Easter, in this case usually on the Monday

Bibliography

  • Dyer, James; Stygall, Frank; Dony, John (1964). The Story of Luton. Luton: White Crescent Press.

External links