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Like "Lusitanic", the word "Lusophobia" (Portuguese: lusofobia) derives from "Lusitania", the Ancient Roman province that comprised what is nowadays Central and Southern Portugal, and "phobia" that means "fear of". The term is used in Portuguese-speaking countries, and its use in English is rare. The opposite concept is lusophilia.
In the 19th century, the term lusofobia was often used to describe nationalist sentiments in Brazil, a former colony of the Portuguese Empire, with Liberal politicians in Rio de Janeiro and Pernambuco advocating the reduction of immigrant Portuguese involvement in the Brazilian economy, though almost all were themselves of Portuguese descent. In Rio, the "Jacobinos", a small national radical group, were the strongest opponents of the galegos, the Portuguese immigrants, who were (and still are) also the biggest ethnocultural community in Brazil.
In the immediate aftermath of the abdication of Pedro I of Brazil in 1831, in favor of his son Pedro II of Brazil, the poor black people, including slaves, staged anti-Portuguese riots in the streets of Brazil's larger cities.
In 2007 after three-year-old Madeleine McCann disappeared from Praia da Luz, in the Algarve region of southern Portugal, many UK media outlets wrote highly critical articles that were described as having "a touch of arrogant xenophobia". Whilst others in the media attempted to foster anti-Portuguese sentiment with ideas such as boycotting Portugal as a holiday destination, this was not reflected in general public opinion which saw record numbers of UK tourists visit Portugal. Considered a record, the estimates were of 2 million British tourists holidaying in Portugal in 2007. Notable anti-Portuguese articles by Tony Parsons received a record number of complaints to the Press Complaints Commission for that year.