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Luanda

Luanda
City
Luanda Collage.png
Luanda is located in Angola
Luanda
Luanda
Location of Luanda in Angola
Luanda is located in Africa
Luanda
Luanda
Luanda (Africa)
Coordinates: 8°50′18″S 13°14′4″E / 8.83833°S 13.23444°E / -8.83833; 13.23444
Country Angola
ProvinceLuanda
Founded1576
Area
 • City116 km2 (45 sq mi)
 • Metro
1,876 km2 (724 sq mi)
Elevation
6 m (20 ft)
Population
 (2019)[2]
 • City2,571,861 [1]
 • Metro
8,069,612
 • Metro density4,300/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
 2019
Time zone+1
ClimateBSh

Luanda, formerly named São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda, is the capital and largest city in Angola, It is Angola's primary port, and its major industrial, cultural and urban centre. Located on Angola's northern coast with the Atlantic Ocean, Luanda is both Angola's chief seaport and its administrative centre. It is also the capital city of Luanda Province. Luanda and its metropolitan area is the most populous Portuguese-speaking capital city in the world, with over 8 million inhabitants in 2019 (a third of Angola's population). Among the oldest colonial cities of Africa, it was founded in January 1576 by Portuguese explorer Paulo Dias de Novais, under the name of São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda. The city served as the centre of the slave trade to Brazil before its prohibition. At the start of the Angolan Civil War in 1975, most of the white Portuguese left as refugees,[3] principally for Portugal. Luanda's population increased greatly from refugees fleeing the war, but its infrastructure was inadequate to handle the increase. This also caused the exacerbation of slums, or musseques, around Luanda. The city is currently undergoing a major reconstruction,[4] with many large developments taking place that will alter its cityscape significantly.

The industries present in the city include the processing of agricultural products, beverage production, textile, cement, newly car assembly plants, construction materials, plastics, metallurgy, cigarettes and shoes. The city is also notable as a economic centre for oil,[5][6] and a refinery is located in the city. Luanda has been considered one of the most expensive cities in the world for expatriates.[7][8] The inhabitants of Luanda are mostly members of the ethnic group of the Ambundu, but in recent times there has been an increase of the number of the Bakongo and the Ovimbundu. There exists a European population, consisting mainly of Portuguese. Luanda was the main host city for the matches of the 2010 African Cup of Nations.

History

Portuguese rule

A map of Luanda in the early 1700s.
The centre of Luanda in 1883.
General history of Angolan wars of António de Oliveira de Cadornega, written in 1680.

Portuguese explorer Paulo Dias de Novais founded Luanda on 25 January 1576 as "São Paulo da Assumpção de Loanda", with one hundred families of settlers and four hundred soldiers. In 1618, the Portuguese built the fortress called Fortaleza São Pedro da Barra, and they subsequently built two more: Fortaleza de São Miguel (1634) and Forte de São Francisco do Penedo (1765-6). Of these, the Fortaleza de São Miguel is the best preserved.[9]

Luanda was Portugal's bridgehead from 1627, except during the Dutch rule of Luanda, from 1640 to 1648, as Fort Aardenburgh. The city served as the centre of slave trade to Brazil from circa 1550 to 1836.[10] The slave trade was conducted mostly with the Portuguese colony of Brazil; Brazilian ships were the most numerous in the port of Luanda. This slave trade also involved local merchants and warriors who profited from the trade.[11] During this period, no large scale territorial conquest was intended by the Portuguese; only a few minor settlements were established in the immediate hinterland of Luanda, some on the last stretch of the Kwanza River.

In the 17th century, the Imbangala became the main rivals of the Mbundu in supplying slaves to the Luanda market. In the 1750s, between 5,000 and 10,000 slaves were annually sold.[12] By this time, Angola, a Portuguese colony, was in fact like a colony of Brazil, paradoxically another Portuguese colony. A strong degree of Brazilian influence was noted in Luanda until the Independence of Brazil in 1822. In the 19th century, still under Portuguese rule, Luanda experienced a major economic revolution. The slave trade was abolished in 1836, and in 1844, Angola's ports were opened to foreign shipping. By 1850, Luanda was one of the greatest and most developed Portuguese cities in the vast Portuguese Empire outside Continental Portugal, full of trading companies, exporting (together with Benguela) palm and peanut oil, wax, copal, timber, ivory, cotton, coffee, and cocoa, among many other products. Maize, tobacco, dried meat, and cassava flour are also produced locally. The Angolan bourgeoisie was born by this time.[citation needed]

In 1889, Governor Brito Capelo opened the gates of an aqueduct which supplied the city with water, a formerly scarce resource, laying the foundation for major growth. Like most of Portuguese Angola, the cosmopolitan[13] city of Luanda was not affected by the Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974); economic growth and development in the entire region reached record highs during this period. In 1972, a report called Luanda the "Paris of Africa". Throughout Portugal's Estado Novo period, Luanda grew from a town of 61,208 with 14.6% of those inhabitants being white in 1940, to a wealthy cosmopolitan major city of 475,328 in 1970 with 124,814 Europeans (26.3%) and around 50,000 mixed race inhabitants.[14][15]

Independence from Portugal

Portuguese colonial troops on parade in Luanda.

By the time of Angolan independence in 1975, Luanda was a modern city. The majority of its population was African, but it was dominated by a strong minority of white Portuguese origin.[citation needed] After the Carnation Revolution in Lisbon on April 25, 1974, with the advent of independence and the start of the Angolan Civil War (1975–2002), most of the white Portuguese Luandans left as refugees,[3] principally for Portugal, with many travelling overland to South Africa. There was an immediate crisis, however, as the local African population lacked the skills and knowledge needed to run the city and maintain its well-developed infrastructure.

The large numbers of skilled technicians among the force of Cuban soldiers sent in to support the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) government in the Angolan Civil War were able to make a valuable contribution to restoring and maintaining basic services in the city. In the following years. However, slums called musseques — which had existed for decades — began to grow out of proportion and stretched several kilometres beyond Luanda's former city limits as a result of the decades-long civil war, and because of the rise of deep social inequalities due to large-scale migration of civil war refugees from other Angolan regions. For decades, Luanda's facilities were not adequately expanded to handle this huge increase in the city's population. After 2002, with the end of the civil war and high economic growth rates fuelled by the wealth provided by the increasing oil and diamond production, major reconstruction started.[16] Luanda has also become one of the world's most expensive cities.[17]

Geography

Human geography

Luanda is divided into two parts, the Baixa de Luanda (lower Luanda, the old city) and the Cidade Alta (upper city or the new part). The Baixa de Luanda is situated next to the port, and has narrow streets and old colonial buildings.[18] However, new constructions have by now covered large areas beyond these traditional limits, and a number of previously independent nuclei — like Viana — were incorporated into the city.

Metropolitan Area (Greater Luanda)

Until 2011, the former Luanda Province comprised what now forms five municipalities. In 2011 the Province was enlarged by the addition of two additional municipalities transferred from Bengo Province, namely Icolo e Bengo, and Quiçama. Excluding these additions, the five municipalities comprise Greater Luanda:

Name Area in
km2
Population
Census
2014
Population
Estimate
2019[19]
Belas 1,046 1,071,046 1,271,854
Cacuaco 312 1,077,438 1,279,488
Cazenga 37 880,639 1,045,722
Luanda (city) 116 2,165,867 2,571,861
Viana 693 1,600,594 1,900,688
Totals 1,876 6,795,585 8,069,612

Two new municipalities have been created within Greater Luanda since 2017: Talatona and Kilamba-Kiaxi

Municipal

Sé Catedral de Luanda - Igreja de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios

The city of Luanda is divided in seven urban districts: Ingombota, Kilamba Kiaxi, Maianga, Ngola Kiluanj, Rangel, Samba e Sambizanga.

A completely new satellite city, called Luanda Sul has been built. In Camama, Zango and Kilamba Kiaxi, more high-rise developments are to be built. The capital Luanda is growing constantly - and in addition, increasingly beyond the official city limits and even provincial boundaries.

Luanda is the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop. It is also the location of most of Angola's educational institutions, including the private Catholic University of Angola and the public University of Agostinho Neto. It is also the home of the colonial Governor's Palace and the Estádio da Cidadela (the "Citadel Stadium"), Angola's main stadium, with a total seating capacity of 60,000.[20]

Luanda Sul

The climate is warm and dry

Luanda Sul is a satellite city of Luanda. A small stream flows in southern Luanda Sul, starting near the Quatro de Fevereiro Airport and emptying into the Atlantic Ocean.[21] Luanda International School is in Viana.[21]

Climate

Luanda has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSh). The climate is warm to hot but surprisingly dry, owing to the cool Benguela Current, which prevents moisture from easily condensing into rain. Frequent fog prevents temperatures from falling at night even during the completely dry months from June to October. Luanda has an annual rainfall of 405 millimetres (15.9 in), but the variability is among the highest in the world, with a co-efficient of variation above 40 percent.[22] Observed records since 1858 range from 55 millimetres (2.2 in) in 1958 to 851 millimetres (33.5 in) in 1916. The short rainy season in March and April depends on a northerly counter current bringing moisture to the city: it has been shown clearly that weakness in the Benguela current can increase rainfall about sixfold compared with years when that current is strong.[23]

Climate data for Luanda (1961–1990, extremes 1879–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.9
(93.0)
34.1
(93.4)
37.2
(99.0)
36.1
(97.0)
36.1
(97.0)
35.0
(95.0)
28.9
(84.0)
28.3
(82.9)
31.0
(87.8)
31.2
(88.2)
36.1
(97.0)
33.6
(92.5)
37.2
(99.0)
Average high °C (°F) 29.5
(85.1)
30.5
(86.9)
30.7
(87.3)
30.2
(86.4)
28.8
(83.8)
25.7
(78.3)
23.9
(75.0)
24.0
(75.2)
25.4
(77.7)
26.8
(80.2)
28.4
(83.1)
28.6
(83.5)
27.7
(81.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.7
(80.1)
28.5
(83.3)
28.6
(83.5)
28.2
(82.8)
27.0
(80.6)
23.9
(75.0)
22.1
(71.8)
22.1
(71.8)
23.5
(74.3)
25.2
(77.4)
26.7
(80.1)
26.9
(80.4)
25.8
(78.4)
Average low °C (°F) 23.9
(75.0)
24.7
(76.5)
24.6
(76.3)
24.3
(75.7)
23.3
(73.9)
20.3
(68.5)
18.7
(65.7)
18.8
(65.8)
20.2
(68.4)
22.0
(71.6)
23.3
(73.9)
23.5
(74.3)
22.3
(72.1)
Record low °C (°F) 18.0
(64.4)
16.1
(61.0)
20.0
(68.0)
17.8
(64.0)
17.8
(64.0)
12.8
(55.0)
11.0
(51.8)
12.2
(54.0)
15.0
(59.0)
17.8
(64.0)
17.2
(63.0)
17.8
(64.0)
11.0
(51.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 30
(1.2)
36
(1.4)
114
(4.5)
136
(5.4)
16
(0.6)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.0)
2
(0.1)
7
(0.3)
32
(1.3)
31
(1.2)
405
(15.9)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 4 5 9 11 2 0 0 1 3 5 8 5 53
Average relative humidity (%) 80 78 80 83 83 82 83 85 84 81 82 81 82
Mean monthly sunshine hours 217.0 203.4 207.7 192.0 229.4 207.0 167.4 148.8 150.0 167.4 186.0 201.5 2,277.6
Mean daily sunshine hours 7.0 7.2 6.7 6.4 7.4 6.9 5.4 4.8 5.0 5.4 6.2 6.5 6.2
Source #1: Deutscher Wetterdienst[24]
Source #2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[25]

Demographics

Year Population
1970 (Census) 475,328[26]
2014 (Census) 6,760,439[27]
2018 (Projection) 7,774,200[28]
New housing development in Luanda

The inhabitants of Luanda are primarily members of African ethnic groups, mainly Ambundu, Ovimbundu, and Bakongo. The official and the most widely used language is Portuguese, although several Bantu languages are also used, chiefly Kimbundu, Umbundu, and Kikongo. There is a sizable minority population of European origin, especially Portuguese (about 260,000), as well Latin Americans (Brazilians). Over the last decades, a significant Chinese community has formed, as has a much smaller Vietnamese community. There is a sprinkling of immigrants from other African countries as well, including a small expatriate South African community. A small number of people of Luanda are of mixed race — European/Portuguese and native African. In recent years, mainly since the mid-2000s, immigration from Portugal has increased due to Portugal's recession and poor economic situation.[29][30]

The population of Luanda has grown dramatically in recent years, due in large part to war-time migration to the city, which is safe compared to the rest of the country.[31] Luanda, however, in 2006 saw an increase in violent crime, particularly in the shanty towns that surround the colonial urban core.[32]

Economy

BIC Bank main building in Luanda - oil production has induced a booming banking sector in Angola
The new Marginal promenade (Avenida 4 de Fevereiro) runs all along the south shore of the Baia de Luanda in Luanda, Angola.

Around one-third of Angolans live in Luanda, 53% of whom live in poverty. Living conditions in Luanda are poor for most of the people, with essential services such as safe drinking water and electricity still in short supply, and severe shortcomings in traffic conditions.[33] On the other hand, luxury constructions for the benefit of the wealthy minority are booming. Luanda is one of the world's most expensive cities for resident foreigners.[34]

New import tariffs imposed in March 2014 made Luanda even more expensive. As an example, a half-litre tub of vanilla ice-cream at the supermarket was reported to cost US$31. The higher import tariffs applied to hundreds of items, from garlic to cars. The stated aim was to try to diversify the heavily oil-dependent economy and nurture farming and industry, sectors which have remained weak. These tariffs have caused much hardship in a country where the average salary was US$260 per month in 2010, the latest year for which data was available. However, the average salary in the booming oil industry was over 20 times higher at US$5,400 per month.[35]

Manufacturing includes processed foods, beverages, textiles, cement and other building materials, plastic products, metalware, cigarettes, and shoes/clothes. Petroleum (found in nearby off-shore deposits) is refined in the city, although this facility was repeatedly damaged during the Angolan Civil War of 1975–2002. Luanda has an excellent natural harbour; the chief exports are coffee, cotton, sugar, diamonds, iron, and salt. The city also has a thriving building industry, an effect of the nationwide economic boom experienced since 2002, when political stability returned with the end of the civil war. Economic growth is largely supported by oil extraction activities, although great diversification is taking place. Large investment (domestic and international), along with strong economic growth, has dramatically increased construction of all economic sectors in the city of Luanda.[36] In 2007, the first modern shopping mall in Angola was established in the city at Belas Shopping mall.[37]

Transport

The Malange Railway Station
Port of Luanda
Dom João II avenue, one of the main roads in Luanda

Luanda is the starting point of the Luanda railway that goes due east to Malanje. The civil war left the railway non-functional, but the railway has been restored up to Dondo and Malanje.[38]

The main airport of Luanda is Quatro de Fevereiro Airport, which is the largest in the country. Currently, a new international airport, Angola International Airport is under construction southeast of the city, a few kilometres from Viana, which was expected to be opened in 2011.[39] However, as the Angolan government did not continue to make the payments due to the Chinese enterprise in charge of the construction, the firm suspended its work in 2010.

The port of Luanda serves as the largest port of Angola, and connects Angola to the rest of the world. Major expansion of this port is also taking place.[40] In 2014, a new port is being developed at Dande, about 30 km to the north.

Luanda's roads are in a poor state of repair, but are currently undergoing an extensive reconstruction process by the government in order to relieve traffic congestion in the city. Major road repairs can be found taking place in nearly every neighbourhood, including a major 6-lane highway connected Luanda to Viana.[41]

Public transit is provided by the suburban services of the Luanda Railway, by the public company TCUL, and by a large fleet of privately owned collective taxis as white-blue painted minibuses called Candongueiro.

Candongueiros are usually Toyota Hiace vans, that are built to carry 12 people, although the candongueiros usually carry at least 15 people. They charge from 100 to 200 kwanzas per trip. They are known to disobey traffic rules, for example not stopping at signs and driving over pavements and aisles. Their stop points, known as "paragens" are often the places cause significant traffic because they often double park.

There is also a private bus company Transportes Urbanos Rodoviarios de Angola - TURA, working routes in Luanda.

Renewal and enlargement

The central government supposedly allocates funds to all regions of the country, but the capital region receives the bulk of these funds. Since the end of the Angolan Civil War (1975–2002), stability has been widespread in the country, and major reconstruction has been going on since 2002 in those parts of the country that were damaged during the civil war. Luanda has been of major concern because its population had multiplied and had far outgrown the capacity of the city, especially because much of its infrastructure (water, electricity, roads etc.) had become obsolete and degraded.

Luanda has been undergoing major road reconstruction in the 21st century, and new highways are planned to improve connections to Cacuaco, Viana, Samba, and the new airport.[42]

Major social housing is also being constructed to house those who reside in slums, which dominate the landscape of Luanda. A large Chinese firm has been given a contract to construct the majority of replacement housing in Luanda.[43] The Angolan minister of health recently stated poverty in Angola will be overcome by an increase in jobs and the housing of every citizen.[44]

Education

Universities:

International schools in Luanda:

Places of worship

Among the places of worship, they are predominantly Christian churches and temples : Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Luanda (Catholic Church), Evangelical Congregational Church in Angola (World Communion of Reformed Churches), Evangelical Reformed Church in Angola (World Communion of Reformed Churches), Baptist Convention of Angola (Baptist World Alliance), Universal Church of the Kingdom of God, Assemblies of God. [45] There are also Muslim mosques.

Sports

Estádio 11 de Novembro with view on the tribunes including the VIP area.

In 2013 Luanda together with Namibe, today's Moçâmedes, hosted the 2013 FIRS Men's Roller Hockey World Cup, the first time that a World Cup of roller hockey was held in Africa. The city is home to the Desportivo do Bengo football club.

Roads

Traffic intersection typical of Luanda that eliminates the need for traffic lights.
Gregorio José Mendes street, in Luanda

Luanda makes widespread use of an unusual variant of the median U-turn type intersection. This eliminates the need for traffic lights and encourages free flow traffic on many main roads around the city. The intersection operates by not permitting the left turn at intersections. Angola drives on the right. A driver entering from a minor road wanting to turn left is required to join the main road traffic and proceed a U-turn and then backtrack in the opposite direction.

The advantages:

  • This arrangement converts a regular arterial road into a low cost Freeway with simple low cost at-grade interchanges.
  • Collisions typically associated with at-grade intersections are eliminated. There is no crossing of on-coming traffic with this arrangement.
  • Traffic lights are not required. No stopping or waiting at the intersection.
  • A free flow of traffic is achieved.
  • Reduced fuel consumption from vehicles not being required to accelerate away from a red light as well as reduced wear and tear on vehicles.

Disadvantages:

  • Minor road traffic cannot directly cross the intersection. It has to join the main route and make a U-turn and return.
  • Although traffic is free flowing left turn traffic will encounter the inconvenience of additional travel distance sometimes as far as 2.5 km.
  • The road surface has additional burden of longer travel distances, but has reduced wear at intersection and from braking.
  • The U-turn is negotiated from the fast inner lane.
  • Because of regular tight radius median u-turns the traffic speed is less than can be achieved on a regular freeway.

The Government of Angola takes a bold view of property rights and has been known to relocate property owners at short notice, where the land is required to make space for the bulged u-turns.

It is unclear whether this intersection design has been in use prior or since the civil war.

The Luanda traffic is notoriously congested with gridlock and so arguably this intersection worsens the situation by lengthening the routes.[citation needed]

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Luanda is twinned with:

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Bibliography

External links