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Llanero Spanish

Dialects spoken in Venezuela.
Spanish dialects of Colombia.

The Llanero Spanish is the set of linguistic modalities of Spanish language spoken in the region of Venezuelan-Colombian Los Llanos. It is characterized by mixing elements of Old Spanish more indigenous elements.

Features

Phonetics

Has yeísmo and articulation of the "r" to its weakening (vorqueta by volqueta, a phenomenon seen in Arauca (Colombia)) or its disappearance in the infinitive (ventiá, aserrá, ordeñá, cogé...)

It also has the articulation of the "s" (implosive), the aspiration (maíh= maíz) or loss (cataplama = cataplasma). Also appears the feature of the aspiration of the "s" prevocalic (ji jeñol, eso je li olvida = sí señor, eso se le olvida).

Its intervocalic fricatives (b-d-g) weaken or disappear in the llanero speech (auacero = aguacero).

It preserves the sound of the old "h". It is a feature more seen in Venezuela, Arauca and Casanare (joyo, jumo, mojo, jallan, sajuma, ajoga, ajita by hoyo, humo, moho, hallan, sahúma, ahoga, ahíta).

Grammar

Suppresses or weakens the redundant -s of the plural, eg, ''los antioqueño, loj perro, cuatronarice (cuatronarices local species of snake), loj padrino

Has a similar nominal composition to costeño dialects, eg, pativoltiao (pata + volteado ie noun + adjective).

Formation of past composite of subjunctive with the verb “ser”, eg: “Si no fuera (hubiera) sido por Guadalupe Salcedo…”

Lexicon

Some lexical forms of costeño origin registered in the region are: “cautivar” (cultivate), “concha” (shell or peel), “pollino” (young donkey)," “yerna” (daughter).

It also has contributions from the Western Colombian as “hamero” (wrapper of cob), “choclo” (tender maize) or “rabipelao” (opossum).

Substrates and contributors

Indigenous Inheritance

Perhaps the most typical of Llanero Spanish it is in the Indigenous inheritance, in many indigenous terms are incorporated into this speech.

Are sometimes the names of regionals plants as cumare (Astrocaryum aculeatum), moriche (Mauritia flexuosa), mapora (Roystonea oleracea), suy, yaray, bototo, etc.; among others, the names of objects of indigenous cultures adopted by the Creole as chiramo (hanging utensil), budare, mapire (basket), chirama (basket) 'catumare (palm vessel), corota (calabash vessel), etc .; or the indigenous foods adopted in the Creole cuisine as majule (porridge of plantain), catibía (dough of cassava striped), etc.

It is superfluous to mention the abundant onomástica of indigenous origin: water names and place names like Guatiquía, Guayuriba, Guarca, Guaicaramo any map or geography text provides hundreds. Perhaps less known is the indigenous contribution to the anthroponymy that is seen in the not few last names of members of the Spanish-speaking communities, Catimay, Cuburuco, Chaquea, Humejé, Tabaco, Tupanteve, Tumay, Achagua, Cuyaré, Chamarrabí, Chipiaje, Errenumá, Guacabare, Gaspaday, Guatumé, Itanare, Pirache, Renumá, Tarache, Yaguiduá, Yavimay, Yaya, Guanay, etc.

Internal development

Example of how the operation of the language in the peculiar conditions of Los Llanos will produce more or less specific facts is the reorganization of certain lexical microsystems. Throughout the region of Casanare “mirar” has advanced on the semantic field of “ver” almost disappeared from ordinary speech to this verbEntonces miró el presidente Rojas Pinilla que el Llano era una gran belleza”, “¿Él no está por aquí? – No, no lo he mirao; “Yo ya no miro pa’ trabajar esta cosa”; and the same phenomenon is starting to affect the couple “oír – escuchar” in which the latter tends to absorb at first.

Is also typical of Los Llanos the classification of the grocery grown musaceas in three groups: plantains, bananas and topochos; the great importance in the life of the Llanero has this last variety makes form to it a special class.

The indigenous influence also appears in an indirect and mediated way, not in aboriginal languages but because of characteristics specialties of coexistence of native and indigenous communities, characteristics that come to be very indicative of relationships among these communities, that is, between the silent struggle that continues to develop between them, phenomenas characterized by the concepts that the Creole has respect to indigenous: “tunebo” is "ranger", “guajibo” to shy or reclusive '"(Arauca); and in Puerto López a saying that could well explain alone the struggles between the Llaneros and the Indians who caused commotion in the Colombian community was heard: "'Neither donkey is beast' 'or Indian is people' , or cassava serves for provision”.

And voices of traditional Hispanic roots only common in Los Llanos or used it with a peculiar sense are, among others: “el cerro” (the mountain range, the Andes), “cachilapero” (the stealing cattle and disfigures its brands), "cámara', “camarita” (compañero, camarada), “camazo” (calabazo), “caramera” (cornamenta), 'guate' "(rural person), “guafa” (guadua), “magalla” (bag for the hammock), “pompo” (rough, clumsy), “saquero” (cattle buyer), "soropo" "ensoropao" (palm leaf wall) etc, etc.

See also