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List of starting black NFL quarterbacks

Pollard in football uniform staring off in the distance and striking a classic football pose; one arm is outstretched, while the other holds a football, as if he were about to throw it.
Fritz Pollard became the NFL's first black quarterback in 1923.

This list of starting black NFL quarterbacks includes black and African-American quarterbacks who have started in a regular-season or post-season game in the National Football League (NFL). The quarterback is the leader of a team's offense, directing other players on the field.[1][2] Historically, black players have been excluded from playing quarterback in the NFL because of the belief that white players would not follow their leadership, or the perception that black quarterbacks lack intelligence, dependability, composure, character, or charisma.[3][4] Promising black quarterbacks at the high school and college levels were often transitioned at the professional level to other positions, such as running back or wide receiver.[5][6] While a ban on black players in the NFL ended in 1946,[1] the quarterback position was among the last to be de facto desegregated.[2]

Although black quarterbacks and other quarterbacks of color vary in physical size and playing style,[7] racial stereotyping persists.[8][9] A 2015 study found that even when controlling for various factors, black quarterbacks are twice as likely to be "benched", or removed from play, than white quarterbacks.[10] Other studies have found that sports broadcasters are more likely to attribute a black quarterback's success to superior athletic skill and a white quarterback's success to superior intellect.[11][12]

It was not until 2017 that all 32 Super Bowl-era NFL teams had started at least one black quarterback.[13] That year, nearly 70% of NFL players, but only 25% of starting quarterbacks, were black.[5] In 2018, a school superintendent in Texas received national attention when, following a loss by Houston Texans led by Deshaun Watson, he publicly wrote, "When you need precision decision making you can’t count on a black quarterback."[14][15]

Pre-Super Bowl era

Racial antagonism should have no place in football, but unhappily the millennium has not yet arrived. Unscrupulous opponents did their best to knock Brown's gritty colored star cold. They were out to 'get' Pollard and they weren't too particular with how they got him. No white man would have had to take the punishment Pollard did.

— The New York Sun reporting on a 1928 Brown University game[16]

The quarterback position has changed over the years and did not exist in its modern form in the early 20th century. In the early days of football, quarterbacks were called upon to throw the ball, run the ball, and kick the ball; the forward pass was not adopted widely until the 1930s. However, tailbacks who played in the single-wing formation are "the equivalent of a modern-day quarterback"[17] or "the closest thing to it."[1]

In single-wing formations, popular in the early 20th century, a play typically begins with the center (C) throwing the ball to the tailback (TB), while the quarterback (QB) is used as a blocker.[18]
NFL rule changes in the 1930s led to a resurgence of the classic T formation, in which the quarterback (QB) lines up directly behind the center (C) to receive the ball in a hand-off. This led to a reduction in fumbles and the evolution of the quarterback from a blocker to a passer and "the definite field general".[18]

Single-wing tailback Fritz Pollard, "an instrumental figure in the formative days of the NFL", became the first black quarterback when he started playing the position for the Hammond Pros in 1923.[1] By that time, he had already become the first black head coach in the NFL, and prior to his professional career, the first black quarterback All-American and the first to appear in the Rose Bowl. Pollard faced racism throughout his career, including from his teammates. In college, fans were reported to sing "Bye Bye Blackbird" when he took the field. Pollard would sometimes have to enter the field through a separate gate, or be driven onto the field in a car for his own safety, in order to avoid fans who chanted "kill the nigger" and threw bottles and bricks at him. After retiring from football, Pollard started the first black tabloid newspaper, New York's Independent News. In 2005, Pollard was inducted into the NFL Hall of Fame.[1][19]

The demise of the competing American Football League (AFL) in the 1920s left a "glut of available white players eager to sign on with the NFL, rendering black players expendable."[1] In 1926 there were five black players in the NFL, in 1927 only one. With the onset of the Great Depression in the 1930s, economic pressures led to a further deterioration of race relations, and minorities were often vilified and scapegoated. When the Chicago Cardinals signed Joe Lillard in 1932, the same year a rule change expanded the forward pass and Franklin Delano Roosevelt won the US presidency with 75% of the black vote, he was the NFL's only black player at the time. Lillard started 12 games with the Chicago Cardinals, and although he threw passes, ran the ball, kicked the ball, and returned punts, he was using sparingly as a quarterback.[1][20]

1932 was also the year that segregationist George Preston Marshall founded the Boston Braves. The following year, Marshall renamed the Braves the Boston Redskins and brokered an NFL-wide ban on black players. Joe Lillard was released, and by 1934, there were no black players with NFL contracts. In 1937, Marshall moved the Redskins to the southern city of Washington D.C., which was still segregated, renaming the team the Washington Redskins. Marshall's so-called "gentlemen's agreement" barring black players from the NFL lasted until after World War II, when the All-America Football Conference (AAFC) launched in 1946 as an unsegregated competing league. NFL owners relented and lifted the ban, although Marshall nevertheless refused to sign any black players to the Redskins until 1962, when he finally relented under threat from President John F. Kennedy to cancel the Redskins' 30-year stadium lease unless they integrated.[1]

The cover of George Taliaferro's baseball card is a stylized drawing showing a close-up of Taliaferro, smiling, holding a football as if he is in the process of "spiking" it.
1952 football card depicting George Taliaferro, who became the first black player drafted in the NFL in 1949, and went on to play quarterback and six other positions until 1955.[17][21]

In 1949, George Taliaferro became the first black player drafted into the NFL. Taliaferro had previously played college football for the Indiana Hoosiers. He missed the 1946 season when he was drafted into the US Army but returned to lead the Hoosiers in both rushing and passing in 1948. The NFL's Chicago Bears drafted Taliaferro in 1949, but he had already signed a contract with the Los Angeles Dons in the AAFC. The LA Dons later joined the NFL, and Taliaferro along with them. He played an unprecedented seven positions during his career, including single-wing tailback or quarterback, more than any player in NFL history. Taliaferro retired in 1955.[1][17][21]

Two other black quarterbacks made brief appearances in the pre-Super Bowl NFL. Willie Thrower, "the first black NFL quarterback of the modern mold", played for Michigan State in college before playing one professional game at quarterback for the Bears, in relief duty, on October 18, 1953. Charlie Brackins, the NFL's first black quarterback to have graduated from a historically black college or university (HBCU), played one game as quarterback for the Green Bay Packers in 1955, missed both of his pass attempts, and was released by the team before the next game.[1]

First black quarterbacks in the NFL (pre-Super Bowl era)
Years active Quarterback Team
1920–1926 Fritz Pollard Akron Pros, Milwaukee Badgers, Hammond Pros, Providence Steam Rollers, Akron Indians
1932–1933 Joe Lillard Chicago Cardinals
1950–1955 George Taliaferro New York Yanks, Dallas Texans, Baltimore Colts, Philadelphia Eagles
1953 Willie Thrower Chicago Bears
1955 Charlie Brackins Green Bay Packers
Source: Howard 2014

First by team (Super Bowl era)

Of the dozens of quarterbacks on the rosters of the 26 major league professional teams in the United States, Marlin is the only one whose skin is black ... But Marlin is not mainly interested in proving he can run the ball. What he's trying to show them is that a black man can run the ball club.

— The Spokesman-Review, 1968, writing about Marlin Briscoe[22][a]

In 1967, the American Football League agreed to merge with the NFL, becoming the American Football Conference, with most former NFL teams forming the National Football Conference. Although the first championship game between the two conferences, known as the Super Bowl, was held in 1968, the merger was not completed until 1970. Marlin Briscoe played for the Denver Broncos, an AFL team, in 1968, and is considered the first black quarterback to start a game in the modern NFL. Briscoe started his rookie year as a defensive back, but when the starting quarterback was injured, Briscoe was called to fill in. He started the last five games of the season, during which he threw 14 touchdown passes and was a candidate for Rookie of the Year. Nevertheless, he was released after the season, and later converted to a receiver.[1][13][20]

First black starting quarterback by NFL team (Super Bowl era)
No. Date Team Quarterback
1 October 6, 1968 Denver Broncos Marlin Briscoe
2 September 14, 1969 Buffalo Bills James Harris
3 December 3, 1973 Pittsburgh Steelers Joe Gilliam
4 October 20, 1974 Los Angeles Rams James Harris
5 December 15, 1975 New York Jets J. J. Jones
6 October 24, 1976 Tampa Bay Buccaneers Parnell Dickinson
7 September 18, 1977 Los Angeles Chargers[b] James Harris
8 November 20, 1977 Cleveland Browns Dave Mays
9 September 16, 1979 Chicago Bears Vince Evans
10 September 2, 1984 Tennessee Titans[c] Warren Moon
11 September 15, 1985 Philadelphia Eagles Randall Cunningham
12 December 21, 1986 Dallas Cowboys Reggie Collier
13 September 20, 1987 Washington Redskins Doug Williams
14 October 4, 1987 Oakland Raiders[d] Vince Evans
15 October 1, 1989 Detroit Lions Rodney Peete
16 September 4, 1994 Minnesota Vikings Warren Moon
17 October 30, 1994 Cincinnati Bengals Jeff Blake
18 September 7, 1997 Seattle Seahawks Warren Moon
19 October 31, 1999 Baltimore Ravens Tony Banks
20 September 3, 2000 New Orleans Saints Jeff Blake
21 November 26, 2000 Kansas City Chiefs Warren Moon
22 November 11, 2001 Atlanta Falcons Michael Vick
23 September 8, 2002 Carolina Panthers Rodney Peete
24 October 20, 2002 Miami Dolphins Ray Lucas
25 December 29, 2002 Jacksonville Jaguars David Garrard
26 September 7, 2003 Arizona Cardinals Jeff Blake
27 November 2, 2003 Houston Texans Tony Banks
28 October 31, 2010 San Francisco 49ers Troy Smith
29 November 10, 2013 Green Bay Packers Seneca Wallace
30 January 3, 2016 Indianapolis Colts Josh Freeman
31 September 2, 2016 New England Patriots Jacoby Brissett
32 December 3, 2017 New York Giants Geno Smith
Source: Johnson 2017, Dator 2017, Gartland 2016, Ruiz 2016

Playoff starters

In 1974, James Harris became the first black quarterback to start and win an NFL playoff game.[4][7] Midway through the 1976 season, Harris was benched by his team's owner, Carroll Rosenbloom, who explained his decision by telling the press, "Unfortunately, the quarterback position is controversial enough without adding the color element."[2] After retiring, Harris became an executive for four teams and earned a Super Bowl ring in 2000 with the Baltimore Ravens.[2]

Warren Moon, a "trailblazer" who made seven playoff appearances, was the first black quarterback elected to the NFL Hall of Fame.[3] During his NFL career (1984–2000), he was the first black quarterback on four different teams.[1][20]

The 2018–2019 playoffs featured five starting black quarterbacks, the most in NFL history.[4][e]

Super Bowl starters

In 1982, a players' strike cut the NFL season short to nine games. When a second strike occurred in 1987, the NFL–not wanting to lose games–hired replacement players. That year, black quarterbacks in the league tripled in number.[1]

On September 20, 1987, Doug Williams became the first black quarterback to start a game for the Washington Redskins, the team that had been segregated for so long by its former owner, George Preston Marshall.[23][24] Before starting for Washington, Williams had been drafted by the Tampa Bay Buccaneers and led them to three playoff appearances in three years.[1] Williams joined the Redskins in the 1986 season, when he threw only one pass (incomplete). He played backup for most of the 1987 season, but outperformed the first-string quarterback, and was made starting quarterback for the playoffs.[1] On January 31, 1988, he became the first black quarterback to start in the Super Bowl, and a few hours later, the first to win it, ironically wearing the Super Bowl ring of the last team in the league to integrate black players.[25] Williams threw for 340 yards and four touchdowns–Super Bowl records at the time–and was named Super Bowl MVP.[4][26] He was benched the next season and retired shortly thereafter.[1]

Full list

In 2000, Doug Williams, Warren Moon, Marlin Briscoe and James Harris formed the Field Generals, "a fraternity for black quarterbacks". Cam Newton, the most recent black quarterback to start in the Super Bowl, attended the Field Generals' training camp as a youth.[7]

Black quarterbacks in the NFL
Quarterback Years active Team Source
Fritz Pollard 1920–1926 Akron Pros, Milwaukee Badgers, Hammond Pros, Providence Steam Rollers, Akron Indians [1]
Joe Lillard 1932–1933 Chicago Cardinals [1]
George Taliaferro 1950–1955 New York Yanks, Dallas Texans, Baltimore Colts, Philadelphia Eagles [1]
Willie Thrower 1953 Chicago Bears [1]
Charlie Brackins 1955 Green Bay Packers [1]
Sandy Stephens 1962 Cleveland Browns [1]
Dave Lewis 1967, 1970–1973 New York Giants, Cincinnati Bengals [1]
Marlin Briscoe 1968–1976 Denver Broncos, Buffalo Bills, Miami Dolphins, Detroit Lions, San Diego Chargers, New England Patriots [1]
Eldridge Dickey 1968, 1971 Oakland Raiders [1]
James Harris 1969–1981 Buffalo Bills, Los Angeles Rams, San Diego Chargers [1]
Karl Douglas 1971 Baltimore Colts [1]
Joe Gilliam 1972–1975 Pittsburgh Steelers [1]
Dave Mays 1976–1978 Cleveland Browns, Buffalo Bills [1]
J. J. Jones 1975 New York Jets [1]
Parnell Dickinson 1976 Tampa Bay Buccaneers [1]
John Walton 1976–1979 Philadelphia Eagles [1]
Vince Evans 1977–1983, 1987–1995 Chicago Bears, Los Angeles Raiders/Oakland Raiders [1]
Doug Williams 1978–1982, 1986–1989 Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Washington Redskins [1]
Nickie Hall 1981 Green Bay Packers [1]
Warren Moon 1981–2000 Houston Oilers, Minnesota Vikings, Seattle Seahawks, Kansas City Chiefs [1]
Brian Ransom 1983–1985 Houston Oilers [1]
Randall Cunningham 1985–2001 Philadelphia Eagles, Minnesota Vikings, Dallas Cowboys, Baltimore Ravens [1]
Reggie Collier 1986–1987 Dallas Cowboys, Pittsburgh Steelers [1]
Willie Totten 1987 Buffalo Bills [1]
Bernard Quarles 1987 Los Angeles Rams [1]
Walter Briggs 1987 New York Jets [1]
Willie Gillus 1987 Green Bay Packers [1]
Mark Stevens 1987 San Francisco 49ers [1]
Ed Blount 1987 San Francisco 49ers [1]
Kevin "Tony" Robinson 1987 Washington Redskins [1]
Ricky Turner 1988 Indianapolis Colts [1]
Don McPherson 1988–1990 Philadelphia Eagles, Houston Oilers [1]
Rodney Peete 1989–2004 Detroit Lions, Dallas Cowboys, Philadelphia Eagles, Washington Redskins, Oakland Raiders, Carolina Panthers [1]
Steve Taylor 1989 Indianapolis Colts [1]
Terrence Jones 1989 San Diego Chargers [1]
Andre Ware 1990–1993 Detroit Lions [1]
Clemente Gordon 1990 Cleveland Browns [1]
Major Harris 1990 Los Angeles Raiders [1]
Reggie Slack 1990–1992 Houston Oilers [1]
Shawn Moore 1991–1994 Denver Broncos, Arizona Cardinals [1]
Jeff Blake 1992, 1994–2005 New York Jets, Cincinnati Bengals, New Orleans Saints, Baltimore Ravens, Arizona Cardinals, Philadelphia Eagles, Chicago Bears [1]
Keithen McCant 1992 Cleveland Browns [1]
Jay Walker 1994, 1996–1997 New England Patriots, Minnesota Vikings [1]
Steve McNair 1995–2007 Houston Oilers/Tennessee Titans, Baltimore Ravens [1]
Jerry Colquitt 1995 Carolina Panthers [1]
Kordell Stewart 1995–2005 Pittsburgh Steelers, Chicago Bears, Baltimore Ravens [1]
Tony Banks 1996–2001, 2003–2005 St. Louis Rams, Baltimore Ravens, Washington Redskins, Houston Texans [1]
Ray Lucas 1996–2003 New England Patriots, New York Jets, Miami Dolphins, Baltimore Ravens [1]
Wally Richardson 1997–1999 Baltimore Ravens, Atlanta Falcons [1]
Charlie Batch 1998–2001, 2003, 2005–2012 Detroit Lions, Pittsburgh Steelers [1]
Donovan McNabb 1999–2011 Philadelphia Eagles, Washington Redskins, Minnesota Vikings [1]
Akili Smith 1999–2002 Cincinnati Bengals [1]
Daunte Culpepper 1999–2009 Minnesota Vikings, Miami Dolphins, Oakland Raiders, Detroit Lions [1]
Aaron Brooks 1999–2006 Green Bay Packers, New Orleans Saints, Oakland Raiders [1]
Michael Bishop 1999–2000 New England Patriots [1]
Anthony Wright 1999–2001, 2003, 2005–2007 Pittsburgh Steelers, Dallas Cowboys, Baltimore Ravens, Cincinnati Bengals, New York Giants [1]
Dameyune Craig 2000–2001 Carolina Panthers [1]
Spergon Wynn 2000–2001 Cleveland Browns, Minnesota Vikings [1]
Tee Martin 2000–2001, 2003 Pittsburgh Steelers, Oakland Raiders [1]
Joe Hamilton 2000–2002, 2004 Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Indianapolis Colts [1]
Jarious Jackson 2000–2003 Denver Broncos [1]
Henry Burris 2001–2002 Green Bay Packers, Chicago Bears [1]
Tory Woodbury 2001–2002 New York Jets [1]
Quincy Carter 2001–2004 Dallas Cowboys, New York Jets [1]
Michael Vick 2001–2006, 2009–2015 Atlanta Falcons, Philadelphia Eagles, New York Jets, Pittsburgh Steelers [1]
Rohan Davey 2002–2005 New England Patriots, Arizona Cardinals [1]
David Garrard 2002–2010, 2013 Jacksonville Jaguars, New York Jets [1]
Byron Leftwich 2003–2012 Jacksonville Jaguars, Atlanta Falcons, Pittsburgh Steelers, Tampa Bay Buccaneers [1]
Seneca Wallace 2003–2013 Seattle Seahawks, Cleveland Browns, New Orleans Saints, San Francisco 49ers, Green Bay Packers [1]
Quinn Gray 2004–2008 Jacksonville Jaguars, Kansas City Chiefs [1]
Cleo Lemon 2005-2008 San Diego Chargers, Miami Dolphins, Jacksonville Jaguars [1]
Jason Campbell 2005–2013 Washington Redskins, Oakland Raiders, Chicago Bears, Cleveland Browns [1]
Reggie McNeal 2006 Cincinnati Bengals [1]
Marcus Vick 2006 Miami Dolphins [1]
Vince Young 2006–2013 Tennessee Titans, Philadelphia Eagles [1]
Tarvaris Jackson 2006–2013 Minnesota Vikings, Seattle Seahawks [1]
Brad Smith 2006–2013 New York Jets, Buffalo Bills, Philadelphia Eagles [1]
JaMarcus Russell 2007–2009 Oakland Raiders [1]
Troy Smith 2007–2010 Baltimore Ravens, San Francisco 49ers, Pittsburgh Steelers [1]
Dennis Dixon 2008–2011 Baltimore Ravens [1][27]
Josh Johnson 2008–2014, 2018 Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Cleveland Browns, Cincinnati Bengals, Washington Redskins [1][27]
Pat White 2009 Miami Dolphins [1][27]
Josh Freeman 2009–2013, 2015 Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Minnesota Vikings, Indianapolis Colts [1][27]
Joe Webb 2010–2011, 2017 Minnesota Vikings, Carolina Panthers, Buffalo Bills [1][27]
Thad Lewis 2012–2013 Cleveland Browns, Buffalo Bills [1][27]
Cam Newton 2011–present Carolina Panthers [1][27]
Colin Kaepernick 2011–2016 San Francisco 49ers [1][27]
Tyrod Taylor 2011–2018 Baltimore Ravens, Buffalo Bills, Cleveland Browns [1][27]
Terrelle Pryor 2011–2013, 2015–2018 Oakland Raiders, Cleveland Browns, Washington Redskins, New York Jets, Buffalo Bills [1][27]
Robert Griffin III 2012–2014, 2016, 2018–present Washington Redskins, Cleveland Browns, Baltimore Ravens [1][27]
Russell Wilson 2012–present Seattle Seahawks [28]
EJ Manuel 2013–2017 Buffalo Bills, Oakland Raiders [27]
Geno Smith 2013–2018 New York Jets, New York Giants, Los Angeles Chargers [27]
Teddy Bridgewater 2014–2015, 2017–present Minnesota Vikings, New Orleans Saints [27]
Jameis Winston 2015–present Tampa Bay Buccaneers [27]
Dak Prescott 2016–present Dallas Cowboys [27]
Jacoby Brissett 2016–present New England Patriots, Indianapolis Colts [27]
Deshaun Watson 2017–present Houston Texans [27]
Patrick Mahomes 2017–present Kansas City Chiefs [27]
Lamar Jackson 2018–present Baltimore Ravens [27]
Kyler Murray 2019–present Arizona Cardinals [29]
Only seasons and teams with game starts are listed.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Briscoe added, "The black player may have to go through some things ... But I'm talking about the average player, not my particular case. On this team, I didn't have that problem. There wasn't any racial problem."[22]
  2. ^ The Chargers were based in San Diego, California at the time.
  3. ^ The Titans were known at the time as the Houston Oilers.
  4. ^ The Raiders were based in Los Angeles, California at the time.
  5. ^ The five quarterbacks were Patrick Mahomes (Kansas City Chiefs), Dak Prescott (Dallas Cowboys), Lamar Jackson (Baltimore Ravens), Deshaun Watson (Houston Texans) and Russell Wilson (Seattle Seahawks).[4]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc Howard, Greg (2014-02-06). "The Big Book Of Black Quarterbacks". Deadspin. Archived from the original on 2019-03-04. Retrieved 2019-03-10.
  2. ^ a b c d Freedman, Samuel G. (2018-02-02). "Perspective | The quarterback who paved the way for Colin Kaepernick's protests". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2019-02-14. Retrieved 2019-03-15.
  3. ^ a b Johnson, Martenzie (2018-09-24). "Deshaun Watson and the intellect of black quarterbacks". The Undefeated. Retrieved 2019-03-16.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Ramsey, Timothy (2019-01-10). "The evolution of the black quarterback in the NFL". Winston-Salem Chronicle. Retrieved 2019-03-18.
  5. ^ a b Kimes, Mina (2017-11-02). "The great Tyrod Taylor debate". ESPN. Archived from the original on 2017-11-08. Retrieved 2019-03-15.
  6. ^ a b Brill, Lauren (2018-08-01). "This is life as a black NFL QB in 2018". WEWS News 5 (ABC affiliate). Retrieved 2019-03-18.
  7. ^ a b c d Rhoden, William C. (2019-01-11). "The thriving fraternity of black quarterbacks". The Undefeated. Retrieved 2019-03-16.
  8. ^ Ferrucci, Patrick; Tandoc, Edson C. (2018-04-03). "The Spiral of Stereotyping: Social Identity Theory and NFL Quarterbacks". Howard Journal of Communications. 29 (2): 107–125. doi:10.1080/10646175.2017.1315693. ISSN 1064-6175. Retrieved 2019-03-15.
  9. ^ Bigler, Matthew; Jeffries, Judson L. (2008-06-01). ""An Amazing Specimen": NFL Draft Experts' Evaluations of Black Quarterbacks". Journal of African American Studies. 12 (2): 120–141. doi:10.1007/s12111-008-9036-7. ISSN 1936-4741. Retrieved 2019-03-15.
  10. ^ Volz, Brian D. (2017-12-01). "Race and Quarterback Survival in the National Football League". Journal of Sports Economics. 18 (8): 850–866. doi:10.1177/1527002515609659. ISSN 1527-0025. Retrieved 2019-03-16.
  11. ^ Billings, Andrew C. (2004-10-01). "Depicting the Quarterback in Black and White: A Content Analysis of College and Professional Football Broadcast Commentary". Howard Journal of Communications. 15 (4): 201–210. doi:10.1080/10646170490521158. ISSN 1064-6175. Retrieved 2019-04-18.
  12. ^ Mercurio, Eugenio; Filak, Vincent F. (2010-01-29). "Roughing the Passer: The Framing of Black and White Quarterbacks Prior to the NFL Draft". Howard Journal of Communications. 21 (1): 56–71. doi:10.1080/10646170903501328. ISSN 1064-6175. Retrieved 2019-03-15.
  13. ^ a b Gartland, Dan (2016-09-22). "The first black QB to start for each NFL team". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on 2018-11-25. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  14. ^ Gill, Julian (2018-09-17). "Superintendent apologizes for comment about black quarterbacks". Houston Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2018-10-24. Retrieved 2019-03-15.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Trotter, Jim (2018-09-21). "FitzMagic's moment; Colts rookie shines; Reuben Foster returns". NFL News. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  16. ^ Trevor, George (1928-02-18). "Couldn't Get Pollard Off His Feet, Writer Declares: Whites Tried to 'Get' Him but Fritz Stood Like Stone Wall; Raced Through Harvard and Yale for Six Touchdowns". New York Sun via The Afro-American. Retrieved 2019-03-12.
  17. ^ a b c "George Taliaferro, Indiana U. football star and first black player drafted in NFL, dies at 91". Washington Post. 2018-10-13. Archived from the original on 2018-12-10. Retrieved 2019-03-11.
  18. ^ a b Roberts, Jerry (2016-02-09). Pass Receiving in Early Pro Football: A History to the 1960s. McFarland. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-1-4766-2228-6.
  19. ^ Dodson, Aaron (2017-09-21). "Fritz Pollard was a true football pioneer". The Undefeated. Retrieved 2019-03-10.
  20. ^ a b c Johnson, Martenzie (2017-11-30). "The first black starting quarterback for each NFL team — and how long he lasted". The Undefeated. Archived from the original on 2018-11-02. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  21. ^ a b Bembry, Jerry (2017-09-28). "George Taliaferro played quarterback and a whole lot more". The Undefeated. Archived from the original on 2019-01-04. Retrieved 2019-03-11.
  22. ^ a b "Marlin Brisco Didn't Expect to Play Pro Quarterback". The Spokesman-Review. 1968-11-01. Retrieved 2019-03-12.
  23. ^ Dator, James (2017-11-28). "Geno Smith will become the Giants' first black starting QB in franchise history". SBNation. Archived from the original on 2018-10-09. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  24. ^ Ruiz, Steven (2016-09-22). "A timeline of when each NFL team started its first African-American quarterback". USA Today's For The Win. Archived from the original on 2017-11-22. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  25. ^ Arthur, Kenneth (2017-11-16). "Colin Kaepernick and NFL's Problematic Treatment of Black Quarterbacks". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2019-03-16.
  26. ^ "Black Quarterbacks Who've Played in the Super Bowl". NBC News. 2016-02-08. Archived from the original on 2019-02-05. Retrieved 2019-03-15.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "NFL official player stats". National Football League. Archived from the original on 2010-01-10. Retrieved 2019-03-16.
  28. ^ Gamble, J. R. (2019-04-16). "Russell Wilson's Historic Bag Puts Tired Black QB Stereotypes To Bed". The Shadow League. Retrieved 2019-04-19. The fact that an African-American QB is the highest paid player in the NFL is almost unthinkable to anyone who has watched the NFL disparage Black QBs and promote white ones as the face of the sport for the past half-century. Being the highest paid at times equates to the most popular and Wilson’s broken color barriers with his acceptance, popularity, and relevance as an African-American quarterback.
  29. ^ Patra, Kevin (April 25, 2019). "Kyler Murray drafted No. 1 overall by Arizona Cardinals". NFL.com. Retrieved June 5, 2019.