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List of political ideologies

Two-axis political spectrum chart with an economic axis and a socio-cultural axis, and ideologically representative colors

In social studies, a political ideology is a certain set of ethical ideals, principles, doctrines, myths or symbols of a social movement, institution, class or large group that explains how society should work and offers some political and cultural blueprint for a certain social order. A political ideology largely concerns itself with how to allocate power and to what ends it should be used. Some political parties follow a certain ideology very closely while others may take broad inspiration from a group of related ideologies without specifically embracing any one of them. The popularity of an ideology is in part due to the influence of moral entrepreneurs, who sometimes act in their own interests. Political ideologies have two dimensions: (1) goals: how society should be organized; and (2) methods: the most appropriate way to achieve this goal.

An ideology is a collection of ideas. Typically, each ideology contains certain ideas on what it considers to be the best form of government (e.g. autocracy or democracy) and the best economic system (e.g. capitalism or socialism). The same word is sometimes used to identify both an ideology and one of its main ideas. For instance, socialism may refer to an economic system, or it may refer to an ideology which supports that economic system. The same term may also be used to refer to multiple ideologies and that is why political scientists try to find consensus definitions for these terms. While the terms have been conflated at times, communism has come in common parlance and in academics to refer to Soviet-type regimes and Marxist–Leninist ideologies whereas socialism has come to refer to a wider range of differing ideologies which are distinct from Marxism–Leninism.[1]

Political ideology is a term fraught with problems, having been called "the most elusive concept in the whole of social science".[2] While ideologies tend to identify themselves by their position on the political spectrum (such as the left, the centre or the right), they can be distinguished from political strategies (e.g. populism as it is commonly defined) and from single issues around which a party may be built (e.g. civil libertarianism and support or opposition to European integration), although either of these may or may not be central to a particular ideology. There are several studies that show that political ideology is heritable within families.[3][4][5][6][7][8]

The following list is strictly alphabetical and attempts to divide the ideologies found in practical political life into a number of groups, with each group containing ideologies that are related to each other. The headers refer to names of the best-known ideologies in each group. The names of the headers do not necessarily imply some hierarchical order or that one ideology evolved out of the other. Instead, they are merely noting that the ideologies in question are practically, historically and ideologically related to each other. As such, one ideology can belong to several groups and there is sometimes considerable overlap between related ideologies. The meaning of a political label can also differ between countries and political parties often subscribe to a combination of ideologies.

Contents

Anarchism

Political internationals

Classical

Libertarianism

Post-classical

Contemporary

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Christian democracy

Political internationals

General

Other

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Communitarianism

General

Other

Regional variants

Communism

Political internationals

Authoritarian

Libertarian

Other

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Conservatism

Political internationals

Traditional

Reactionary

Other

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Corporatism

General

Other

Religious variants

Regional variants

Democracy

Political internationals

General

Other

Direct democracy movements

Pirate politics

Pirate Party
IdeologyPirate politics

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

Asian

American

European

Oceanian

Environmentalism

Political internationals

Bright green environmentalism

Deep green environmentalism

Light green environmentalism

Other

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Fascism

General

Other

Opposition

Religious variants

Regional variants

African

American

Asian

European

Oceanian

Identity politics

Political internationals

Age-related rights movements

  • Children's rights movement
  • Elder rights movement
  • Intergenerational equity
  • Youth rights movement
  • Animal-related rights movements

    Disability-related rights movements

    Feminism

    General

    Chronological variants

    Ethnic and social variants

    Religious variants

    Regional variants

    African
    American
    Asian
    European
    Oceanian

    LGBT social movements

    Men's movement

    Self-determination movements

    African-American

    Indigenous peoples

    Latin American

    Separatist and supremacist movements

    Ethnic

    Black
    White
    Regional wariants
    African
    American
    Asian
    European
    Oceania

    Gender

    Religious variants

    Student movements

    General

    Regional variants

    Liberalism

    Political internationals

    General

    Other

    Regional variants

    African

    American

    Asian

    European

    Oceanian

    Libertarianism

    Political internationals

    General

    Left-libertarianism

    Right-libertarianism

    Other

    Religious variants

    Regional variants

    African

    American

    Asian

    European

    Oceanian

    Nationalism

    Political internationals

    General

    Other

    Opposition

    Religious variants

    Regional variants

    African

    American

    Asian

    European

    Oceanian

    Unification movements

    Populism

    Political internationals

    General

    Left-wing populism

    Right-wing populism

    Other

    Regional variants

    African

    Asian

    American

    European

    Oceanian

    Progressivism

    Political internationals

    General

    Other

    Religious variants

    Regional variants

    Religio-political ideologies

    Political internationals

    General

    Political atheism and agnosticism

    Political Buddhism

    Political Christianity

    Political Confucianism

    Political Hinduism

    Political indigenous religions

    Political Islam

    Political Judaism

    Political Mormonism

    Political Neopaganism

    Political Shinto

    Political Sikhism

    Satirical and anti-politics

    General

    Other

    Religious variants

    Regional variants

    Social democracy

    Political internationals

    General

    Other

    Regional variants

    African

    American

    Asian

    European

    Oceanian

    Socialism

    Political internationals

    General

    Authoritarian

    Libertarian

    Other

    Religious variants

    Regional variants

    African

    American

    Asian

    European

    Oceanian

    Syndicalism

    This is part of a series on
    Syndicalism
    "The Hand That Will Rule The World—One Big Union"
    Political internationals

    General

    Other

    Regional variants

    Transhumanist politics

    Political internationals

    General

    Other

    Regional variants

    See also

    References

    1. ^ Roberts, Andrew (2004). The State of Socialism: A Note on Terminology. Cambridge University Press. 63 (2). 349–366.
    2. ^ D. McLellan, Ideology, University of Minnesota Press, 1986, p. 1.
    3. ^ Bouchard, T. J.; McGue, M. (2003). "Genetic and environmental influences on human psychological differences". Journal of Neurobiology. 54 (1). 44–45.
    4. ^ Eaves, L. J.; Eysenck, H. J. (1974). "Genetics and the development of social attitudes". Nature. 249, 288–289.
    5. ^ Hatemi, P. K.; Medland, S. E.; Morley, K. I.; Heath, A. C.; Martin, N. G. (2007). "The genetics of voting: An Australian twin study". Behavior Genetics. 37 (3). 435–448.
    6. ^ Hatemi, P. K.; Hibbing, J.; Alford, J.; Martin, N.; Eaves, L. (2009). "Is there a 'party' in your genes?". Political Research Quarterly. 62 (3). 584–600.
    7. ^ Settle, J. E.; Dawes, C. T.; Fowler, J. H. (2009). "The heritability of partisan attachment". Political Research Quarterly. 62 (3). 601–613.
    8. ^ Anonymous Conservative (2012). The Evolutionary Psychology Behind Politics.

    External links