In Azerbaijani Turkic language have different means of the word "house" and "palace". Usually, church-houses were custom during 2nd century BC – 7th century AD. Mulk is a foreign word which came from Arabia during Caliphate Era. The word "Saray" is a castle, or government building which was considered to have particular administrative importance in various parts of the former Safavid Empire. Imarat or Igamatgah are big house which belong to rich people, khans, shahs. Same type buildings were popular in Midia, Afshar Empire, Karabakh Khanate, Baku Khanate, Shaddadids etc. Now, the term "Villa" is very popular and modern in Azerbaijan since the 1990s for a capitalist system.
The English word "palace" is used to translated the Chinese word 宮 (pronounced "gōng" in Mandarin). This character represents two rooms connected (呂), under a roof (宀). Originally the character applied to any residence or mansion, but starting with the Qin Dynasty (3rd century BC) it was used only for the residence of the emperor and members of the imperial family. Chinese palaces are different from post-Renaissance European palaces in the sense that they are not made up of one building only (however big and convoluted the building may be), but are in fact huge spaces surrounded by a wall and containing large separated halls (殿 diàn) for ceremonies and official business, as well as smaller buildings, galleries, courtyards, gardens, and outbuildings, more like the Roman or Carolingian palatium.
List of Chinese imperial palaces, in chronological order
Xianyang Palace (咸陽宮), in (Qin) Xianyang (咸陽), now 15 km/9 miles east of modern Xianyang, Shaanxi province: this was the royal palace of the state of Qin before the Chinese unification, and then the palace of the First Emperor when China was unified.
Epang Palace (阿房宮 – probable meaning: "The Palace on the Hill"), 20 km/12 miles south of (Qin) Xianyang (咸陽), now 15 km/9 miles west of Xi'an (西安), Shaanxi province: the fabulous imperial palace built by the First Emperor in replacement of Xianyang Palace.
Southern Palace (南宮) and Northern Palace (北宮), in Luoyang (洛陽), Henan province: imperial palaces of the Eastern Han Dynasty for two centuries, the Southern Palace being used for court hearings and audiences, the Northern Palace being the private residence of the emperor and his concubines.
Taiji Palace (太極宮 – "The Palace of the Supreme Ultimate"), also known as the Western Apartments (西内), in (Tang) Chang'an (長安), now downtown Xi'an (西安), Shaanxi province: imperial palace during the Sui Dynasty (who called it Daxing Palace – 大興宮) and in the beginning of the Tang Dynasty (until A.D. 663). Area: 4.2 km² (1,040 acres), imperial section proper: 1.92 km² (474 acres).
Daming Palace (大明宮 – "The Palace of the Great Brightness"), also known as the Eastern Apartments (東内), in (Tang) Chang'an (長安), now downtown Xi'an (西安), Shaanxi province: imperial palace of the Tang Dynasty after A.D. 663 (it was briefly named Penglai Palace (蓬萊宮) between 663 and 705), but the prestigious Taiji Palace remained used for major state ceremonies such as coronations. Area: 3.11 km² (768 acres).
Apart from the main imperial palace, Chinese dynasties also had several other imperial palaces in the capital city where the empress, crown prince, or other members of the imperial family dwelled. There also existed palaces outside of the capital city called "away palaces" (離宮) where the emperors resided when traveling. The habit also developed of building garden estates in the countryside surrounding the capital city, where the emperors retired at times to get away from the rigid etiquette of the imperial palace, or simply to escape from the summer heat inside their capital. This practice reached a zenith with the Qing Dynasty, whose emperors built the fabulous Imperial Gardens (御園), now known in China as the Gardens of Perfect Brightness (圓明園), and better known in English as the Old Summer Palace. The emperors of the Qing Dynasty resided and worked in the Imperial Gardens, 8 km/5 miles outside of the walls of Beijing, the Forbidden City inside Beijing being used only for formal ceremonies.
These gardens were made up of three gardens: the Garden of Perfect Brightness proper, the Garden of Eternal Spring (長春園), and the Elegant Spring Garden (綺春園); they covered a huge area of 3.5 km² (865 acres), almost 5 times the size of the Forbidden City, and 8 times the size of the Vatican City. comprising hundreds of halls, pavilions, temples, galleries, gardens, lakes, etc. Several famous landscapes of southern China had been reproduced in the Imperial Gardens, hundreds of invaluable Chinese art masterpieces and antiquities were stored in the halls, making the Imperial Gardens one of the largest museum in the world. Some unique copies of literary work and compilations were also stored inside the Imperial Gardens. In 1860, during the Second Opium War, the British and French expeditionary forces looted the Old Summer Palace. Then on October 18, 1860, in order to "punish" the imperial court, which had refused to allow Western embassies inside Beijing, the British general Lord Elgin – with protestations from the French – purposely ordered to set fire to the huge complex which burned to the ground. It took 3500 British troops to set the entire place ablaze and took three whole days to burn. The burning of the Gardens of Perfect Brightness is still a very sensitive issue in China today.
Following this cultural catastrophe, the imperial court was forced to relocate to the old and austere Forbidden City where it stayed until 1924, when the Last Emperor was expelled by a republican army. Empress dowager Cixi (慈禧太后) built the Summer Palace (頤和園 – "The Garden of Nurtured Harmony") near the Old Summer Palace, but on a much smaller scale than the Old Summer Palace. There are currently some projects in China to rebuild the Imperial Gardens, but this appears as a colossal undertaking, and no rebuilding has started yet.
German has two contrasting words for what may be considered a palace: Schloss which connotes a seat that is enclosed by walls, a fastness or keep, and Palast (or mostly Palais), a more conscious borrowing, with the usual connotations of splendour. In practice, the Schloss is more likely to be a royal or ducal palace or a noble manor house.
Laxmi Vilas Palace (also known as Anandbagh Palace) – seat of the Maharaja of Darbhanga, donated to Kameshwar Singh Sanskrit University. Now houses office of vice-chancellor and other officials of the university.
Istana Hinggap can be divided into two types. First, they are the city-palaces located in Kuala Lumpur. They function as the royal residence when the Sultan, Raja or Yang Dipertuan Besar come to Kuala Lumpur. There are nine Istana Hinggap built respectively for the nine Kings of Malaysia. Second, they are the temporary/leisure palace when each Sultan, Raja or Yang Dipertuan Besar goes to visit their territory inside/outside their own state. Some of them even have Istana Hinggap outside the country.
List of Istana Hinggap in Kuala Lumpur
Istana Hinggap Perlis – Raja of Perlis palace at Jalan Eaton
Istana Hinggap Kedah – Sultan of Kedah palace at Cangkat Persekutuan,
Istana Hinggap Perak – Sultan of Perak palace at Cangkat Persekutuan,
Istana Hinggap Selangor – Sultan of Selangor palace at Jalan Sultan Salahuddin
Istana Hinggap Negeri Sembilan – Yang Dipertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan palace at Cangkat Persekutuan
Istana Hinggap Johor – Sultan of Johor palace at Cangkat Kia Peng
Istana Hinggap Pahang – Sultan of Pahang palace at Bukit Kewangan
Istana Hinggap Terengganu – Sultan of Terengganu palace at Jalan Tun Razak
Istana Hinggap Kelantan – Sultan of Kelantan palace at Jalan Wickham
Istana Arau – Official palace for the Raja of Perlis. This palace was built in 1905 during the reign of Tuanku Raja Syed Alwi Jamalullail.
Istana Fauzana – The Raja of Perlis' residential palace in Kangar
Istana Kenangan Indah – located in Repoh. Previously official residence of the late Tuanku Raja Syed Putra Jamalullail and his consort. After Tuanku Raja Syed Putra Jamalullail passed away and Duli Yang Maha Mulia Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin Ibni Al-marhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail take the throne, this palace has become the official palace for YMM Raja Perempuan Besar Perlis.
Balai Besar – Located in Alor Setar facing Masjid Zahir (Zahir Mosque). This palace was built in 1735 was almost destroyed twice in 1770 (aatacekd by Siamese army) and 1821 (attacked by Bugis army). The palace is supported by 42 main pillars now serves as Kedah Royal Museum.
Istana Kuning – Old residential palace for the Sultan of Kedah
Istana Hulu – The palace, designed with a mixture of Western neo-classical and Islamic styles, was built in 1903 for the 28th Sultan of Perak.
Istana Iskandariah – The official residence of all the Sultans of Perak who have been installed since its completion in 1933. The palace is named after Sultan Iskandar Shah (1918–1938) who initiated its construction.
Istana Raja Muda Lama – The former official residence for Crown Prince of Perak in Teluk Intan. It was built in 1922 for Almarhum Raja Muda Abdul Aziz (later become Sultan Abdul Aziz). The palace was abandoned in 1988 when DYTM Raja Muda Raja Dr. Nazrin Shah moved to Istana Tetamu in Ipoh
Istana Mahkota Puri – Built in 1899 in Klang. This palace has been demolished to make way for the building of the new Istana Alam Shah.
Istana Pantai Bahagia – Resting palace of Sultan Selangor in Morib
The entrance to Istana Jemaah (now Kolej Islam Sultan Alam Shah)
Istana Jemaah – Currently serves as school (Kolej Islam Sultan Alam Shah) located in Klang not far from Istana Alam Shah. This palace is named after the Queen of Selangor who was also the second Raja Permaisuri Agong (Supreme Queen) of Malaysia, Tengku Ampuan Jemaah.
Istana Ampang Tinggi – Was commissioned by the 5th Yamtuan of Negri Sembilan, Yamtuan Ulin Ibni Almarhum Yamtuan Hitam. The palace was built between 1865 and 1870 at Ampang Tinggi ("High Dam") in Kuala Pilah
Istana Abdul Aziz – Official palace for Crown Prince of Pahang, KDYTM Tengku Mahkota Pahang Tengku Abdullah Al-Haj Ibni Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta’in Billah dan KDYTM Tengku Puan Pahang. the name of the palace is derived from combination of Tengku Abdullah (crown prince of Pahang) and Tunku Azizah (crown princess of Pahang)
Istana Mahkota – Located at Jalan Telok Cempedak, Kuantan
Istana Mangga Tunggal – Built in 1920 during the reign of Sultan Abdullah Al-Mu’tassim Billah. the palace is named after a single mango tree that grow in the palace compound.
Istana Sri Angkasa -Royal palace in Cameron Highlands
Istana Sri Udara – Royal palace in “Bandar Ikan Patin” Temerloh
Istana Leban Tunggal – Completed in 1937, this palace is owned by Almarhum YAM Tengku Besar Pahang II, Tengku Sulaiman ibni Almarhum Sultan Ahmad Al-Mu’azzam Shah. currently the public library at Pekan
Istana Kota Beram – Currently royal museum of Pahang
Istana Hinggap Kuala Lipis – Previously the residence for British officer since 1926. In 1948 it is converted into official residence for Menteri Besar of Pahang. In 1955 the residence is converted into a palace.
Istana Melati – Built in 1966 in Kampung Mengkasar, Pekan for YH Dato’ Maria Menado who at that time the wife of Al-Marhum Sultan Abu Bakar Ri’ayatuddin Al-Mu’adzam Shah Ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Abdullah Al-Mu’tasim Billah. The palace was built to replace Balai Gambang
Istana Badariah – Royal palace built in 1940 by Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah. This palace also functioned as the Renca-Consol during Japanese occupation in Malaya.
Istana Maziah in Kuala Terengganu
Istana Maziah – It is believed to have been constructed during the reign of Sultan Zainal Abidin Ill in Terengganu. It was built in 1897 to replace the lstana Hijau. This palace is located at Bukit Puteri
Istana Nur Nadhirah – Palace for the Crown Prince of Terengganu Istana Nur Nadhirah This palace was built in 1920 after the signing of Terengganu-Inggeris Treaty. During the Japanese occupation in Malaya, this palace served as the official residence of Shuchiji Kakha ( Shu Chokan Kakha ). After World War II until December 1956 this palace served as the official residence of British Governor.
View at the garden of Istana Syarqiyyah at dusk
Istana Syarqiyyah – Royal palace in Chendering, Terengganu. This is the newest palace for Sultan of Terengganu
Istana Batu now serves as Royal Museum of Kelantan
Istana Batu – The Royal Museum is located in the middle of the Kota Bharu, Kelantan. The design of the palace was inspired by Sultan Ismail Ibni Almarhum Sultan Muhammad IV who reigned from 1920 to 1944.
Istana Bukit Tanah – The Palace was built by Sultan Ismail Ibni Almarhum Sultan Muhammad IV in 1920 in Tumpat, Kelantan
Front facade of Istana Jahar
Istana Jahar – Built in 1887, Istana Jahar was a gift from Sultan Mahmud II to his grandson, Long Kundur. Today, this palace is known as the Museum of Royal Traditions and Customs Kelantan.
Istana Kota Lama – Old royal palace of Kelantan
Istana Mahkota – Official residence of the previous ruler, Sultan Ismail Petra in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan
National Palace, Mexico City – former Viceregal and Presidential Palace; currently serves as the seat of the executive, and houses State ceremonies, such as receptions, banquets, and the Independence celebration.
Apart from the large complex at Turangawaewae Marae located in the town of Ngaruawahia, the previous Māori Monarch Te Atairangikaahu had a home at Waahi Marae in Huntly where she lived for most of her 40-year reign with her consort Whatumoana Paki. The Māori King or Queen are required to attend 33 Poukai annually conducted at Marae loyal to the Kingitangi movement. Many of these Marae maintain residences for the Māori King or Queen for them to use during such visits.
Kīnaʻu Hale – wooden bungalow of Queen Emma's uncle (either James Kanehoa or Keoni Ana); located near Iolani Palace, it served as the chamberlain's residence in Kamehameha V's reign and was the place where Kalakaua was inaugurated as King of Hawaii.
Marine Residence – royal residence of Lunalilo at Waikiki, where he died, willed to Queen Emma.
Pualeilani – royal residence of King Kalakaua, Queen Kapiolani and finally Prince Kuhio, who willed it to the City of Honolulu; the property Uluniu was purchased by the king from Princess Keelikolani in 1880 for $400
Keʻalohilani – royal residence of Queen Lili'uokalani at Waikiki, willed to her by her grandfather ʻAikanaka; she composed most of her works in this house
Waipiʻo Palace – royal grasshut palace of the ancient kings of Hawaii (island), most significant for the four nioi tree columns which supported it, according to oral traditions; later destroyed by the King Kahekili II of Maui
Wānanakoa – Private residence of Bernice Pauahi Bishop and Charles Reed Bishop at the beginning of their marriage; it was a small cottage located in the Nuʻuanu Valley where the Royal Mausoleum of Hawaii stands now