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List of nearest exoplanets

Exoplanet Fomalhaut b (Dagon), 25 light-years away, with its parent star Fomalhaut blacked out, as pictured by Hubble in 2012.[1]
Distribution of nearest exoplanets

There are 3,815 known exoplanets, or planets outside our solar system that orbit a star, as of August 1, 2018; only a small fraction of these are located in the vicinity of the Solar System.[2] Within 10 parsecs (32.6 light-years), there are 56 exoplanets listed as confirmed by the NASA Exoplanet Archive.[a][3] Among the over 400 known stars within 10 parsecs,[b][4] 26 have been confirmed to have planetary systems; 51 stars in this range are visible to the naked eye,[c][5] eight of which have planetary systems.

The first report of an exoplanet within this range was in 1998 for a planet orbiting around Gliese 876 (15.3 light-years (ly) away), and the latest as of 2017 is one around Ross 128 (11 ly). The closest exoplanet found is Proxima Centauri b, which was confirmed in 2016 to orbit Proxima Centauri, the closest star to our Solar System (4.25 ly). HD 219134 (21.6 ly) has six exoplanets, the highest number discovered for any star within this range. A planet around Fomalhaut (25 ly) was, in 2008, the first planet to be directly imaged.[6]

Most known nearby exoplanets orbit close to their star and have highly eccentric orbits. A majority are significantly larger than Earth, but a few have similar masses, including two planets (around YZ Ceti, 12 ly) which may be less massive than Earth. Several confirmed exoplanets are hypothesized to be potentially habitable, with Proxima Centauri b and three around Gliese 667 C (23.6 ly) considered the most likely candidates.[7] The International Astronomical Union took a public survey in 2015 about renaming some known extrasolar bodies, including the planets around Epsilon Eridani (10.5 ly) and Fomalhaut.[d][8]

Exoplanets within 10 parsecs

Key to colors
° Mercury, Earth and Jupiter (for comparison purposes)
# Confirmed multiplanetary systems
Exoplanets believed to be potentially habitable[7]
Exoplanets listed as confirmed in the NASA Exoplanet Archive[3]
Host star system Companion exoplanet (in order from star) Notes and additional planetary observations
Name Distance
(ly)
Apparent
magnitude

(V)
Mass
(M)
Label
[e]
Mass
(M)[f]
Radius
(R)
Semi-major axis
(AU)
Orbital period
(days)
Eccentricity
Inclination
(°)
Discovery year
Sun° 0 −26.7 1 Mercury 0.055 0.3829 0.387 88.0 0.205
Earth 1 1 1 365.3 0.0167
Jupiter 317.8 10.973 5.20 4,333 0.0488
Proxima Centauri 4.2 11.13 0.123 b >1.3 ~1.1 0.0485 11.2 <0.35 2016 [9][7]
Epsilon Eridani 10.49 3.73 0.83 AEgir 500 3.39 2,500 0.70 30 2000 1 candidate and a disc[10][11]
Ross 128 11.03 11.1 0.168 b >1.4 ~1.2 0.0496 9.87 0.12 2017 [12]
YZ Ceti# 11.74 12.1 0.130 b >0.75 0.0156 1.97 0.0 2017 1 candidate
[13][14]
c >0.98 0.0209 3.06 0.04 2017
d >1.1 0.0276 4.66 0.13 2017
Tau Ceti# 11.90 3.50 0.78 g >1.7 0.133 20.0 0.06 2017 2 retracted and 1 candidate
[15][16][7][17][18][19]
h >1.8 0.243 49.4 0.23 2017
e >3.9 ~1.6 0.538 163 0.18 2017
f >3.9 1.33 640 0.16 2017
Luyten's Star# 12.20 11.94 0.29 c >1.2 0.0365 4.72 0.17 2017 [7][20]
b >2.9 ~1.4 0.091 18.6 0.10 2017
Kapteyn's Star 12.76 8.8 0.28 c >7 0.311 122 0.23 2014 1 candidate[21][22]
Wolf 1061# 14.00 10.1 0.25 b >1.9 0.0375 4.89 0.15 2015 [7][23]
c >3.4 ~1.5 0.0890 17.9 0.11 2015
d >8 0.470 217 0.55 2015
Gliese 687 14.77 9.15 0.41 b >18 0.164 38.1 0.04 2014 [24]
Gliese 674 14.81 9.38 0.35 b >11 12.4 0.039 4.69 0.20 2007 [25][26]
Gliese 876# 15.29 10.2 0.33 d 6.8 0.0208 1.94 0.21 59 2005 2 candidates
[27][28][29]
c 230 0.130 30.1 0.256 59 2000
b 720 0.208 61.1 0.032 59 1998
e 15 0.334 124 0.055 59 2010
Gliese 832# 16.16 8.67 0.45 c >5.4 ~1.7 0.163 35.7 0.18 2014 [7][30]
b >220 3.56 3,700 0.08 2008
LHS 1723# 17.4 12.2 0.164 b >2.0 ~1.3 0.0328 5.36 0.2 2017 [31]
c >2.3 0.126 40.5 0.2 2017
82 G. Eridani# 19.7 4.26 0.85 b >2.7 0.121 18.3 ~0 90 2011 2 candidates and a disc
[32][33][34]
c >2.4 0.204 40.1 ~0 90 2011
d >4.8 0.350 90 ~0 90 2011
e >4.8 0.509 147 0.29 2017
Gliese 581# 20.4 10.5 0.31 e >1.7 0.0282 3.15 0.0 2009 3 candidates and a disc
[35][36][37][38]
b >16 0.0406 5.37 0.0 2005
c >5.5 0.072 12.9 0.0 2007
Gliese 625 21.3 10.2 0.30 b >2.8 0.0784 14.6 ~0.1 2017 [39]
HD 219134# 21.3 5.57 0.78 b 4.7 1.60 0.0388 3.09 ~0 85 2015 1 candidate
[40][41]
c 4.4 1.51 0.065 6.77 0.062 87 2015
f >7.3 >1.31 0.146 22.7 0.15 2015
d >16 >1.61 0.235 46.9 0.138 2015
g >11 0.375 94 ~0 2015
h >110 3.11 2,200 0.06 2015
Gliese 667# 23.6 10.2 0.33 Cb >5.6 0.051 7.20 ~0.1 2009 2 candidates
[42][7][43][44]
Cc >3.8 ~1.5 0.125 28.1 0.02 2011
Cf >2.7 ~1.4 0.156 39 0.03 2013
Ce >2.7 ~1.4 0.213 62 0.02 2013
Cg >4.6 0.549 260 0.08 2013
HD 95872 24.7 9.9 0.95 b >1200 5.2 4,400 0.06 2015 [45]
Fomalhaut 25.1 1.16 1.92 Dagon ~800 13.5 160 560,000 ~0.9 55 2008 multiple discs[46][47]
61 Virginis# 27.9 4.74 0.95 b >5.1 0.0502 4.22 ~0.1 2009 a debris disc
[48]
c >18 0.218 38.0 0.14 2009
d >23 0.476 123 0.35 2009
Gliese 849 28.6 10.4 0.49 b >310 2.35 1,880 0.04 2006 1 candidate[49][50]
HD 192310# 28.8 6.13 0.78 b >17 0.32 75 0.13 90 2010 [51]
c >24 1.18 530 ~0.3 90 2011
Gliese 433 29.0 9.79 0.48 b >5.8 0.060 7.37 0.08 2009 1 candidate[52][53]
HD 102365 30.1 4.89 0.85 b >16 0.46 122 0.34 2010 [54]
Gliese 176 30.7 10.1 0.45 b >9 0.066 8.78 ~0 2007 1 candidate[55][56]

Excluded objects

Unlike for bodies within our Solar System, there is no clearly established method for officially recognizing an exoplanet. According to the International Astronomical Union, an exoplanet should be considered confirmed if it has not been disputed for five years after its discovery.[57] There have been examples where the existence of exoplanets has been proposed, but even after follow-up studies their existence is still considered doubtful by some astronomers. Such cases include: Alpha Centauri (4.36 ly, two in 2012[58] and 2013[59]), Lalande 21185 (8.31 ly, in 2017[60]), Groombridge 34 (11.7 ly, two in 2014[61] and 2017[62]), Epsilon Indi (11.8 ly, in 2018[63]), LHS 288 (15.6 ly, in 2007[64]), 40 Eridani (16.3 ly, in 2018[65]), Gliese 682 (16.6 ly, two in 2014[7][66][67]), and Gliese 229 (18.8 ly, in 2014[68]). There are also some instances where proposed exoplanets were later disproved by subsequent studies, such as candidates around Teegarden's star (12.6 ly),[69] Van Maanen 2 (13.9 ly),[70] Groombridge 1618 (15.9 ly),[71] and VB 10 (18.7 ly).[72]

The Working Group on Extrasolar Planets of the International Astronomical Union adopted in 2003 a working definition on the upper limit for what constitutes a planet: not being massive enough to sustain thermonuclear fusion of deuterium. Some studies have calculated this to be somewhere around 13 times the mass of Jupiter, and therefore objects more massive than this are usually classified as brown dwarfs.[73] Some proposed candidate exoplanets were later shown to be massive enough to fall above the threshold, and are likely brown dwarfs, as was the case for: SCR 1845-6357 B (12.6 ly),[74] SDSS J1416+1348 B (29.7 ly),[75] and WISE 1217+1626 B (30 ly).[76]

Excluded from the current list are known examples of potential free-floating sub-brown dwarfs, or "rogue planets", which are bodies that are too small to undergo fusion yet they do not revolve around a star. Known such examples include: WISE 0855–0714 (7.3 ly),[77] UGPS 0722-05, (13 ly)[78] WISE 1541−2250 (18.6 ly),[79] and SIMP J01365663+0933473 (20 ly).[80]

Statistics

Planetary systems

Exoplanets

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Listed values are primarily taken from NASA Exoplanet Archive,[3] but other databases include a few additional exoplanet entries tagged as "Confirmed" that are have yet to be compiled into the NASA archive. Such databases include:
    "Exoplanet Catalog". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Full table. 
    "Exoplanets Data Explorer". Exoplanet Orbit Database. California Planet Survey. Click the "+" button to visualize additional parameters. 
    "Open Exoplanet Catalogue". Click the "Show options" to visualize additional parameters. 
  2. ^ For reference, the 104th closest known star system in November 2016 was 82 Eridani (19.7 ly).[83]
  3. ^ According to the Bortle scale, an astronomical object is visible to the naked eye under "typical" dark-sky conditions in a rural area if it has an apparent magnitude smaller than +6.5. To the unaided eye, the limiting magnitude is +7.6 to +8.0 under "excellent" dark-sky conditions (with effort).[81]
  4. ^ The star Epsilon Eridani was named Ran (after Rán, the Norse goddess of the sea), and the planet Epsilon Eridani b was named AEgir (after Ægir, Rán's husband),[84] while the planet Fomalhaut b was named Dagon (after Dagon, an ancient Syrian “fish god”[85]).[8]
  5. ^ Exoplanet naming convention assigns uncapitalized letters starting from b to each planet based on chronological order of their initial report, and in increasing order of distance from the parent star for planets reported at the same time. Omitted letters signify planets that have yet to be confirmed, or planets that have been retracted altogether.
  6. ^ Most reported exoplanet masses have very large error margins (typically, between 10% and 30%). The mass of an exoplanet has generally been inferred from measurements on changes in the radial velocity of the host star, but this kind of measurement only allows for an estimate on the exoplanet's orbital parameters, but not on their orbital inclination (i). As such, most exoplanets only have an estimated minimum mass (Mreal*sin(i)), where their true masses are statistically expected to come close to this minimum, with only about 13% chance for the mass of an exoplanet to be more than double its minimum mass.[86]

References

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External links