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List of medieval great powers
The term "
great power" has only been used in historiography and political science since the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
 Lord Castlereagh, the British Foreign Secretary, first used the term in its diplomatic context in 1814 in reference to the Treaty of Chaumont. Use of the term in the historiography of the Middle Ages is therefore idiosyncratic to each author. In historiography of the pre-modern period, it is more typical to talk of empires.
Civilizations, Empires, and Wars: A Quantitative History of War (McFarland, 1992), p. 113, provides the following chronological list of medieval great powers:
Fueter, Eduard (1922). . United States of America: Harcourt, Brace and Company. pp. World history, 1815–1930 25–28, 36–44. ISBN . 1-58477-077-5 Great Powers Congress of Vienna.
^ "Medieval Great Powers included China throughout, Persia (500-600, 900-50, 1400-50), Byzantium (500-1050), Tu Chueh (550-600), Tibet (650- 1250), Muslim (650-850), Turkey (650, 1050-1100, 1450-1500), Prati (850), Khazar (850-900), Kiev (900-1050), Bujid (950), Fatimid (950-1050), Liao (950-1150), Ghaznavid (1050), Al-mohad (1150-1250), Egypt (1250-1450), Mongolia (1250-1450), Khmer (1250), Mali (1300, 1450), Chagatai (1350), Lithuania (1450), Inca (1500) and Russia (1500)."
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Encyclopedia Of The Medieval World (2 vol. 2004). Farrington, K. (2003).
Historical Atlas of Empires. London: Mercury. Harrison, T., & J. Paul Getty Museum. (2009).
The Great Empires of the Ancient World. Los Angeles, Calif: J. Paul Getty Museum. Khan, A. (2004).
A Historical Atlas of India. New York: Rosen Pub. Jordan, William Chester. (1996)
The Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia for Students (4 Volumes) Labberton, R. H. (1884).
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History of International Relations Open Textbook Project, Cambridge: Open Book, forthcoming. Petitjean, P., Jami, C., Moulin, A. M., & Equipe REHSEIS (Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France)). (1992).
Science and Empires: Historical Studies about Scientific Development and European Expansion. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Shepherd, W. R., & C.S. Hammond & Company. (1911).
. New York: Henry Holt and Co. Historical Atlas Stearns, Peter N. ed. The Encyclopedia of World History (2001).