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List of mammals of Sri Lanka

This is a list of the mammal species recorded in Sri Lanka. There are 125 mammal species in Sri Lanka, of which 1 is critically endangered, 10 are endangered, 10 are vulnerable, and 3 are near-threatened.[1]

The following tags are used to highlight each species' conservation status as assessed by the IUCN:

EX Extinct No reasonable doubt that the last individual has died.
EW Extinct in the wild Known only to survive in captivity or as a naturalized populations well outside its previous range.
CR Critically endangered The species is in imminent risk of extinction in the wild.
EN Endangered The species is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
VU Vulnerable The species is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.
NT Near threatened The species does not meet any of the criteria that would categorise it as risking extinction but it is likely to do so in the future.
LC Least concern There are no current identifiable risks to the species.
DD Data deficient There is inadequate information to make an assessment of the risks to this species.

Some species were assessed using an earlier set of criteria. Species assessed using this system have the following instead of near threatened and least concern categories:

LR/cd Lower risk/conservation dependent Species which were the focus of conservation programmes and may have moved into a higher risk category if that programme was discontinued.
LR/nt Lower risk/near threatened Species which are close to being classified as vulnerable but are not the subject of conservation programmes.
LR/lc Lower risk/least concern Species for which there are no identifiable risks.

Mammalian diversity

Class Order Number of species Endemic species Endemism
Mammals Sirenia
1
-
-
Proboscidea
1
-
-
Primates
5
3
60%
Rodentia
23
7
30.4%
Lagomorpha
1
-
-
Eulipotyphla
10
6
60%
Chiroptera
30
-
-
Carnivora
16
3
18.75%
Pholidota
1
-
-
Artiodactyla
8
2
25%
Perissodactyla
2
-
-
Cetacea
27
-
-

Subclass: Theria

Infraclass: Eutheria

Order: Proboscidea (elephants)

The elephants comprise three living species and are the largest living land animals.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status
Asian elephant
අලියා

Asian elephant - melbourne zoo.jpg

Elephas maximus Sri Lankan elephant
Elephas maximus maximus
Endangered

Order: Sirenia (manatees and dugongs)

Sirenia is an order of fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit rivers, estuaries, coastal marine waters, swamps, and marine wetlands. All four species are endangered.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status
Dugong
මුහුදු ඌරා

Dugong.jpg

Dugong dugong Vulnerable

Order: Primates

The order Primates contains humans and their closest relatives: lemurs, lorisoids, monkeys, and apes.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status
Gray slender loris
අලු උණහපුලුවා

Loris lydekkerianus nordicus 003.jpg

Loris lydekkerianus • Northern Ceylonese slender loris,
Loris lydekkerianus nordicus

• Highland slender loris,
Loris lydekkerianus grandis

Least concern
Red slender loris
ශ්‍රී ලංකා රත් උණහපුලුවා

Loris tardigradus tardigradus 001.jpg

Loris tardigradus • Mountain slender loris,
Loris tardigradus nycticeboides

• Lowland slender loris,
Loris tardigradus tardigradus

Endangered
Toque macaque
රිලවා

Macaca sinica - 01.jpg

Macaca sinica • Dryzone toque macaque,
Macaca sinica sinica

• Wetzone toque macaque,
Macaca sinica aurifrons

• Highland toque macaque,
Macaca sinica opisthomelas

Endangered
Tufted gray langur
හැලි වඳුරා

Tufted gray langur female at Mihintale.jpg

Semnopithecus priam • Sri Lanka tufted grey langur,
Semnopithecus priam thersites
Near threatened
Purple-faced langur
ශ්‍රී ලංකා කලු වඳුරා

Semnopithèque blanchâtre mâle.JPG

Trachypithecus vetulus • Southern lowland wetzone purple-faced langur,
Trachypithecus vetulus vetulus

• Western purple-faced langur,
Trachypithecus vetulus nestor

• Dryzone purple-faced langur,
Trachypithecus vetulus philbricki

• Bear monkey,
Trachypithecus vetulus monticola

• Northern purple-faced langur,
Trachypithecus vetulus harti (not yet given validity)

Endangered

Order: Rodentia (rodents)

Rodents make up the largest order of mammals, with over 40 percent of mammalian species. They have two incisors in the upper and lower jaw which grow continually and must be keep short by gnawing. Most rodents are small though the capybara can weigh up to 45 kg (100 lb).

Name Binomial Subspecies Status
Indian porcupine
ඉත්තෑවා

Hystrix indica (Indian Crested Porcupine) at IG Zoological park, Visakhapatnam 03.JPG

Hystrix indica Least concern
Grizzled giant squirrel
දඬු ලේනා

Flickr - Rainbirder - Giant Squirrel (Ratufa macroura).jpg

Ratufa macroura • Highland giant squirrel
Ratufa macroura macroura

• Dryzone giant squirrel
Ratufa macroura dandolena

• Intermediate giant squirrel
Ratufa macroura melanochra

Near threatened
Indian giant flying squirrel
මහ හම්බාවා

Indian giant flying squirrel.jpg

Petaurista philippensis Least concern
Travancore flying squirrel
හීන් හම්බාවා
Petinomys fuscocapillus Petinomys fuscocapillus layardi Near threatened
Indian palm squirrel
ලේනා

Three-Striped Palm Squirrel.jpg

Funambulus palmarum Funambulus palmarum palmarum Least concern
Layard's palm squirrel
ශ්‍රී ලංකා මූකලන් ලේනා
Funambulus layardi Vulnerable
Dusky palm squirrel
ශ්‍රී ලංකා පුංචි ලේනා
Funambulus obscurus Vulnerable
Indian gerbil
වැලි මීයා

Tatera indica Hardwicke.jpg

Tatera indica Least concern
Lesser bandicoot rat
මහ ඌරු මීයා

Bandicota bengalensis Hardwicke.jpg

Bandicota bengalensis Least concern
Greater bandicoot rat
හීන් ඌරු මීයා

Bonner zoologische Beiträge - Herausgeber- Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn (1984) (20205337978).jpg

Bandicota indica Least concern
Blanford's rat
වලිග සුදු වන මීයා

Davidraju rat2.jpg

Madromys blanfordi Least concern
Indian bush rat
පදුරු මීයා

Indian Bush Rat at Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, India.jpg

Golunda ellioti Least concern
Soft-furred rat
කෙස් මුදු කෙත් මීයා
Millardia meltada Least concern
Little Indian field mouse
වෙල් හීන් මීයා
Mus booduga Least concern
Ceylon spiny mouse
ශ්‍රී ලංකා ක‍ටු හීන් මීයා
Mus fernandoni Endangered
Mayor's mouse
ශ්‍රී ලංකා දෙපැහැ ක‍ටු හීන් මීයා
Mus mayori Vulnerable
House mouse
ගෙවල් මීයා

House mouse.jpg

Mus musculus Mus musculus castaneus Least concern
Nillu rat
නෙලූ මීයා
Rattus montanus Endangered
Brown rat
පොදු ගේ මීයා

Rattus norvegicus 2.jpg

Rattus norvegicus Least concern
Ohiya rat
ශ්‍රී ලංකා දෙපැහැ මීයා
Srilankamys ohiensis Vulnerable
Asiatic long-tailed climbing mouse
ගස් මීයා

Longtailedtreemouse sal.jpg

Vandeleuria oleracea Least concern

Order: Lagomorpha (lagomorphs)

The lagomorphs comprise two families, Leporidae (hares and rabbits), and Ochotonidae (pikas). Though they can resemble rodents, and were classified as a superfamily in that order until the early 20th century, they have since been considered a separate order. They differ from rodents in a number of physical characteristics, such as having four incisors in the upper jaw rather than two.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status
Indian hare
වල් හාවා

Black naped hare.jpg

Lepus nigricollis Lepus nigricollis singhala Least concern

Order: Soricomorpha (shrews, moles, and solenodons)

The "shrew-forms" are insectivorous mammals. The shrews and solenodons closely resemble mice while the moles are stout-bodied burrowers.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status
Horsefield's shrew
කුණු හික් මීයා
Crocidura horsfieldii Data deficient
Sri Lankan long-tailed shrew
ශ්‍රී ලංකා කුණු හික් මීයා
Crocidura miya Endangered
Sinharaja shrew
ශ්‍රී ලංකා සිංහරාජ කුණු හික් මීයා
Crocidura hikmiya Endangered
Kelaart's long-clawed shrew
පිරි හික් මීයා
Feroculus feroculus Endangered
Pearson's long-clawed shrew
ශ්‍රී ලංකා නිය දිගු මාහික් මීයා
Solisorex pearsoni Endangered
Etruscan shrew
පොඩි හික් මීයා

Suncus etruscus.jpg

Suncus etruscus Least concern
Sri Lanka shrew
ශ්‍රී ලංකා පොඩි හික් මීයා
Suncus fellowesgordoni Endangered
Sri Lanka highland shrew
ශ්‍රී ලංකා කදු හික් මීයා
Suncus montanus Vulnerable
Asian house shrew
පොදු හික් මීයා

Suncus murinus.jpg

Suncus murinus Least concern
Jungle shrew
ශ්‍රී ලංකා කැලෑ හික් මීයා
Suncus zeylanicus Endangered

Order: Chiroptera (bats)

The bats' most distinguishing feature is that their forelimbs are developed as wings, making them the only mammals in the world naturally capable of flight. Bat species account for about 20% of all mammals.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status
Lesser short-nosed fruit bat
හීන් තල වවුලා

Lesser short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus brachyotis).jpg

Cynopterus brachyotis Least concern
Greater short-nosed fruit bat
තල වවුලා

Short-nosed Fruit Bat (Cynopterus sphinx) Photograph By Shantanu Kuveskar.jpg

Cynopterus sphinx Least concern
Indian flying fox
මා වවුලා

Indian Flying Fox (Pteropus giganteus) Kolkata West Bengal India 27042013.png

Pteropus giganteus Least concern
Leschenault's rousette
බොර කහ පලා වවුලා
Rousettus leschenaulti Least concern
Hardwicke's woolly bat
රත් බොර කිරි වවුලා
Kerivoula hardwickii Least concern
Painted bat
රත් බොර කිරි වවුලා

Kerivoula picta - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria - Genoa, Italy - DSC02554.JPG

Kerivoula picta Least concern
Lesser large-footed bat
බොර වවුලා
Myotis hasseltii Least concern
Chocolate pipistrelle
බොර හීන් වවුලා
Falsistrellus affinis Least concern
Tickell's bat
අවර වවුලා
Hesperoptenus tickelli Least concern
Kelaart's pipistrelle
රත් බොර කොස්ඇට වවුලා
Pipistrellus ceylonicus Least concern
Indian pipistrelle
ඉන්දු කොස්ඇට වවුලා

Pipistrellus coromandra.jpg

Pipistrellus coromandra Least concern
Greater Asiatic yellow bat
මහ කහ වවුලා
Scotophilus heathi Least concern
Lesser Asiatic yellow bat
හීන් කහ වවුලා

ScotoKuhliiBinnaguri02.jpg

Scotophilus kuhlii Least concern
Round-eared tube-nosed bat
නළ නැහැ වවුලා
Murina cyclotis Least concern
Eastern bent-wing bat
දික්පිය වවුලා
Miniopterus fuliginosus Least concern
Wrinkle-lipped free-tailed bat
පොදු ‍රැලිතොල් වවුලා

Chaerephon plicatus Hardwicke.jpg

Chaerephon plicata Least concern
Egyptian free-tailed bat
මහදිව් ‍රැලිතොල් වවුලා

Egyptian Free-tailed Bat (Tadarida aegyptiaca) (6857006746).jpg

Tadarida aegyptiaca Least concern
Naked-rumped pouched bat
පැස්පිරී වවුලා
Saccolaimus saccolaimus Least concern
Long-winged tomb bat
දික්බා කෙපුලුම් වවුලා

Taphozous longimanus - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria - Genoa, Italy - DSC02550.JPG

Taphozous longimanus Least concern
Black-bearded tomb bat
රැවුලකලු කෙපුලුම් වවුලා

Black-bearded tomb bat.jpg

Taphozous longimanus Least concern
Greater false vampire bat
මහ බොරු ලේ වවුලා

Greater False Vampire Bat (Megaderma lyra).jpg

Megaderma lyra Least concern
Lesser false vampire bat
කන්දිගු බොරු ලේ වවුලා

Megaderma spasma.jpg

Megaderma spasma Least concern
Lesser woolly horseshoe bat
හීන් අස්ලාඩම් වවුලා

Lesser Woolly Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus beddomei).jpg

Rhinolophus beddomei Least concern
Woolly horseshoe bat
අස්ලාඩම් වවුලා
Rhinolophus luctus Least concern
Rufous horseshoe bat
බොරත් අස්ලාඩම් වවුලා

Rhinolophus rouxii.jpg

Rhinolophus rouxi Least concern
Dusky leaf-nosed bat
දෙපැහැ පත්නැහැ වවුලා
Hipposideros ater Least concern
Fulvus roundleaf bat
මැලෑකහ පත්නැහැ වවුලා

Fulvous Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros fulvus).jpg

Hipposideros fulvus Least concern
Cantor's roundleaf bat
කෙස්දිගු පත්නැහැ වවුලා
Hipposideros galeritus Least concern
Indian roundleaf bat
මහ පත්නැහැ වවුලා

Hipposideros lankadiva Kelaart's leaf-nosed bat 1.jpg

Hipposideros lankadiva Least concern
Schneider's leaf-nosed bat
කෙස්කෙටි පත්නැහැ වවුලා

Schneider's Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros speoris DSC 9833 copy filtered copy.jpg

Hipposideros speoris Least concern

Order: Pholidota (pangolins)

The order Philodota comprises the eight species of pangolin. Pangolins are anteaters and have the powerful claws, elongated snout and long tongue seen in the other unrelated anteater species.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status
Indian pangolin
කබල්ලෑවා

Pangolin (Gir Forest, Gujarat, India).jpg

Manis crassicaudata Endangered

Order: Cetacea (cetaceans)

The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. They are the mammals most fully adapted to aquatic life with a spindle-shaped nearly hairless body, protected by a thick layer of blubber, and forelimbs and tail modified to provide propulsion underwater.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status
Minke whale
මින්කි තල්මසා

Balaenoptera-acutorostrata.jpg

Balaenoptera acutorostrata Dwarf minkie whale Least concern
Bryde's whale
බ්ර්ය්ඩ් තල්මසා

Balaenoptera edeni.jpg

Balaenoptera edeni Indo-Pacific Bryde's whale Data deficient
Blue whale
නිල් තල්මසා

Anim1754 - Flickr - NOAA Photo Library.jpg

Balaenoptera musculus Pygmy blue whale
Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda
Endangered
Fin whale
වරල් තල්මසා

Fin whale from air.jpg

Balaenoptera physalus Southern fin whale
Balaenoptera physalus quoyi
Endangered
Humpback whale
මොල්ලි තල්මසා

Humpback stellwagen edit.jpg

Megaptera novaeangliae Megaptera novaeangliae (Arabian Sea subpopulation) Endangered
Finless porpoise
අවරල් දෙනුවා

Neophocaena phocaenoides DSC 03.jpg

Neophocaena phocaenoides Neophocaena phocaenoides phocaenoides Vulnerable
Sperm whale
මන්ද තල්මසා

Mother and baby sperm whale.jpg

Physeter macrocephalus Vulnerable
Pygmy sperm whale
කුරු මන්ද තල්මසා

Pygmy sperm whale.jpg

Kogia breviceps Data deficient
Dwarf sperm whale
මිටි මන්ද තල්මසා

Dwarf sperm whale (NOAA Pitman).jpg

Kogia sima Data deficient
Cuvier's beaked whale
කුවියර් උල් තල්මසා

Wal Cuviera.jpg

Ziphius cavirostris Least concern
Blainville's beaked whale
බ්ලේයින් හොබු තල්මසා

Blainville's beaked whale size.svg

Mesoplodon densirostris Data deficient
Ginkgo-toothed beaked whale
හොබු තල්මසා
Mesoplodon ginkgodens Data deficient
Deraniyagala's beaked whale
දැරණිලගලගේ උල්හොට තල්මසා
Mesoplodon hotaula -
Rough-toothed dolphin
රලුදත් මුල්ලා

Steno bredanensis 2.jpg

Steno bredanensis Data deficient
Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin
ඉන්දු ශාන්තිකර මොල්ලි මුල්ලා

Dolphin-Musandam 2.jpg

Sousa chinensis Plumbea-type Near threatened
Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin
ඉන්දු පැසි‍ෆික් බෝතල්නාස මුල්ලා

Tursiops aduncus, Port River, Adelaide, Australia - 2003.jpg

Tursiops aduncus Data deficient
Bottlenose dolphin
බෝතල්නාස මුල්ලා

Tursiops truncatus 01-cropped.jpg

Tursiops truncatus Tursiops truncatus (Mediterranean subpopulation) Least concern
Pantropical spotted dolphin
තිත් මුල්ලා

Stenellaattenuataporpoising.jpg

Stenella attenuata Stenella attenuata attenuata Least concern
Striped dolphin
වෛරම් මුල්ලා

Stenella coeruleoalba.jpg

Stenella coeruleoalba Least concern
Spinner dolphin
බමන මුල්ලා

A spinner dolphin in the Red Sea.jpg

Stenella longirostris Stenella longirostris longirostris Data deficient
Fraser's dolphin
කෙටිහොට මුල්ලා

Frazer´s dolphin group.jpg

Lagenodelphis hosei Least concern
Risso's dolphin
අළු මුල්ලා

Grampus griseus Reconstitution.jpg

Grampus griseus Least concern
Melon-headed whale
පුහුල් ඔළු මුල්ලා

Melonhead whales (15159453908).jpg

Peponocephala electra Least concern
Pygmy killer whale
කුරු මිනී තල්මසා

Feresa attenuata.jpg

Feresa attenuata Data deficient
False killer whale
බොරු මිනී තල්මසා

False killer whale 890002.jpg

Pseudorca crassidens Data deficient
Killer whale
මිනී තල්මසා

Killerwhales jumping.jpg

Orcinus orca Data deficient
Short-finned pilot whale
නියමු තල්මසා

Globicephala macrorhynchus Tenerife 2012.jpg

Globicephala macrorhynchus Data deficient

Order: Carnivora (carnivorans)

There are over 260 species of carnivorans, the majority of which feed primarily on meat. They have a characteristic skull shape and dentition.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status
Domestic cat
බළලා / පූසා

Cat poster 1.jpg

Felis sylvestris Felis sylvestris catus Domesticated
Jungle cat
වල් බළලා / වල් බාවා

FelisChausMunsiari1.jpg

Felis chaus Sri Lankan jungle cat
Felis chaus kelaarti
Least concern
Rusty-spotted cat
කොල දිවියා

Rostkatze.JPG

Prionailurus rubiginosus Prionailurus rubiginosus phillipsi Near threatened
Fishing cat
හදුන් දිවියා

Fishing Cat Pessac zoo.jpg

Prionailurus viverrinus Vulnerable
Leopard
දිවියා

Leopard at Wilpattu National Park.jpg

Panthera pardus Sri Lankan leopard
Panthera pardus kotiya
Endangered
Asian palm civet
කලවැද්දා

Common Palm Civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) (7781509830).jpg

Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Least concern
Golden wet zone palm civet
රන් කලවැද්දා

Smit.Paradoxurus aureus.jpg

Paradoxurus aureus Split into species.
Sri Lanka golden striped-backed palm civet
ශ්‍රී ලංකා බොර කලවැද්දා
Paradoxurus stenocephalus
Sri Lanka brown palm civet
ශ්‍රී ලංකා බොර කලවැද්දා
Paradoxurus montanus
Small Indian civet
උරුලෑවා

Small Indian Civet, Silchar, Assam, India.jpg

Viverricula indica Viverricula indica mayori Least concern
Indian gray mongoose
මුගටියා

Herpestes edwardsii at Hyderaba.jpg

Herpestes edwardsii Least concern
Indian brown mongoose
බොර මුගටියා

Indian Brown Mongoose.jpg

Herpestes fuscus Least concern
Ruddy mongoose
හෝතබුවා

Ruddy-mongoose.jpg

Herpestes smithii Least concern
Stripe-necked mongoose
මහ මුගටියා

2007-stripe-necked-mongoose.jpg

Herpestes vitticollis Herpestes vitticollis vitticollis Least concern
Golden jackal
හිවලා

Flickr - Rainbirder - Golden Jackal.jpg

Canis aureus Sri Lankan golden jackal
Canis aureus naria
Least concern
Domestic dog
බල්ලා / සුනඛයා

Collage of Nine Dogs.jpg

Canis lupus Canis lupus familiaris Domesticated
Sloth bear
මන්ද වලහා

Sloth Bear Washington DC.JPG

Melursus ursinus Sri Lankan sloth bear
Melursus ursinus inornatus
Vulnerable
European otter
දිය බල්ලා

Fischotter, Lutra Lutra.JPG

Lutra lutra Lutra lutra nair Near threatened

Order: Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates)

The even-toed ungulates are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. There are about 220 artiodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status
Boar
වල් ඌරා

Sus scrofa cristatus.jpg

Sus scrofa Indian boar
Sus scrofa cristatus
Least concern
Domestic pig
ඌරා

Sow with piglet.jpg

Sus scrofa Sus scrofa domesticus Domesticated
Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
ශ්‍රී ලංකා සුදු තිත් මීමින්නා

MouseDeer0.jpg

Moschiola meminna Least concern
Sri Lankan yellow-striped chevrotain
ශ්‍රී ලංකා කහ ඉරි මීමින්නා
Moschiola kathygre Least concern
Sambar deer
ගෝනා

Sambar in Horton Plains National Park 03.JPG

Rusa unicolor Sri Lankan sambar deer
Rusa unicolor unicolor
Vulnerable
Indian hog deer
විල් මුවා

Hog Deer in Punjab Pakistan.jpg

Hyelaphus porcinus Hyelaphus porcinus porcinus Endangered
Chital
තිත් මුවා

A chital stag 1.JPG

Axis axis Sri Lankan axis deer Axis axis ceylonensis Least concern
Indian muntjac
ඕලු මුවා / වැලි මුවා

Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntjak) (8753624038).jpg

Muntiacus muntjak Muntiacus muntjak malabaricus Least concern
Wild Asian water buffalo
කුළු මීහරකා

Indian Water Buffalo Bubalus arnee by Dr Raju Kasambe IMG 0347 (11) (cropped).jpg

Bubalus arnee Bubalus arnee migona Endangered
Water buffalo
මීහරකා

WildWaterBuffalo(Bubalus bubalis arnee).jpg

Bubalus bubalis Bubalus bubalis Domesticated
Zebu
හරකා / ගොනා

Female zebu cattle.JPG

Bos taurus Bos Taurus indicus Domesticated
Goat
එළුවා

Goat kid in char of Sirajganj, Bangladesh 05.jpg

Capra aegagrus Capra aegagrus hircus Domesticated

Order: Perissodactyla (odd-toed ungulates)

The odd-toed ungulates are ungulates that are equally important as Artiodactyls. There are about 17 perissodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans.

Name Binomial Subspecies Status
Delft pony
ඩෙල්ෆ්ට් පෝනියා

Wild horses (Delft Island).JPG

Equus ferus Equus ferus cabellus Domesticated
Donkey
බූරුවා

Donkey 1 arp 750px.jpg

Equus africanus Equus africanus asinus Domesticated

See also

Further reading

  • Mammals of Sri Lanka by Asoka Yapa and Gamini Ratnavira, ISBN 978-955-8576-32-8

Notes

  1. ^ This list is derived from the IUCN Red List which lists species of mammals and includes those mammals that have recently been classified as extinct (since 1500 AD). The taxonomy and naming of the individual species is based on those used in existing Wikipedia articles as of 21 May 2007 and supplemented by the common names and taxonomy from the IUCN, Smithsonian Institution, or University of Michigan where no Wikipedia article was available.

References