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List of earthquakes in Greece

Map of earthquakes in Greece and adjacent countries 1900–2017

This list of earthquakes in Greece includes notable earthquakes that have affected Greece during recorded history. This list is currently incomplete, representing only a fraction of the possible events.

Tectonic setting

Greece is located at the complex boundary zone in the eastern Mediterranean between the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The northern part of Greece lies on the Eurasian Plate while the southern part lies on the Aegean Sea Plate. The Aegean Sea Plate is moving southwestward with respect to the Eurasian Plate at about 30 mm/yr while the African Plate is subducting northwards beneath the Aegean Sea Plate at a rate of about 40 mm/yr. The northern plate boundary is a relatively diffuse divergent boundary while the southern convergent boundary forms the Hellenic arc.[1]

These two plate boundaries give rise to two contrasting tectonic styles, extension on east-west trending fault zones with strike-slip tectonics on SW-NE trending fault zones throughout west and central Greece, Peloponnese and the northern Aegean and contractional in the southern Aegean, continuing around to the Ionian islands. The south Aegean is the location of the volcanic arc and is characterised by extension. To the east of Crete along the Hellenic Arc, strike-slip tectonics with some extension become important.[1]

The strongest earthquakes historically are those associated with the Hellenic Arc, although none larger than about 7.2 have been observed instrumentally. The events of AD 365 and 1303 are likely to have been much larger than this. In mainland Greece, normal faulting gives earthquakes up to 7 in magnitude, while in the northern Aegean, strike-slip events with a magnitude of 7.2 have been recorded. Large intermediate depth (>50 km) earthquakes of magnitude >7 from within the subducting African Plate have been recorded but such events cause little damage, although they are widely felt.[1]

Earthquakes

Date Place Lat Lon Deaths Mag. I Comments Sources
2019-11-27 Aegean Sea, offshore Antikythera 35.63 23.21 6.1 Mw VI Depth of focus reached 56km, making it perceived from more than 300km away. Some damage.[2] CNN[3]
2018-10-26 Ionian Sea, offshore Zakynthos 37.478 20.56 6.8 Mw VI Sea level changes were observed, prompting a local tsunami warning. USGS[4]
2017-07-21 Kos 36.57 27.27 2 6.6 Mw VII 150 people injured in Greece, 370 injured in Turkey and two dead BBC
2017-06-12 Lesbos 38.93 26.37 1 6.3 Mw IX 10+ people injured, significant damage across parts of the island
2015-11-17 Lefkada 38.67 20.6 2 6.5 Mw VII Four injured [5]
2014-05-24 Limnos 38.11 23.60 1 6.9 Mw VIII 1 injury reported in Greece, dozens of houses collapsed.
2008-07-15 Dodecanese 35.93 27.81 1 6.4 Mw VII
2008-06-22 Methoni, Messenia, Peloponnese 36.00 21.90 6.0 Mw VIII There were four foreshocks before the main event / Earthquake swarm that initiated at 14th of February [6]
2008-06-08 Peloponnese 37.96 21.53 2 6.4 Mw VIII 240 injured
2008-02-20 Methoni, Messenia, Peloponnese 37.96 21.53 6.1 Mw V Earthquake swarm [7]
2008-02-14 Methoni, Messenia, Peloponnese 37.96 21.53 6.7 Mw & 6.6 Mw V+ Back to back seismic events in the span of two hours approximately / Minor damages / Earthquake swarm that continued throughout the year [8]
2008-01-06 Leonidio, Arcadia 6.6 Mw [9]
2006-01-08 Kythira 36.26 23.46 6.7-6.9 Mw VII Three injured [10]
2005-10-18 Zakynthos 6.0 Mw No injuries or damages [11]
2003-08-14 Lefkada 39 21 6.4 Mw VIII [12]
2002-01-22 Crete - Karpathos 35.56 26.73 6.6 Mw No injuries or damages [13]
1999-09-07 Athens 38.06 23.51 143 6.0 Mw IX 1,600 injured / $3–4.2 billion in damage
1995-06-15 Aigio 38.40 22.28 26 6.4 Mw VIII 60 injuries / $660 million in damage NGDC, [14]
1995-05-13 KozaniGrevena 40.15 21.70 6.6 Mw VIII 12-25 injured / $450 million in damage NGDC, [15]
1990-12-21 Goumenissa, KilkisPella 40.92 22.36 1 6.0 Mw VI 60 injured [16]
1990-06-16 Preveza (regional unit) 39.1 20.4 6.0 M VI 1 injured [17]
1988-10-16 Kyllini, Elis 6.0 M [18]
1986-09-13 Kalamata 37.01 22.18 20+ 6.0 Mw X 300 injured / $5 million in damage [19]
1981-12-19 Lesbos 39.00 25.26 7.2 VIII 7 buildings collapsed [20]
1981-02-24 Halcyon islands, Gulf of Corinth 38.22 22.93 20-22 6.7 Ms VIII 400-500 injured / $812 million in damage / 22,554 buildings destroyed / Local tsunami [21], [22]
1980-07-09 Almyros, Magnesia (regional unit) 39.27 22.83 6.5 VIII 24 injured / 5,222 buildings completely destroyed [23]
1978-06-20 Thessaloniki 40.6 23.2 45–50 6.2 - 6.5 Mw VIII 100–220 injured [24]
1973-11-29 Palaiochora, Crete 35.18 23.75 6.0 Mw VII+ [25]
1968-02-19 Agios Efstratios, Aegean Sea 39.37 25.96 20 7.1 - 7.2 Mw X 39 injuries / Local tsunami NGDC, [26]
1967-05-01 Drosopighe, Arta (regional unit) 39.47 21.25 9 6.4 IX 56 injured [27]
1966-10-29 Katouna, Aetolia-Acarnania 38.78 21.11 1 6.0 VIII 43 injured [28]
1966-09-01 Megalopolis, Greece, Arcadia 37.39 22.14 6.0 VIII 24 injured [29]
1966-02-05 Kremasta (lake), Evrytania 39.05 21.75 1 6.2 IX 65 injured / 731 buildings collapsed [30]
1965-07-06 Erateini, Phocis 38.27 22.30 1 6.3 VIII 6 injured / 575 buildings collapsed [31]
1965-04-09 Kandanos, Crete 35.13 24.31 6.1 VI+ [32]
1965-04-05 Apiditsa, Arcadia 37.40 22.10 18 6.1 VIII 17 injured / 1,426 buildings collapsed [33]
1965-03-09 Alonnisos 39.16 23.89 2 6.1 IX 2 injured / 1941 buildings collapsed [34]
1959-05-14 Pitsidia, Crete 35.00 24.72 6.3 VIII+ 8 injured [35]
1957-04-25 Rhodes 36.50 28.60 7.2 VIII In Turkish coast there were 18 fatalities and 3,000 buildings destroyed [36]
1956-07-09 Dodecanese 36.67 25.957 53 7.5 Mw IX Triggered a tsunami that affected the entire Aegean Sea / 100 injuries [37]
1955-07-16 Samos - Agathonisi 37.55 27.05 6.9 VIII 2 injured [38]
1955-04-19 Lechonia, Magnesia (regional unit) 39.37 23.00 1 6.2 VIII 41 injured [39]
1954-04-30 Sofades, Karditsa (regional unit) 39.28 22.29 25-31 6.7-7.0 Mw IX 6,559 buildings destroyed [40], [41]
1953-10-21 Kandila, Aetolia-Acarnania 38.60 20.96 6.3 VIII [42]
1953-08-09 Cephalonia, Zakynthos 38.18 20.94 445–800 6.4 Mw, 6.8 Mw & 7.2 Mw X Two foreshocks and one major earthquake occurred in the span of three days / 2,412 injured / The islands of Cephalonia, Zakynthos and Ithaca were leveled. From the 33,300 buildings of these three islands, 27,659 were completely destroyed [43]
1947-10-06 Messenia, Peloponnese 36.96 21.68 3 7.0 IX 20 injured [44]
1941-03-01 Larissa, Thessaly 39.67 22.54 40 6.3 VIII 100 injured / In Larissa, 10% of the city's buildings have been completely destroyed and 60% seriously damaged [45]
1938-07-20 Oropos, East Attica 38.29 23.79 18 6.0 VIII 107 injured / 8,000 homeless [46]
1933-04-23 Kos 36.8 27.3 74-200 6.6 IX–X 600 injuries [47], [48]
1932-09-26 Ierissos 39.8 23.8 161-491 7.0 Ms X Tsunami / 669 injuries / 4,106 buildings destroyed [49]
1928-04-22 Corinth 38 23 20 6.0 Ms IX 3,000 homes destroyed / tsunami NGDC
1917-12-24 Nafpaktos 38.40 21.70 6.0 VIII [50]
1914-11-27 Lefkada 38.72 20.62 16 6.3 IX Small tsunami [51], [52]
1904-08-11 Samos 37.66 26.93 4 6.8 VIII 7 injuries / 540 buildings destroyed [53]
1902-08-11 Assiros, Thessaloniki (regional unit) 5 7.9 Ms IX [54]
1894-04-27 Atalanti 38.65 23.08 255 6.7 Mw & 7.0 Mw XI Two earthquakes, 7 days apart / 3,783 buildings destroyed [55]
1893-05-23 Thebes 38.31 23.25 2 6.2 VIII [56]
1893-04-17 Zakynthos 6.4 IX From 4,500 buildings of the island, 2,000 were completely destroyed [57]
1893-02-09 Samothrace 40.59 25.53 1 6.8 IX 10-20 injuries [58]
1886-08-27 Filiatra 37.10 21.50 326-600 7.5 X 796 injuries / 6,000 buildings collapsed or severely damaged / 123 villages destroyed/ Tsunami NGDC, [59]
1881-04-03 Chios, Çeşme, Alaçatı 38.30 26.20 3,550 6.5-7.3 XI 7,000 injured [60]
1870-08-01 Arachova 38.48 22.55 117 6.8 VIII 380 injured / 2,000 buildings destroyed [61]
1867-03-07 Lesbos 39.2 26.4 550 6.8-7.0 X 816 injured / 10,275 buildings were damaged NGDC, [62]
1867-02-04 Lixouri, Cephalonia 38.4 20.2 200-224 7.2 X 2,612 buildings collapsed NGDC, [63]
1866-01-31 Santorini 6.1 VIII The volcano of Nea Kameni erupted and began creating two islets [64]
1861-02-04 Valimitika, Achaea 38.25 22.16 20 6.7 X Tsunami wave at the Gulf of Corinth [65]
1856-10-12 Rhodes, Crete 35.5 26 538 8.2 XI 638 injuries / 16,512 homes destroyed / tsunami NGDC, [66]
1840-10-30 Zakynthos 38 21 12 X NGDC
1837-03-20 Hydra (island), Saronic Gulf 1 6.2 Mw VII [67]
1829-05-05 Xanthi, Western Thrace 41.1 24.5 7.3 Mw IX The city of Xanthi was almost destroyed. Drama (X) was almost completely destroyed, as well as many villages in the municipal county. [68]
1825-01-19 Lefkada 6.5 Mw X [69]
1817-08-23 Helike 6.6 Mw
1810-02-16 Crete, Heraklion 35.5 25.6 2,000 7.5 Mw X
1804-06-08 Patras 38.1 21.7 10 6.4 Mw IX [70], [71]
1752-07-29 East Thrace 41.41 26.61 >100 7.5 Mw VIII The cities of Havsa (IX) and Haskoy were leveled while Andrianoupolis (Edirne) and other cities of East Thrace suffered great damage. [72][73]
1481-05-03 Rhodes 36.0 28.0 30,000 7.1 Ms X Tsunami
1303-08-08 Crete, Alexandria 35.0 27.0 Many thousands ~8 IX Triggered a major tsunami; severely damaged the Lighthouse of Alexandria
Dec 856 Corinth 37.9 22.9 45,000 [74]
515 Rhodes Ambraseys states that the death toll in this nighttime event was high and that the damage was severe [75]
365-07-21 Crete, Alexandria 35.0 23.0 Many thousands 8.5+ Raised part of Crete 9 metres, causing severe damage and triggering a tsunami that devastated Alexandria
226 BC Rhodes 36.43 28.21 Toppled the Colossus of Rhodes
426 BC Skarfeia, Euboic Gulf 38.85 22.78 2,550 7.0 IX The historian Thucydides concluded that the Malian Gulf tsunami of the same year was caused by the earthquake, the first to recognize such a link [76], [77]
464 BC Sparta 37.08 22.43 ~20,000 7.2 Ms

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Σεισμός Κρήτη: Ζημιές από την ισχυρή σεισμική δόνηση - Έκλεισαν προληπτικά τα σχολεία". www.newsbomb.gr. 27 November 2019.
  3. ^ "Σεισμός 6,1 Ρίχτερ ανάμεσα σε Κρήτη και Κύθηρα - Αισθητός και στην Αθήνα". www.cnn.gr. 27 November 2019.
  4. ^ USGS. "M 6.8 - 32km SW of Mouzaki, Greece". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  5. ^ USGS. "M6.5 - 10km WSW of Nidri, Greece". United States Geological Survey.
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Sources