Cultural heritage can be subdivided into two main types—tangible and intangible heritage. The former includes built heritage such as religious buildings, museums, monuments, and archaeological sites, as well as movable heritage such as works of art and manuscripts. Intangible cultural heritage includes customs, music, fashion and other traditions within a particular culture. This article mainly deals with the destruction of built heritage; the destruction of movable collectable heritage is dealt with in art destruction, whilst the destruction of movable industrial heritage remains almost totally ignored.
During the Soviet invasion, large-scale looting occurred in various archaeological sites including Hadda, ancient site of Ai-Khanoum, the Buddhist monastery complex in Tepe Shortor which dates back to the 2nd century AD, and the National Kabul Museum. These sites were ransacked by various pillagers, including the pro-Russian government forces, destitute villagers, and the local crime rings. The National Museum of Afghanistan suffered the greatest damage, in which the systematic looting has plundered the museum collection and the adjacent Archaeological Institute. As a result, more than two thirds of one hundred thousand pieces of museum treasures and artifacts were lost or destroyed.
A pair of 6th-century monumental statues known as the Buddhas of Bamiyan were dynamited by the Taliban in 2001, who had declared them heretical idols.
Ortiz Basualdo Palace circa 1910. Demolished in 1969.
Vienna's Cathedral of St. Stephen was severely damaged by fire in 1945, towards the end of the Second World War. Incendiary bombs and shelling had set the roof on fire, and the cathedral's original larch girders, said to be made from an entire forest of larches, were destroyed, as were the Rollinger choir stalls, carved in 1487. The building was rebuilt soon after the war.
Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Azerbaijani authorities in the formerly Armenian-inhabited region of Nakhchivan ran a systematic campaign of eradicating the region's medieval Christian heritage due to the Anti-Armenian sentiment in Azerbaijan. An estimated 218 medieval churches, 5,840 khachkar cross-stones and 22,000 tombstones were destroyed, with the final act of the destruction campaign taking place in December 2005 at the Armenian cemetery in Julfa. Azerbaijan's government denies that Armenian or Christian monuments ever existed in the territory of Nakhchivan.
At least 43 Shia mosques, including the ornate 400-year-old Amir Mohammed Braighi mosque, and many other religious structures were destroyed by the Bahraini government during the Bahraini uprising of 2011.
On 25 August 1914, the university library of Leuven was destroyed by the Germans. 230,000 volumes were lost, including medieval and Renaissance manuscripts and more than 1,000 incunabula. After the war, a new library was built. During World War II, the new building was again set on fire and nearly a million books were lost.
During World War I, the city of Ypres was completely destroyed, including its Town Hall and Cloth Hall. These monuments were later rebuilt.
Stari Most was destroyed by Croat forces in 1993 but was later rebuilt.
Through the course of the Bosnian War, countless sites of cultural and religious heritage were destroyed. Muslim heritage sites suffered the most, with 277 mosques and several other religious facilities, schools and institutions were destroyed by the authorities of the Republic of Srpska as a part of the ethnic cleansing campaign against the local Muslim populations. The most well known among them include Mehmed Pasha Kukavica Mosque, Arnaudija Mosque, and Ferhat Pasha Mosque. Substantial number of the mosques date back to the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian era. Roman Catholic sites also suffered with more than 50 churches being destroyed, which was associated with the killings of Bosnian Croats by the Bosnian Serbs.
Brock's Monument was heavily damaged after a bombing on April 17, 1840 and subsequently demolished; the monument was rebuilt in 1859.
On the night of April 25, 1849, the Canadian Parliament buildings in Montreal were set ablaze by Loyalist rioters. The resulting fire consumed the Parliament's two libraries, parts of the archives of Upper Canada and Lower Canada, as well as more recent public documents. Over 23,000 volumes, forming the collections of the two parliamentary libraries, were lost.
Following Confederation in 1867, Canada's capital was moved to Ottawa and new Parliament buildings were built there. The Centre Block was destroyed by fire on February 3, 1916, and immediately rebuilt.
The An Lushan Rebellion (755–763) which lasted for around 7 years, devastated the city of Chang'an, a historical capital of several ancient Chinese empires. The city was sacked and occupied several times by the rebels who looted and demolished the buildings, whose materials were reused to build the subsequent capital city of Luoyang. Chang'an never recovered after this obliteration, and it was followed by the decline of the Tang dynasty.
In 1860, much of the Old Summer Palace, a Qing-era imperial palace, was set fire, and systematically looted and plundered by the British and French forces. Some of the looted materials including the 3,600 year old treasures. The palace was later sacked again and completely destroyed by the Eight-Nation Alliance when they invaded Beijing.
Beijing city fortifications which date back to the 15th–16th century were destroyed through the course of the decline of the Qing dynasty in the late-19th century to the early 20th-century. It was severely damaged during the Boxer Rebellion (1898–1901) with the gate towers and watchtowers destroyed, and the British troops tearing down much of the outer city walls. After the collapse of the Qing, the fortifications were gradually dismantled due to variety of reasons. Today, nothing of the Outer City remains intact.
During the Kumul Rebellion in Xinjiang in the 1930s, Buddhist murals were vandalized by Muslims.
Yongdingmen, the former front gate of the outer city wall of the Beijing city fortifications which dates back to 1553, was demolished in the 1950s to make way for the new road system. It was rebuilt in 2005.
A shrine dedicated to Wei Yan was destroyed by the Chinese government in 1968. A stone tablet which contained the record of his presence was lost after the demolition. The shrine was rebuilt in 1995.
According to the anthropologist Robert E. Murowchick, a quarter million tombs have been raided since the 1990s to rob the antiquities which lay beneath them. Murowchick points out that growing demand for antiquities from both domestic and international markets have encouraged the tomb raiding in China.
China's aggressive development has resulted in the destruction of more than 30,000 items listed by the state administration of cultural heritage, compiled from various archaeological and historic sites. One conservation campaigner tells that the rate of destruction is worse than during the Cultural Revolution. Destroyed heritage sites include the old town in Dinghai, the old town of Laoximen in Shanghai, a centuries-old market street in Qianmen, and a section of the Great Wall of China. Historical neighborhoods of Beijing and Nanjing were also razed.
The construction of the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River caused water levels to rise, destroying entire cities as well as many historical locations along the river.
In 2016, the Chinese government ordered the demolition of historical housings in the Larung GarTibetan Buddhist institution.
In 2016, the Chinese government has destroyed around 5,000 mosques in the Muslim-majority Xinjiang region, including the 70% of mosques in the township of Lenger, over the three months of campaign. It was conducted under the guise of public safety, although the locals deem it as a part of the systematic effort to subjugate the Uyghur populations who have been advocating for the independence of East Turkestan State.
War damage of the Croatian War (1991–95) has been assessed on 2271 protected cultural monuments, with the damage cost being estimated at 407 million DM. The largest numbers – 683 damaged cultural monuments – are located in the area of Dubrovnik and Neretva County. Most are situated in Dubrovnik itself. The entire buildings and possessions of 481 Roman Catholic churches, several synagogues and several Serbian Orthodox churches were badly damaged or completely destroyed. Valuable inventories were looted from over 100 churches. The most drastic example of destruction of cultural monuments, art objects and artefacts took place in Vukovar. After the occupation of the devastated city by the Yugoslav Army and Serbian paramilitary forces, portable cultural property were removed from their shelters and museums in Vukovar to the museums and archives in Serbia.
The Old Town Hall in Prague was severely damaged by fire during the Prague uprising of 1945. The chamber where George of Poděbrady was elected King of Bohemia was devastated; the town hall's bell, the oldest in Bohemia, dating from 1313, was melted; and the city archives, comprising 70,000 volumes, as well as historically priceless manuscripts, were completely destroyed.
On 23 May 1871, the Tuileries Palace, which had been the usual Parisian residence of French monarchs, was almost entirely gutted in a fire set by members of the Paris Commune, leaving only the stone shell. It was subsequently demolished in 1883.
The Paulinerkirche was a medieval church from 1231 in Leipzig. The church survived the war practically unscathed but was dynamited in 1968 during the communist regime of East Germany. After the reunification of Germany, a new building in a contemporary style, the Paulinum, was built on the site.
The Church of St. Lambertus in Immerath was demolished on 9 January 2018 as part of the demolition of the entire village to make way for an expansion of the Garzweiler surface mine. The church had been added to the list of heritage monuments in Erkelenz on 14 May 1985.
The Statue of Zeus at Olympia, also a Wonder of the Ancient World, was destroyed in around the 5th century CE, although it is not known exactly when or how.
The Parthenon was extensively damaged in 1687, during the Great Turkish War (1683–1699). The Ottoman Turks fortified the Acropolis of Athens and used the Parthenon as a gunpowder magazine and a shelter for members of the local Turkish community. On 26 September a Venetian mortar round blew up the magazine, and the explosion blew out the building's central portion. About three hundred people were killed in the explosion, which caused fires that burned until the following day and consumed many homes. Parthenon was extensively and permanently damaged when Thomas Bruce, the 7th Earl of Elgin and ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (occupiers of Greece in the early 19th century) who admire the Parthenon's extensive collection of ancient marble sculptures; began extracting and expatriating them to Britain in 1801. The latter damage is still considered one of the most significant destructions of heritage in the history of the Parthenon.
Tikal Temple 33 was destroyed in the 1960s by archaeologists to uncover earlier phases of construction of the pyramid.
A large number of Hindu and other (e.g., Jain) temples were destroyed during the Islamic invasions of India. Prominent example includes the Somnath temple in Gujarat. In 1024, during the reign of Bhima I, the prominent Afghan ruler Mahmud of Ghazni raided Gujarat, plundered and destroyed the temple and broke its jyotirlinga. In 1299, Alauddin Khalji's army under the leadership of Ulugh Khan defeated Karandev II of the Vaghela dynasty, and sacked the (rebuilt) Somnath temple. By 1665, the rebuilt temple was once again ordered destroyed by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. In 1702, he ordered that if Hindus had revived worship there, it should be demolished completely.
In 1565 CE, after the Battle of Talikota, the capital city of Vijayanagara, with all its temples, palaces, mansions and monuments, was sacked and completely destroyed by an invading Muslim army raised by the five Bahamani Sultanates. What remains now are the ruins of Hampi.
In 1664, Aurangzeb destroyed the Kashi Vishwanath Temple and built the Gyanvapi Mosque over its walls. The remnants of the temple wall can still be seen today, as was depicted in the 19th century sketch by James Prinsep. Christian missionary Edwin Greaves (1909), of the London Missionary Society, described the site as follows: "At the back of the mosque and in continuation of it are some broken remains of what was probably the old Bishwanath Temple. It must have been a right noble building ; there is nothing finer, in the way of architecture in the whole city, than this scrap. A few pillars inside the mosque appear to be very old also."
During the civil war ensued the 2003 invasion, several historical sites were destroyed by various groups. In 2006 and 2007, Al-Askari Mosque was bombed by Sunni militants twice in the course of two years. In 2006, the Minaret of Anah and the statue of Al-Mansur were bombed by Shia militant and destroyed. All the aforementioned buildings were later reconstructed.
The Islamic State (IS) destroyed much of the cultural heritage in the areas it controlled in Iraq. At least 28 religious buildings were looted and destroyed, including Shiite mosques, tombs, shrines and churches. In addition, numerous ancient and medieval sites and artifacts, including the ancient cities of Nimrud and Hatra, parts of the wall of Nineveh, the ruins of Bash Tapia Castle and Dair Mar Elia, and artifacts from the Mosul Museum were also destroyed.
During the Battle of Dublin at the beginning of the Irish Civil War in 1922, munitions were stored at the Four Courts building, which housed 1,000 years of Irish records in the Public Record Office. Under circumstances that are disputed, the munitions were exploded, destroying much of Ireland's historical record.
Following Israel's victory during the 1967 Six-Day War a large part of Moroccan Quarter in Jerusalem's Old Town was demolished in order to make room for a plaza in front of the Western Wall.
Various historic buildings were demolished in the 19th and 20th centuries to make way for railways, industrial areas or other modern buildings. Examples include the Castello di Villagonia and the Real Cittadella in Sicily.
Shuri Castle, a palace of the Ryukyu Kingdom first built in the 14th century, was destroyed during the Battle of Okinawa in World War II. The Japanese forces had set up a defense perimeter which goes through the underground of the castle. U.S. military targeted this location by shelling with the battleship USS Mississippi (BB-41) for three days in May 1945. The castle burned down subsequently after. It was later reconstructed in the 1990s.
Kinkaku-ji (Golden Pavilion) of Kyoto, Japan was burnt down by an arsonist in 1950, but was restored in 1955.
Numerous Albanian cultural sites in Kosovo were destroyed during the Kosovo conflict (1998–1999) which constituted a war crime violating the Hague and Geneva Conventions. In all 225 out of 600 mosques in Kosovo were damaged, vandalised, or destroyed alongside other Islamic architecture and Islamic libraries and archives with records spanning 500 years. Additionally 500 Albanian owned kulla dwellings (traditional stone tower houses) and three out of four well preserved Ottoman period urban centres located in Kosovo cities were badly damaged resulting in great loss of traditional architecture. Kosovo's public libraries, in particular 65 out of 183 were completely destroyed with a loss of 900,588 volumes. During the war, Islamic architectural heritage posed for Yugoslav Serb paramilitary and military forces as Albanian patrimony with destruction of non-Serbian architectural heritage being a methodical and planned component of ethnic cleansing in Kosovo.
NATO bombing in March–June 1999 resulted in some accidental damages to churches and a mosque. Revenge attacks against Serbian religious sites commenced following the conflict and the return of hundreds of thousands of Kosovo Albanian refugees to their homes. According to the International Center for Transitional Justice, many Serbian cultural objects, including 155 Serbian Orthodox churches and monasteries, were destroyed by Kosovo Albanians between June 1999 and March 2004.
In November 1995, a fire broke out in the Rova of Antananarivo, a royal palace complex that served as the home of monarchs in Madagascar since the 17th century. The fire destroyed or severely damaged all of its buildings.
Candi Number 11 also known as Candi Sungai Batu Estate, a 1,200 year old ruin of a tomb-temple located in the Bujang Valley historical complex in Kedah was demolished in 2013 by housing developers who claimed not to have known the historical significance of the stone edifice.
The destruction of the Buddhist artifacts by Islamists took place in the aftermath of the coup in which Mohamed Nasheed was toppled as President. Islamist politicians entered the government which succeeded Nasheed. On 7 February 2012, The National Museum was stormed by Islamists who destroyed the Buddhist artifacts. Most of Maldive's Buddhist physical history was obliterated. Hindu artifacts were also targeted for obliteration and the actions have been compared to the attacks on the Buddhas by the Taliban.
Parts of the World Heritage Site of Timbuktu were destroyed after the Battle of Gao in 2012, despite condemnation by UNESCO, the OIC, Mali, and France.
The Royal Opera House in Valletta in 1911, and its ruins in 2016. The building was destroyed by aerial bombardment in 1942.
Other buildings which were not included on the Antiquities List but which had significant cultural importance were also destroyed during the war. The most notable of these was the Royal Opera House in Valletta, which is considered as "one of the major architectural and cultural projects undertaken by the British" by the Superintendence of Cultural Heritage.
The Gourgion Tower in Xewkija, which was included on the Antiquities List, was demolished by American forces in 1943 to make way for an airfield. Many of its inscriptions and decorated stones were retrieved and they are now in storage at Heritage Malta.
Palazzo Fremaux, a building included on the Antiquities List and which was scheduled as a Grade 2 property, was gradually demolished between 1990 and 2003. The demolition was condemned by local residents, the local government and non-governmental organizations.
The Azure Window, which was a 28-metre-tall (92 ft) limestone natural arch on the island of Gozo in Malta. It was located in Dwejra Bay in the limits of San Lawrenz, close to the Inland Sea and the Fungus Rock. It was one of Malta's major tourist attractions. The arch, together with other natural features in the area of Dwejra, is featured in a number of international films and other media representations. The formation was anchored on the east end by the seaside cliff, arching over open water, to be anchored to a free standing pillar in the sea to the west of the cliff. It was created when two limestone sea caves collapsed. Following years of natural erosion causing parts of the arch to fall into the sea, the arch and free standing pillar collapsed completely during a storm in March 2017.
Villa St Ignatius, a 19th-century villa with historical and architectural significance, was partially demolished in late 2017. This was condemned by numerous non-governmental organizations and other entities.
The 7.8 MwNepal earthquake in 2015 demolished heritages in Kathmandu valley. It destroyed centuries old medieval temples and palaces in the Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Patan Durbar Squares along with the tower of Dharahara, the temple of Changunarayan, some temples of the Pahupatinath complex, the main stupa of Boudhanath and the temples of Swayambhunath Stupa.
The German bombing of Rotterdam, also known as the Rotterdam Blitz, that took place on the 14th of May in the year 1940 decimated most of the historical city center of the Dutch city of Rotterdam, which at the time was the 2nd largest city in the country. During the bombing hundreds of years worth of architecture and artwork were destroyed within hours.
The Archaeological site of Harappa which dates back to 2600 BCE was heavily damaged during the British rule in 1857. Bricks from the ruins were brought out and used as track ballast during the construction of Lahore–Multan railway line. Since the discovery, the site was constantly being damaged by the local farmers in the process of turning it into an agriculture land.
Shaheed Ganj Mosque in Lahore was demolished by the Sikhs in 1935. Sikhs had been occupying the public square near the mosque since the capture of Lahore by Bhangi Misl in the 18th century. The conflict concerning the mosque had heightened during the British colonial occupation era, as Muslims were not allowed to pray there. The demolishing of the mosque had led to the Muslims protesters holding marches toward the mosque, which was dispersed by the police opening fire on them.
Looters and the Taliban destroyed much of Pakistan's Buddhist artifacts left over from the Buddhist Gandhara civilization especially in Swat Valley. Gandhara Buddhist relics were deliberately targeted by the Taliban for destruction, and illegally looted by smugglers. Kushan era Buddhist stupas and statues in Swat valley, including the Jehanabad Buddha's face, were demolished by the Taliban. The government was criticized for doing nothing to safeguard the statue after the initial attempt at destroying the Buddha, which did not cause permanent harm, and when the second attack took place on the statue the feet, shoulders, and face were demolished. A rehabilitation attempt on the Buddha was made by Luca Olivieri and a group from Italy.
The Philippine Su Kuang Institute building was demolished in 2017 after the owners sold the building to a private developer within the same year. The 1940s was the last Art Deco wooden school structure in Binondo, Manila.
During the Battle of Manila, most of the city's unique architecture was destroyed. After the battle, in the business district, only two buildings dating to before the War remained intact, and these buildings' plumbing had been looted. After the War, much of Manila was rebuilt in a modernist style, and thus the original architectural heritage of the city is largely lost.
The 1989 fire of the Central University Library over 500,000 books, along with 3,700 manuscripts, were burnt, including manuscripts of famous Romanian writings, such as many of Mircea Eliade's novel manuscripts.
Spas-na-boru Cathedral (Cathedral of the Savior in the Woods), built sometime before 1330 and demolished in 1933
The Church of Kazan Icon in Yakimanka District of Moscow, desecrated in the 1930s and gradually reduced into a storage barn, was demolished during a 1972 campaign
This 1890s building in Moscow was demolished in September 2008. The property developer was fined $1,500.
During February–March 1944, the Soviet conducted the expulsion of the Chechens and Ingush from the North Caucasus as a part of the Soviet forced settlement program of the non-Russian ethnic minorities. The operation was resulted in the deportation of 496,000 Chechens and Ingush populations, and the death of around quarter of them. It was also accompanied by the destruction of local cultural and societal heritages; names of these nations were erased from the books and records; placenames were replaced with Russian ones; mosques were demolished; villages were razed; and the historical Nakh language manuscripts were almost completely destroyed.
Around 191,000 Crimean Tatars faced the deportation by the Soviets in May 1944. This was accompanied by virtual "ethnic cleansing" from the Crimea, with all the Tatar placenames being replaced with Russian ones, and the Muslim graveyards and religious objects were destroyed or converted into secular places.
With the change in values imposed by communist ideology, the tradition of preservation was broken. Independent preservation societies, even those that defended only secular landmarks such as Moscow-based OIRU were disbanded by the end of the 1920s. A new anti-religious campaign, launched in 1929, coincided with collectivization of peasants; destruction of churches in the cities peaked around 1932. A number of churches were demolished, including the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow and St. Michael's Cathedral in Izhevsk. Both of these were rebuilt in the 1990s and 2000s.
In 1959 Nikita Khrushchev launched his anti-religious campaign. By 1964 over 10 thousand churches out of 20 thousand were shut down (mostly in rural areas) and many were demolished. Of 58 monasteries and convents operating in 1959, only sixteen remained by 1964; of Moscow's fifty churches operating in 1959, thirty were closed and six demolished.
In Moscow alone losses of 1917–2006 are estimated at over 640 notable buildings (including 150 to 200 listed buildings, out of a total inventory of 3,500) – some disappeared completely, others were replaced with concrete replicas.
Various mosques and other historic sites, especially those relating to early Islam, have been destroyed in Saudi Arabia. Apart from early Islamic sites, other buildings such as the Ajyad Fortress were also destroyed. This is done for economic reasons, to create room to accommodate hajj pilgrims (including luxury facilities for wealthy guests), as well as for ideological reasons related to the iconoclastic religious doctrine of the state Wahhabi sect.
Because of the Ecclesiastical confiscations of Mendizábal, secularization of church properties in 1835–1836, several hundreds of church buildings, monasteries, etc., or civil buildings owned by the Church were partly or totally demolished. Many of the art works, libraries and archives contained were lost or pillaged in the time the buildings were abandoned and without owners. Among them were important buildings as Santa Caterina convent (the first gothic building in Iberian Peninsula) and Sant Francesc convent (gothic too, one of the richest in the country), both in Barcelona, or San Pedro de Arlanza Roman monastery, near Burgos, now ruined.
Several monuments demolished in Calatayud: the church of Convent of Dominicos of San Pedro Mártir (1856), Convent of Trinidad (1856), Church of Santiago (1863), Church of San Torcuato and Santa Lucía (1869) and Church of San Miguel (1871).
The leaning Torre Nueva in Zaragoza was demolished in 1892 amidst fears that it would topple.
The city of Carthage was destroyed by Roman Forces in the third and final Punic War in 146 BC by arson, and fragments of buildings still remain.
The Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was destroyed by arson in 356 BC. It was later rebuilt, but it was damaged in a raid by Goths in 268 AD. Its stones were subsequently used in other buildings, including Hagia Sophia and other buildings in Constantinople. A few fragments of the structure still survive in situ.
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, another Wonder of the Ancient World, was destroyed by a series of earthquakes between the 12th and 15th centuries. Most of the remaining marble blocks were burnt into lime, but some were used in the construction of Bodrum Castle by the Knights Hospitaller, where they can still be seen today. The only other surviving remains of the mausoleum are some foundations in situ, a few sculptures in the British Museum, and some marble blocks which were used to build a dockyard in Malta's Grand Harbour.
During the events of the Armenian Genocide and its aftermath, the abandonment and confiscation of Armenian monasteries and cultural heritage in places such as Ani has contributed to their eventual destruction. In 1974, UNESCO stated that after 1923, out of 913 Armenian historical monuments left in Eastern Turkey, 464 have vanished completely, 252 are in ruins, and 197 are in need of repair. In 2011, there were 34 Armenian churches functioning in Turkey, primarily in Istanbul.
The Palace of Westminster was almost completely destroyed by fire on 16 October 1834, and many documents about Britain's political history were lost. Only Westminster Hall and the Jewel Tower survived.
Charles Church in Plymouth was entirely burned out by incendiary bombs dropped by the Luftwaffe, on the nights of 21 and 22 March 1941. However, it has since been encircled by a roundabout and turned into "a memorial to those citizens of Plymouth who were killed in air-raids on the city in the 1939–45 war."
Coleshill House, a historic mansion in Oxfordshire (historically Berkshire) was entirely destroyed in a fire in 1952, and many historic items within were lost. The ruins were demolished in 1958.
York Minster was severely damaged by fire in 1984, believed to have been caused by a lightning strike on the south transept.
A major fire in 1992 caused extensive damage to Windsor Castle, the largest inhabited castle in the world and one of the official residences of Queen Elizabeth II.
Clandon Park House, a historic mansion in Surrey, was severely damaged by fire on 29 April 2015, leaving the house "essentially a shell" and destroying thousands of historic items, including one of the footballs kicked across no-man's land on the first day of the Battle of the Somme in 1916.
The Royal Clarence Hotel in Exeter, considered England's oldest hotel, was almost completely destroyed by fire on 28 October 2016.
The Mackintosh Building of Glasgow School of Art was extensively damaged by fire on 15 June 2018. Alan Dunlop, the school's professor of architecture, said: “I can’t see any restoration possible for the building itself. It looks totally destroyed.”
The main waiting room of New York City's Pennsylvania Station c. 1911. The station was largely demolished in 1963.
Pennsylvania Station, in New York City, was a Beaux-Arts style "architectural jewel" of New York City. Controversially, the above-ground portions of the station were demolished in 1963, making way for the construction of the Madison Square Garden arena. The controversy energized a historic preservation movement in New York City and the United States.
In 1969, an original Flag of the Treinta y Tres from the Cisplatine War was stolen from the history museum. The national symbol was taken on July 16, 1969 by a revolutionary group called OPR-33. The historical flag was last seen in 1975 in Buenos Aires but has been considered missing since the day of its theft. This is still a matter of political debate.
According to Nabil Monassar, the vice director of the General Organization for the Preservation of the Historic Cities of Yemen, Yemeni Civil War and Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen had led to the destruction of more than 80 historical sites and monuments, as well as hundreds of individual buildings, including:
^World Archaeological Congress and Agnew, Neville, and Bridgland, Janet (2006). Neville Agnew; Janet Bridgland (eds.). Of the past, for the future: integrating archaeology and conservation: proceedings of the conservation theme at the 5th World Archaeological Congress, Washington, D.C., 22–26 June 2003. Los Angeles, Calif.: Getty Conservation Institute. p. 249.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
^de Waal, Thomas (2003). Black garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through peace and war. New York University Press. p. 80. That the Armenians could erase an Azerbaijani mosque inside their capital city was made easier by a linguistic sleight of hand: the Azerbaijanis of Armenia can be more easily written out of history because the name “Azeri” or “Azerbaijani” was not in common usage before the twentieth century. In the premodern era these people were generally referred to as “Tartars”, “Turks” or simply “Muslims”. Yet they were neither Persians nor Turks; they were Turkic-speaking Shiite subjects of Safavid dynasty of the Iranian Empire – in other words, the ancestors of people, whom we would now call “Azerbaijanis”. So when the Armenians refer to the “Persian mosque” in Yerevan, the name obscures the fact that most of the worshippers there, when it was built in the 1760s, would have been, in effect, Azerbaijanis.
^Esterházy, Christa (1966). Cities of the World - Vienna. J. M. Dent and Sons. p. 21.
^Movrin, David. 2013. Yugoslavia in 1949 and its gratiae plenum: Greek, Latin, and the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties (Cominform). In György Karsai et al. (eds.), Classics and Communism: Greek and Latin behind the Iron Curtain, pp. 291–329. Ljubljana: Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani, p. 319.
Shourie, Arun, S.R. Goel, Harsh Narain, J. Dubashi and Ram Swarup. Hindu Temples - What Happened to Them Vol. I, (A Preliminary Survey) (1990) ISBN81-85990-49-2
Targeting History and Memory, SENSE - Transitional Justice Center (dedicated to the study, research, and documentation of the destruction and damage of historic heritage during the Balkan Wars of the 1990s. The website contains judicial documents from the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY)).