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List of cities of the ancient Near East

The earliest cities in history were in the ancient Near East, an area covering roughly that of the modern Middle East: its history began in the 4th millennium BC and ended, depending on the interpretation of the term, either with the conquest by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC or that by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC.

The largest cities of the Bronze Age Near East housed several tens of thousands of people. Memphis in the Early Bronze Age, with some 30,000 inhabitants, was the largest city of the time by far. Ur in the Middle Bronze Age is estimated to have had some 65,000 inhabitants; Babylon in the Late Bronze Age similarly had a population of some 50,000–60,000. Niniveh had some 20,000–30,000, reaching 100,000 only in the Iron Age (ca. 700 BC).

The KI 𒆠 determinative was the Sumerian term for a city or city state.[1] In Akkadian and Hittite orthography, URU𒌷 became a determinative sign denoting a city, or combined with KUR𒆳 "land" the kingdom or territory controlled by a city, e.g. 𒄡𒆳𒌷𒄩𒀜𒌅𒊭 LUGAL KUR URUHa-at-ti "the king of the country of (the city of) Hatti".

Mesopotamia

Lower Mesopotamia

Meso2mil-English.JPG
NC Mesopotamia sites.jpg

(ordered from north to south)

Upper Mesopotamia

Map of Syria in the second millennium BC

(ordered from north to south)

Iran

NC Iran sites.jpg

Anatolia

Settlements of Bronze Age Anatolia, based on Hittite records.

(ordered from north to south)

The Levant

In alphabetical order:

NC Egypt Levant sites.jpg

Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula and the Horn of Africa, separated by just a few miles of the Red Sea, have a history of related settlements, especially near the coast

Kerma (Doukki Gel)

Horn of Africa

Egypt

See also

References

  1. ^ Electronic Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary (EPSD)
  2. ^ "Lost City of Irisagrig Comes to Life in Ancient Stolen Tablets". Live Science. 30 May 2018.
  3. ^ "Ancient Kingdom Discovered Beneath Mound in Iraq". Live Science. 30 September 2013.
  4. ^ Cavendish, Marshall (2007). "Geography and climate". World and Its Peoples. 1. Cavendish Square Publishing. pp. 8–19. ISBN 978-0-7614-7571-2.
  5. ^ Al-Hosani, Hamad Ali (2012). The Political Thought of Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan (PhD Thesis) (Thesis). Durham University. pp. 43–44. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 February 2017. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  6. ^ El Reyes, Dr. Abdulla, ed. (December 2014). Liwa Journal of the National Archives (PDF). United Arab Emirates: Emirati National Archives. pp. 35–37. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
  7. ^ Leech, Nick (2015-10-22). "The long read: has a lost Arab capital been found on the Oman-UAE border?". The National. Retrieved 2019-01-20.
  8. ^ a b c Abed, Ibrahim; Hellyer, Peter (2001). The United Arab Emirates, A New Perspective. London: Trident Press Ltd. pp. 60–86. ISBN 978-1-900724-47-0.

External links