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List of Solar System objects most distant from the Sun

Positions of known outer Solar System objects.
  Sun
  Jupiter trojans (6,178)
  Scattered disc (>300)
  Giant planets: J · S · U · N
  Centaurs (44,000)
  Kuiper belt (>1,000)
(scale in AU; epoch as of January 2015; # of objects in parenthesis)

These Solar System minor planets that were the farthest from the Sun as of December 2015 and/or March 2018. The objects have been categorized by their approximate heliocentric distance from the Sun, and not by the greatest calculated aphelion of their orbit. The list changes over time because the objects are moving. Some objects are inbound and some are outbound. It would be difficult to detect long-distance comets if it weren't for their comas, which become visible when heated by the Sun. Distances are measured in astronomical units (AU, Sun–Earth distances). The distances are not the minimum (perihelion) or the maximum (aphelion) that may be achieved by these objects in the future.

This list does not include near-parabolic comets of which many are known to currently be more than 100 AU (15 billion km) from the Sun, but are too far away to currently be observed by telescope. In March 2018 several new Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with a current heliocentric distance greater than 50 AU were announced by Scott S. Sheppard, Chad Trujillo, and David J. Tholen.[1] Trans-Neptunian objects are typically announced publicly months or years after their discovery, so as to make sure the orbit is correct before announcing it. Due to their greater distance from the Sun and slow movement across the sky, trans-Neptunian objects with observation arcs less than several years often have poorly constrained orbits. Particularly distant objects discovered in 2018 may only be announced in 2020 or later.

Noted objects

The discovery of an object known as V774104 was announced in November 2015 and was heralded by many news outlets as "the most distant Solar System object", surpassing Eris by close to 7 AU (not counting space probes and long-period comets). There is some confusion regarding its distance as of 2018, as V774104 might now be suspected of being closer than Eris,[2] but this is due to a misunderstanding (which arose because Scott Sheppard was referring to an unannounced Sednoid).[3]

Another very distant body is Sedna, which was discovered in November 2003. Although it takes over 10,000 years to orbit, during the next 60 years it will slowly move closer to the Sun as it comes to perihelion.[4]

Pluto (30–49 AU, about 34 AU in 2015) was the first Kuiper belt object to be discovered (1930) and is the largest known plutoid (or ice dwarf).

Images

Graphic studies

Known distant objects list by year

Body 2015 (Dec) Distance (AU) 2018 (Mar) Distance (AU) Radial velocity (AU/yr)[note 1] Discovered Announced
"FarFarOut" (no IAU designation) [5] - ~140[C] 2018-02-?? 2019-02-21
2018 VG18 (Farout) - ~125 ± 29[C] 0.345 2018-11-10
136199 Eris 96.3[6] 96.1 -0.071 2003-10-21 2005-07-29
2014 UZ224[A] 91.9[6] 90.9 -0.453 2014-10-21 2016-08-28
2015 TH367 88.2[7] 89.1 0.415 2015-10-13 2018-03-13
(225088) 2007 OR10 87.4[6] 88.0 0.233 2007-07-17 2009-01-07
2013 FS28 85.9[6] 84.8 -0.621 2013-03-16 2016-08-29
(90377) Sedna 85.8[6] 85.1 -0.285 2003-11-14 2004-03-15
2014 FC69 84.1[6] 84.7 0.250 2014-03-25 2015-02-11
2006 QH181 83.34[6] 83.9 0.220 2006-08-21 2006-11-05
2012 VP113 (aka "Biden") 83.30[6] 83.7 0.157 2012-11-05 2014-03-26
2015 UH87 82.3[6] 82.7 -0.196 2015-10-16 2018-03-12
2013 FY27 80.3[6] 80.1 -0.096 2013-03-17 2014-03-31
2015 TG387 79.8 78.9 -0.402 2015-10-13 2018-10-1
2015 TJ367 77.1[6] 78.7 0.424 2015-10-13 2018-03-13
2010 GB174 70.6[6] 71.9 0.542 2010-04-12 2013-04-30
2014 FJ72 70.1[6] 71.2 0.461 2014-03-24 2016-08-31
2012 FH84 68.8 0.074 2012-03-25 2016-06-07
2015 GR50 68.4 - 0.074 2015-04-13 2016-08-31
2015 GP50 68.0 - 0.097 2015-04-14 2016-06-07
2013 FQ28 67.8 - 0.193 2013-03-17 2016-06-07
2014 UD228 66.1 - 0.183 2014-10-22 2017-12-07
2016 CD289 65.8 - 0.184 2016-02-05 2018-03-13
(148209) 2000 CR105 60.4[6]
2003 QX113 59.9[6]
2013 SY99 (aka "uo3L91")[B] 59.8[6]
(528381) 2008 ST291 59.7[6]
2013 JQ64 58.4[6]
2004 XR190 (aka "Buffy") 57.5[8]
2006 HX122 55.5[8]
2009 KL30 54.7[8]
2013 GQ136 54.7[8]
2004 VU130 53.8[8]
2007 VK305 53.8[8]
2002 FV6 53.8[8]
2010 RF43 53.2[8]
(523639) 2010 RE64 53[8]
2012 UT177 52.9[8]
1999 KR18 52.65[8]
(136472) Makemake 52.427[8]
2009 KK30 52.382[8]
(42301) 2001 UR163 52.285[8]
2013 JM65 52.209[8]
2013 JV64 51.996[8]
2007 LF38 51.931[8]
(500879) 2013 JH64 51.626[8]
(303775) 2005 QU182 51.323[8]
(524435) 2002 CY248 51.092[8]
2000 CO105 51.083[8]
2001 UP18 50.86[8]
2001 OM109 50.849[8]
(386723) 2009 YE7 50.693[8]
(136108) Haumea 50.676[8]
(437915) 2002 GD32 50.551[8]
2011 UQ411 50.521[8]
2000 AF255 50.157[8]
1999 RU214 50.089[8]
  1. Discovered in 2014, announced in 2016
  2. Discovered in 2013, announced in 2016
  3. A crude estimate based on a short observation arc.

References

  1. ^ MPECs 2018-E75 to E78 and MPECs 2018-E83 to E90. Planetary astronomer Michele Bannister
  2. ^ Beatty, Kelly (29 January 2018). "V774104 update". Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  3. ^ Astronomer Michele Bannister (29 Mar 2018)
  4. ^ Most Distant Object In Solar System Discovered; NASA.gov; (2004)
  5. ^ Far-Far-Out
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r AstDyS-2 list of minor planets more than 57 AU from the SunArchived 21 September 2015 at Archive.today
  7. ^ 2015 TH367
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac AstDyS-2 Distance down to 50 AU

Notes

  1. ^ AU/yr indicates if the object is moving inwards or outwards in its orbit, and the rate at which it does so. Sedna has a negative value because it is approaching perihelion (closest point to the Sun) in 2076. (225088) 2007 OR10 is positive because it passed perihelion in 1857.

See also

Objects with very large aphelion