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List of Presidents of Czechoslovakia

President of Czechoslovakia
Flag of the President of Czechoslovakia (1918-1939, 1945-1960).png
Style His Excellency
Residence Prague Castle
Bratislava Castle
Appointer Federal Assembly
Formation 14 November 1918
First holder Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk
Final holder Václav Havel
Abolished 20 July 1992
Succession Czech Republic Václav Havel
Slovakia Michal Kováč

The President of Czechoslovakia was the head of state of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992.

In periods when the presidency was vacant, most presidential duties were assumed by the Prime Minister. However, the Czechoslovak Constitutions never defined anything like a post of acting president.

The second section lists the General Secretaries of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) in 1945–1989. After the 1948 coup d'état, the General Secretary was the country's de facto chief executive. However, three general secretaries (Klement Gottwald, Antonín Novotný and Gustáv Husák) also served as president at some point in their tenures.

The last living former President of Czechoslovakia, Václav Havel, died in 2011.

As of 2017, there are two living former General Secretaries of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia: Miloš Jakeš and Karel Urbánek.

Presidents of Czechoslovakia (1918–1992)

  Czechoslovak National Social Party   Communist Party of Czechoslovakia   Civic Forum   Independent

No. Portrait Name Lifespan Ethnicity Assumed office Left office Political Party
1 Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk 1925.PNG Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk 1850–1937 Czech 14 November 1918 14 December 1935 Independent
2 Edvard Beneš.jpg Edvard Beneš 1884–1948 Czech 18 December 1935 5 October 1938 Czechoslovak National Social Party
3 Emil Hácha 5.jpg Emil Hácha 1872–1945 Czech 30 November 1938 15 March 1939 Independent
Greater arms of Bohemia and Moravia (1939-1945).svg Emil Hácha became State President of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, a de jure autonomous region incorporated into Nazi Germany.[1][2]
Lesser coat of arms of Czechoslovakia.svg Edvard Beneš proclaimed himself President within the Czechoslovak government-in-exile, recognized as the only legitimate Czechoslovak Government during World War II.
Coat of Arms of the First Slovak Republic.svg Jozef Tiso became President of the quasi-independent, pro-Nazi and clero-fascist Slovak Republic.
Karptska Ukraina COA.svg Avgustyn Voloshyn became President of the Carpatho-Ukraine few days before occupation by the Kingdom of Hungary.
4 Edvard Beneš.jpg Edvard Beneš 1884–1948 Czech 4 April 1945 7 June 1948 Czechoslovak National Social Party
Official names: Czechoslovak Republic (1948–1960), Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1960–1989)
5 K Gottwald.jpg Klement Gottwald 1896–1953 Czech 14 June 1948 14 March 1953 Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
6 Antonín Zápotocký.JPG Antonín Zápotocký 1884–1957 Czech 21 March 1953 13 November 1957 Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
7 Antonín Novotný 1968.jpg Antonín Novotný 1904–1975 Czech 19 November 1957 22 March 1968 Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
8 Ludvík Svoboda (Author - Stanislav Tereba).JPG Ludvík Svoboda 1896–1979 Czech 30 March 1968 28 May 1975 Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
9 Gustáv Husák - oříznuto.JPG Gustáv Husák 1913–1991 Slovak 29 May 1975 10 December 1989 Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
Official names: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1989–1990), Czech and Slovak Federative Republic (1990–1992)
10 Vaclav Havel cropped.jpg Václav Havel 1936–2011 Czech 29 December 1989 20 July 1992 Civic Forum

General Secretaries of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (1945–1989)

Except for the final office-holder, they each held a strong executive power in the country de facto.

Title: Chairman (1945–1953) and First Secretary (1953–1971).

No. Portrait Name Lifespan Ethnicity Assumed office Left office
1 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R90009, Budapest, II. Weltfestspiele, Festumzug, tschechische Delegation (cropped KG).jpg Klement Gottwald 1896–1953 Czech April 1945 14 March 1953
2 Antonín Novotný 1968.jpg Antonín Novotný 1904–1975 Czech 14 March 1953 5 January 1968
3 Dubcek.jpg Alexander Dubček 1921–1992 Slovak 5 January 1968 17 April 1969
4 Gustáv Husák - oříznuto.JPG Gustáv Husák 1914–1991 Slovak 17 April 1969 17 December 1987
5 M Jakeš Praha 2014.JPG Miloš Jakeš 1922– Czech 17 December 1987 24 November 1989
6 No image.png Karel Urbánek 1941– Czech 24 November 1989 20 December 1989


Václav HavelGustáv HusákLudvík SvobodaAntonín NovotnýAntonín ZápotockýKlement GottwaldEdvard BenešEmil HáchaEdvard BenešTomáš Garrigue Masaryk


See also