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List of Padma Bhushan award recipients (1990–1999)

Padma Bhushan
Padma Bhushan medal suspended from its riband
Awarded by
State Emblem of India
Government of India
CountryIndia
TypeNational Civilian
RibbonPadma Bhushan riband
ObverseA centrally located lotus flower is embossed and the text "Padma" written in Devanagari script is placed above and the text "Bhushan" is placed below the lotus.
ReverseA platinum State Emblem of India placed in the centre with the national motto of India, "Satyameva Jayate" (Truth alone triumphs) in Devanagari Script
Statistics
Established1954
Previous name(s)Padma Vibhushan "Dusra Warg" (Class II)
First awarded1954
Total awarded113
Precedence
Next (higher)Padma Vibhushan riband Padma Vibhushan
Next (lower)Padma Shri riband Padma Shri

The Padma Bhushan is the third-highest civilian award of the Republic of India.[1] Instituted on 2 January 1954, the award is given for "distinguished service of a high order", without distinction of race, occupation, position, or sex.[2] The recipients receive a Sanad, a certificate signed by the President of India and a circular-shaped medallion with no monetary association. The recipients are announced every year on Republic Day (26 January) and registered in The Gazette of India—a publication used for official government notices and released weekly by the Department of Publication, under the Ministry of Urban Development.[3] The conferral of the award is not considered official without its publication in the Gazette. The name of recipient, whose award have been revoked or restored, both of which require the authority of the President, is archived and they are required to surrender their medal when their name is struck from the register;[4] none of the conferments of Padma Bhushan during 1990–1999 have been revoked or restored. The recommendations are received from all the state and the union territory governments, as well as from Ministries of the Government of India, the Bharat Ratna and the Padma Vibhushan awardees, the Institutes of Excellence, the Ministers, the Chief Ministers and the Governors of State, and the Members of Parliament including private individuals.[3]

When instituted in 1954, the Padma Bhushan was classified as "Dusra Warg" (Class II) under the three-tier Padma Vibhushan awards, which were preceded by the Bharat Ratna in hierarchy. On 15 January 1955, the Padma Vibhushan was reclassified into three different awards as the Padma Vibhushan, the Padma Bhushan and the Padma Shri.[3] The criteria included "distinguished service of a high order in any field including service rendered by Government servants", but excluded those working with the public sector undertakings with the exception of doctors and scientists. The 1954 statutes did not allow posthumous awards; this was subsequently modified in the January 1955 statute.[4] The design was also changed to the form that is currently in use; it portrays a circular-shaped toned bronze medallion 1 34 inches (44 mm) in diameter and 18 inch (3.2 mm) thick. The centrally placed pattern made of outer lines of a square of 1 316 inches (30 mm) side is embossed with a knob carved within each of the outer angles of the pattern. A raised circular space of diameter 1 116 inches (27 mm) is placed at the centre of the decoration. A centrally located lotus flower is embossed on the obverse side of the medal and the text "Padma" is placed above and the text "Bhushan" is placed below the lotus written in Devanagari script. The State Emblem of India is displayed in the centre of the reverse side, together with the national motto of India, "Satyameva Jayate" (Truth alone triumphs) in Devanagari script, which is inscribed on the lower edge. The rim, the edges and all embossing on either side is of standard gold with the text "Padma Bhushan" of gold gilt. The medal is suspended by a pink riband 1 14 inches (32 mm) in width with a broad white stripe in the middle.[3][4] It is ranked fifth in the order of precedence of wearing of medals and decorations of the Indian civilian and military awards.[a]

In the 1990s, a total of 113 people were conferred with the award. Twenty-four awards were presented in both 1990 and 1991, followed by thirty-three in 1992. In February 1992, a writ petition was filed in the Kerala High Court questioning whether the civilian awards presented the Government of India were "titles" as per the Article 18 (1) of the Constitution of India.[6] The subject constitutional article states that "no title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State".[7] Similar petition was also filed in August 1992 in the Indore Bench of the Madhya Pradesh High Court and a notice was issued on 25 August that led to provisional suspension of all civilian awards.[8][9] A Special Divisional Bench of the Supreme Court of India was set up with a panel of five judges that delivered the verdict on 15 December 1995 that the "Bharat Ratna and Padma awards are not titles within Article 18 of the Constitution of India".[8][10] Later in 1998 when the presentation of the awards resumed, eighteen recipients received the award followed by fourteen in 1999. The Padma Bhushan in the 1990s was also conferred upon five foreign recipients – two from the United Kingdom and one each from Japan, New Zealand, and the United States. Individuals from ten fields were honoured that included twenty-six artists, twenty-three from literature and education, eighteen from science and engineering, fifteen from medicine, eleven from public affairs, ten from social work, three sportspersons, three from trade and industry, and two from civil services and other fields each.[11]

Journalist Nikhil Chakravarty declined the award in 1990 so as to "not be identified with the establishment".[12] Historian Romila Thapar declined to accept the award in 1992, and later again in 2005, stating that she would accept awards only "from academic institutions or those associated with my professional work".[12] Similar to Chakravarty, journalist and civil servant K. Subrahmanyam also refused the honour citing that "bureaucrats and journalists should not accept any award from the government because they are more liable to be favoured."[12]

Recipients

An image of Rajanikant Arole.
A recipient of the Ramon Magsaysay Award, social worker Rajanikant Arole (awarded in 1990) was the founder president of Maharashtra Social Forum, a popular NGO network in the state.[13]
An image of P.L. Deshpandey.
Purushottam Laxman Deshpande (awarded in 1990) was a marathi theatre personality and actor, acting in twenty five films. He has been the President of both the Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Sahitya Sammelan and Natya Sammelan.[14]
An image of Ram Narayan.
Sarangi player Ram Narayan (awarded in 1991) popularised the instrument as a solo concert instrument and is considered as first internationally successful sarangi player.[15]
An image of Shakuntala Paranjpye.
Widely known for her "pioneering" work in the field of family planning, Shakuntala Paranjpye (awarded in 1991) also acted in movies like Sairandhri (1933) and Kunku (1937).[16]
An image of Girish Karnad.
Girish Karnad (awarded in 1992) is an actor, film director, writer and playwright in Kannada language. He is also the recipient of the Jnanpith Award.[17]
An image of Krishnaswamy Kasturirangan.
Krishnaswamy Kasturirangan (awarded in 1992) is an Indian space scientist who has headed the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) from 1994 to 2003 and the Karnataka Knowledge Commission.[18]
An image of T. N. Krishnan.
A recipient of the Sangeetha Kalanidhi, Padma Shri and the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award, T. N. Krishnan (awarded in 1992) is a Carnatic music violinist.[19]
An image of Sonal Mansingh.
Sonal Mansingh (awarded in 1992) is an Indian classical dancer in Bharatanatyam and Odissi dancing style.[20]
An image of Bhisham Sahni.
Bhisham Sahni (awarded in 1998) was a Hindi writer, playwright and actor, famously known for his novel Tamas, for which he received the Sahitya Akademi Award.[21]
An image of George Joseph.
Considered as "the pioneer of satellite based imaging sensors in the country", George Joseph (awarded in 1999) has made significant contribution to Electro-optical sensor development.[22]
Award recipients by year[11]
Year Number of recipients
1990
24
1991
24
1992
33
1993
0
1994
0
1995
0
1996
0
1997
0
1998
18
1999
14
Award recipients by field[11]
Field Number of recipients
Arts
26
Civil Service
2
Literature & Education
23
Medicine
15
Others
2
Public Affairs
11
Science & Engineering
18
Social Work
10
Sports
3
Trade & Industry
3
Key
   # Indicates a posthumous honour
List of Padma Bhushan award recipients, showing the year, field, and state/country[11]
Year Recipient Field State
1990 Rajanikant Arole Social Work Maharashtra
1990 Bimal Kumar Bachhawat Science & Engineering Delhi
1990 Purushottam Laxman Deshpande Arts Maharashtra
1990 Sattaiyappa Dhandapani Desikar Literature & Education Tamil Nadu
1990 L. K. Doraiswamy Science & Engineering [A]
1990 Nikhil Ghosh Arts Maharashtra
1990 B. K. Goyal Medicine Maharashtra
1990 Jasraj Arts Maharashtra
1990 Mohammad Khalilullah Medicine Delhi
1990 R. N. Malhotra Civil Service Maharashtra
1990 Bimal Krishna Matilal Literature & Education [B]
1990 Inder Mohan Social Work Delhi
1990 Sumant Moolgaokar Trade & Industry Maharashtra
1990 Hirendranath Mukherjee Literature & Education West Bengal
1990 C. D. Narasimhaiah Literature & Education Karnataka
1990 M. S. Narasimhan Science & Engineering Maharashtra
1990 Kunwar Singh Negi Literature & Education Uttarakhand
1990 Trilochan Pradhan Science & Engineering Odisha
1990 N. Ram Literature & Education Tamil Nadu
1990 Sukumar Sen Literature & Education West Bengal
1990 Arun Shourie Literature & Education Delhi
1990 Julius Silverman Public Affairs [B]
1990 M. R. Srinivasan Science & Engineering Maharashtra
1990 M. S. Valiathan Medicine Kerala
1991 Ebrahim Alkazi Arts Delhi
1991 Lala Amarnath Sports Delhi
1991 Narayan Shridhar Bendre Arts Maharashtra
1991 Shyam Benegal Arts Maharashtra
1991 D. B. Deodhar Sports Maharashtra
1991 Amjad Ali Khan Arts Delhi
1991 Dilip Kumar Arts Maharashtra
1991 Narayan Singh Manaklao Social Work Rajasthan
1991 Muthu Krishna Mani Medicine Tamil Nadu
1991 Ram Narayan Arts Maharashtra
1991 Fali Sam Nariman Public Affairs Delhi
1991 Kapil Dev Sports Delhi
1991 Manubhai Pancholi Public Affairs Gujarat
1991 Shakuntala Paranjpye Social Work Maharashtra
1991 Bindeshwar Pathak Social Work Bihar
1991 Samta Prasad Arts Uttar Pradesh
1991 Basavaraj Rajguru Arts Karnataka
1991 Prathap C. Reddy Medicine Andhra Pradesh
1991 Amala Shankar Science & Engineering West Bengal
1991 Vishnu Vaman Shirwadkar (Kusumagraj) Literature & Education Maharashtra
1991 Kuthur Ramakrishnan Srinivasan Literature & Education Tamil Nadu
1991 Ale Ahmad Suroor Arts Uttar Pradesh
1991 Leslie Denis Swindale Science & Engineering [C]
1991 Jiwan Singh Umranangal Public Affairs Punjab
1992 Bijoy Chandra Bhagavati Public Affairs Assam
1992 Debu Chaudhuri Arts Delhi
1992 Hariprasad Chaurasia Arts Maharashtra
1992 Thayil John Cherian Medicine Tamil Nadu
1992 Ranjan Roy Daniel Science & Engineering Tamil Nadu
1992 Virendra Dayal Civil Service Delhi
1992 B. Saroja Devi Arts Karnataka
1992 Khem Singh Gill Science & Engineering Punjab
1992 Vavilala Gopalakrishnayya Public Affairs Andhra Pradesh
1992 Anna Hazare Social Work Maharashtra
1992 Hakim Abdul Hameed Medicine Delhi
1992 Kongara Jaggaiah Arts Andhra Pradesh
1992 Girish Karnad Arts Karnataka
1992 Krishnaswamy Kasturirangan Science & Engineering Karnataka
1992 Triloki Nath Khoshoo Science & Engineering Delhi
1992 Goro Koyama Others [D]
1992 Adusumalli Radha Krishna Arts Andhra Pradesh
1992 T. N. Krishnan Arts Tamil Nadu
1992 Ramachandra Datatraya Lele Medicine Maharashtra
1992 Talat Mahmood Arts Maharashtra
1992 Syed Abdul Malik Literature & Education Assam
1992 Dalsukh Dahyabhai Malvania Literature & Education Gujarat
1992 Sonal Mansingh Arts Delhi
1992 M. Sarada Menon Social Work Tamil Nadu
1992 Naushad Arts Maharashtra
1992 Setu Madhavrao Pagdi Literature & Education Maharashtra
1992 Hasmukhbhai Parekh Trade & Industry Maharashtra
1992 C. Narayana Reddy Literature & Education Andhra Pradesh
1992 Mrinalini Sarabhai Arts Gujarat
1992 Gursaran Talwar Medicine Delhi
1992 Brihaspati Dev Triguna Medicine Delhi
1992 K. Venkatalakshamma Arts Karnataka
1992 C. R. Vyas Arts Maharashtra
1998 U. R. Ananthamurthy Literature & Education Karnataka
1998 Sivaramakrishna Chandrasekhar Science & Engineering Karnataka
1998 Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya Literature & Education West Bengal
1998 Satyapal Dang Public Affairs Punjab
1998 Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon Public Affairs Madhya Pradesh
1998 H. K. Dua Literature & Education Delhi
1998 Maligali Ram Krishna Girinath Medicine Tamil Nadu
1998 Hemlata Gupta Medicine Delhi
1998 K. M. Mathew Literature & Education Kerala
1998 G. Madhavan Nair Science & Engineering Kerala
1998 Rajendra Singh Paroda Science & Engineering Delhi
1998 G. B. Parulkar Medicine Maharashtra
1998 Vaidyeswaran Rajaraman Science & Engineering Karnataka
1998 Bhisham Sahni Literature & Education Delhi
1998 Vempati Chinna Satyam Arts Tamil Nadu
1998 Laxmi Mall Singhvi Public Affairs Delhi
1998 V. M. Tarkunde Public Affairs Uttar Pradesh
1998 Panangipalli Venugopal Medicine Delhi
1999 S. S. Badrinath Medicine Tamil Nadu
1999 Jag Parvesh Chandra Public Affairs Delhi
1999 Jacob Cherian Social Work Tamil Nadu
1999 Pushpalata Das Social Work Assam
1999 Sohrab Pirojsha Godrej Trade & Industry Maharashtra
1999 George Joseph Science & Engineering Gujarat
1999 Anil Kakodkar Science & Engineering Maharashtra
1999 D. C. Kizhakemuri[i]# Literature & Education Kerala
1999 Ashok Kumar Arts Maharashtra
1999 Vidya Niwas Mishra Literature & Education Uttar Pradesh
1999 Krishnamurthy Santhanam Science & Engineering Delhi
1999 H. D. Shourie Social Work Delhi
1999 Shivmangal Singh Suman Literature & Education Madhya Pradesh
1999 Ram Kinkar Upadhyay Others Uttar Pradesh

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ The order of precedence is: Bharat Ratna, Param Vir Chakra, Ashoka Chakra, Padma Vibhushan and Padma Bhushan.[5]
Non-citizen recipients
  1. ^ Indicates a citizen of the United States
  2. ^ a b Indicates a citizen of the United Kingdom
  3. ^ Indicates a citizen of New Zealand
  4. ^ Indicates a citizen of Japan
Posthumous recipients
  1. ^ D. C. Kizhakemuri died on 26 January 1999, at the age of 85.[23]

References

  1. ^ "PV Sindhu recommended for Padma Bhushan, India's third highest civilian award, by sports ministry". Firstpost. 25 September 2017. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  2. ^ Lal, Shavax A. (1954). "The Gazette of India—Extraordinary—Part I" (PDF). The Gazette of India. The President's Secretariat (published 2 January 1954): 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2018. The President is pleased to institute an award to be designated 'Padma Vibhushan' in three classes, namely: 'Pahela Varg', 'Dusra Varg' and 'Tisra Varg'
  3. ^ a b c d "Padma Awards Scheme" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  4. ^ a b c Ayyar, N. M. (1955). "The Gazette of India—Extraordinary—Part I" (PDF). The Gazette of India. The President's Secretariat (published 15 January 1955): 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2018. All persons upon whom the decoration of 'Padma Vibhushan' ('Dusra Varg') was conferred under the Regulations issued with Notification No. 2-Pres./54, dated the 2nd January, 1954, shall, for all purposes of these regulations, be deemed to be persons on whom the decoration of Padma Bhushan has been conferred by the President.
  5. ^ "Wearing of Medals: Precedence Of Medals". Indian Army. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
  6. ^ Chatterjee, Saibal; Prakash, Amit (10 January 1996). "An Honourable Judgement". Outlook. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
  7. ^ "The Constitution of India" (PDF). Ministry of Law and Justice (India). p. 36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 September 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  8. ^ a b "Balaji Raghavan S. P. Anand Vs. Union of India: Transfer Case (civil) 9 of 1994". Supreme Court of India. 4 August 1997. Archived from the original on 19 May 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
  9. ^ Mukul, Akshaya; Mohan, Vishwa; Dhawan, Himanshi (6 February 2010). "Chatwal fiasco: Top civilian awards losing sheen". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
  10. ^ Thorpe 2011, p. C-105.
  11. ^ a b c d "Padma Awards Directory (1954–2014)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). 21 May 2014. pp. 94–117. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
  12. ^ a b c "Those who said no to top awards". The Times of India. 20 January 2008. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
  13. ^ Mascarenhas, Anuradha (27 May 2011). "Social activist, Magsaysay winner Dr Rajnikant Arole dies at 77". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  14. ^ "Profile: P. L. Deshpande". Sangeet Natak Akademi. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  15. ^ "Sarangi maestro Ram Narayan gets Bhimsen Joshi Award". Business Standard. Indo-Asian News Service. 3 February 2016. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  16. ^ Nair 2017, p. 149.
  17. ^ "Jnanpith for Dr Girish Karnad". Rediff.com. 21 January 1999. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  18. ^ Agha, Eram (26 June 2017). "Scientist Kasturirangan to Head Panel on National Education Policy". CNN-News18. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  19. ^ "Profile: T. N. Krishnan". Sangeet Natak Akademi. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  20. ^ "Profile: Sonal Mansingh". Jaipur Literature Festival. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  21. ^ "Profile: Bhisham Sahni". Penguin Books. Archived from the original on 27 December 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  22. ^ "Profile: George Joseph". CRC Press. Archived from the original on 4 January 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
  23. ^ "Our Inspiration: D. C. Kizhakemuri [1914–1999]". DCSMAT Institute of Printing and Imaging. Archived from the original on 8 April 2013. Retrieved 9 January 2017.

Further reading

External links