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List of Padma Bhushan award recipients (1970–1979)

Padma Bhushan
Padma Bhushan medal suspended from its riband
Awarded by
State Emblem of India
Government of India
Country India
Type National Civilian
Ribbon Padma Bhushan riband
Obverse A centrally located lotus flower is embossed and the text "Padma" written in Devanagari script is placed above and the text "Bhushan" is placed below the lotus.
Reverse A platinum State Emblem of India placed in the centre with the national motto of India, "Satyameva Jayate" (Truth alone triumphs) in Devanagari Script
Statistics
Established 1954
Previous name(s) Padma Vibhushan "Dusra Warg" (Class II)
First awarded 1954
Total awarded 205
Precedence
Next (higher) Padma Vibhushan riband Padma Vibhushan
Next (lower) Padma Shri riband Padma Shri

The Padma Bhushan is the third-highest civilian award of the Republic of India.[1] Instituted on 2 January 1954, the award is given for "distinguished service of a high order", without distinction of race, occupation, position, or sex.[2] The recipients receive a Sanad, a certificate signed by the President of India and a circular-shaped medallion with no monetary association. The recipients are announced every year on Republic Day (26 January) and registered in The Gazette of India—a publication used for official government notices and released weekly by the Department of Publication, under the Ministry of Urban Development.[3] The conferral of the award is not considered official without its publication in the Gazette. The name of recipient, whose award have been revoked or restored, both of which require the authority of the President, is archived and they are required to surrender their medal when their name is struck from the register;[4] none of the conferments of Padma Bhushan during 1970–1979 have been revoked or restored. The recommendations are received from all the state and the union territory governments, as well as from Ministries of the Government of India, the Bharat Ratna and the Padma Vibhushan awardees, the Institutes of Excellence, the Ministers, the Chief Ministers and the Governors of State, and the Members of Parliament including private individuals.[3]

When instituted in 1954, the Padma Bhushan was classified as "Dusra Warg" (Class II) under the three-tier Padma Vibhushan awards, which were preceded by the Bharat Ratna in hierarchy. On 15 January 1955, the Padma Vibhushan was reclassified into three different awards as the Padma Vibhushan, the Padma Bhushan and the Padma Shri.[3] The criteria included "distinguished service of a high order in any field including service rendered by Government servants", but excluded those working with the public sector undertakings with the exception of doctors and scientists. The 1954 statutes did not allow posthumous awards; this was subsequently modified in the January 1955 statute.[4] The design was also changed to the form that is currently in use; it portrays a circular-shaped toned bronze medallion 1 34 inches (44 mm) in diameter and 18 inch (3.2 mm) thick. The centrally placed pattern made of outer lines of a square of 1 316 inches (30 mm) side is embossed with a knob carved within each of the outer angles of the pattern. A raised circular space of diameter 1 116 inches (27 mm) is placed at the centre of the decoration. A centrally located lotus flower is embossed on the obverse side of the medal and the text "Padma" is placed above and the text "Bhushan" is placed below the lotus written in Devanagari script. The State Emblem of India is displayed in the centre of the reverse side, together with the national motto of India, "Satyameva Jayate" (Truth alone triumphs) in Devanagari script, which is inscribed on the lower edge. The rim, the edges and all embossing on either side is of standard gold with the text "Padma Bhushan" of gold gilt. The medal is suspended by a pink riband 1 14 inches (32 mm) in width with a broad white stripe in the middle.[3][4] It is ranked fifth in the order of precedence of wearing of medals and decorations of the Indian civilian and military awards.[a]

As the result of the 6th General election held in March 1977, Morarji Desai was sworn in as the Prime Minister of India on 24 March 1977 replacing the Indira Gandhi led government of the Indian National Congress. On 31 July, the newly formed government retracted all the civilian awards including the Padma Bhushan deeming them "worthless and politicized".[6] After the 7th General election of 1980 Gandhi was again sworn in as the Prime Minister and all civilian awards were reinstated on 25 January 1980. Consequently, this award was not presented in 1978 and 1979.[7]

A total of 205 awards were presented in the 1970s – twenty-eight in 1970, followed by forty-one in 1971, fifty in 1972, seventeen in 1973, twenty-one in 1974, fifteen in 1975, sixteen in 1976 and seventeen in 1977. The Padma Bhushan in the 1970s was also conferred upon eight foreign recipients – four from the United States, two from Italy, and one each from Belgium and the United Kingdom. Individuals from nine different fields were awarded, which includes forty-eight from literature and education, forty-three from civil services, thirty-four artists, twenty-six from science and engineering, twenty-one from social work, seventeen from medicine, twelve from trade and industry, three from public affairs, and one sportsperson. Novelist Khushwant Singh, who accepted the award in 1974 in the field of literature and education, returned it in 1984 as a notion of protest against the Operation Blue Star.[8]

Recipients

Young smiling Indian woman wearing a sari.
Kumari Kamala (awarded in 1970) is known for her classical Bharat Natyam dance performances on stage and in Hindi and Tamil films like Kismet (1943), Ram Rajya (1943) and Naam Iruvar (1948). She also performed at the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953. Later in the late 1970s she took to teaching in the New York and New Jersey areas and was honoured with the National Heritage Fellowship (2010).[9]
Black and white profile photograph of a man.
Purushottam Kashinath Kelkar (awarded in 1970), an electrical engineer by qualification from the University of Liverpool is known for his works related to IIT Bombay (IITB) and IIT Kanpur (IITK). He collaborated with Soviet engineers as the chief planning officer of IITB in the early years of its establishment and later collaborated with nine American institutes headed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology to help establish IITK, becoming its first director.[10]
Black and white photograph of an old man wearing glasses.
Novelist, dramatist, and critic, Viswanatha Satyanarayana (awarded in 1970) authored more than hundred works in Telugu language and won the Jnanpith Award in 1970 for his work Ramayana Kalpavrukshamu.[11]:1093[12] Satyanarayana won the Padma Bhushan in 1971.
Black and white portrait photograph of a young woman.
Regarded as the "doyenne of Kirana gharana",[13] Gangubai Hangal (awarded in 1971) was a Hindustani classical singer and student of Sawai Gandharva. Her career spanned over eight decades and included singing for Marathi films, studio and radio recordings and various stage concerts.[14]
Black and white profile photograph of a woman.
D. K. Pattammal (awarded in 1971) was one of the early Brahmin caste female singers to perform Carnatic music in public which was against social norms.[15] Along with M. S. Subbulakshmi and M. L. Vasanthakumari, she was counted in "the classical triumvirate".[16]


Black and white profile photograph of an old man in white beard and dark hair.
Camille Bulcke (awarded in 1974) arrived in India in 1935 as a missionary of the Roman Catholic Church and with an interest in Indian philosophy and literature studied the Hindi language. Earning MA and D. Phil. from University of Allahabad on his subject Ramkatha: Utpatti aur Vikas (The tale of Rama: its origin and development), he further went on to write various Hindi-English dictionaries and glossary books and headed the Hindi department of St. Xavier's College, Ranchi.[17]


Black and white photograph of an old man singing.
Mallikarjun Mansur (awarded in 1976) was an exponent of the Jaipur-Atrauli gharana of Hindustani classical music. Mansur was a recipient of the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award for Hindustani Music (1971) and the Kalidas Samman from the Government of Madhya Pradesh (1981). He was elected the Fellow of the Sangeet Natak Akademi "[f]or his eminence in the field of music and his contribution to its enrichment" in 1982.[18]
Close up of an old semi bald man wearing broad black framed glasses.
Scientist and educator Yash Pal (awarded in 1976) has worked on various projects implementing technological advances into telecommunication; the most notable being usage of satellite-based television for rural education. He has also held various administrative positions like being chancellor of Jawaharlal Nehru University. He also won the Marconi Prize in 1980.[19]
Photograph of a bald man wearing white shirt.
Known for his contributions to the development of space technology in the country, space scientist Udupi Ramachandra Rao (awarded in 1976) was the former chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation (1984–1994). Rao became the first Indian Space Scientist to be inducted into the "Satellite Hall of Fame" by the Society of Satellite Professionals International and the International Astronautics Federation.[20]
Old man drinking from a white cup in his hand.
Theoretical physicist E. C. George Sudarshan (awarded in 1976) is best known for his quantum optics theory popular as Glauber–Sudarshan P representation. While Roy J. Glauber received the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics, exclusion of Sudarshan for his contributions has met criticism.[21]
Photograph of a bald man wearing suit and tie.
Physicist–mathematician Harish-Chandra (awarded in 1977) is known for his fundamental work in the Representation theory, especially Harmonic analysis on Semisimple Lie algebra.[22]
Award recipients by year[23]
Year Number of recipients
1970
28
1971
41
1972
50
1973
17
1974
21
1975
15
1976
16
1977
17
1978
0
1979
0
Award recipients by field[23]
Field Number of recipients
Arts
34
Civil Service
43
Literature & Education
48
Medicine
17
Public Affairs
3
Science & Engineering
26
Social Work
21
Sports
1
Trade & Industry
12
Key
   # Indicates a posthumous honour
List of Padma Bhushan award recipients, showing the year, field, and state/country[23]
Year Recipient Field State
1970 Ramkinkar Baij Arts West Bengal
1970 Hirabai Barodekar Arts Maharashtra
1970 Buddhadeb Bose Literature & Education West Bengal
1970 M. R. Brahmam Civil Service Andhra Pradesh
1970 Amiya Chakravarty Literature & Education West Bengal
1970 T. S. Avinashilingam Chettiar Literature & Education Tamil Nadu
1970 Birendra Nath Ganguli Literature & Education Delhi
1970 Lala Hansraj Gupta Public Affairs Haryana
1970 Ratan Lal Joshi Literature & Education Delhi
1970 Gurram Jashuva Literature & Education Andhra Pradesh
1970 Narayan Sadoba Kajrolkar Social Work Maharashtra
1970 Kumari Kamala Arts Tamil Nadu
1970 Purushottam Kashinath Kelkar Literature & Education Maharashtra
1970 M. S. Krishnan Science & Engineering Tamil Nadu
1970 Syed Abdul Latif Literature & Education Andhra Pradesh
1970 Bhagwantrao Mandloi Public Affairs Madhya Pradesh
1970 Mahesh Prasad Mehray Medicine Uttar Pradesh
1970 Sombhu Mitra Arts West Bengal
1970 Vivekananda Mukhopadhyaya Literature & Education West Bengal
1970 Krishnaswami Ramiah Science & Engineering Tamil Nadu
1970 Gainedi A. Narasimha Rao Civil Service Andhra Pradesh
1970 Anant alias Annasaheb Sahasrabuddhe Social Work Maharashtra
1970 Surrendar Saini Social Work Delhi
1970 Viswanatha Satyanarayana Literature & Education Andhra Pradesh
1970 Ahmed Jan Thirakwa Arts Uttar Pradesh
1970 N. M. Wagle Civil Service Maharashtra
1970 Prem Nath Wahi Civil Service Delhi
1970 Yashpal Literature & Education Punjab
1971 N. Ramaswami Ayyar Social Work Tamil Nadu
1971 Suraj Bhan Literature & Education Chandigarh
1971 Gokulbhai Bhatt Social Work Rajasthan
1971 Jaishankar Bhojak Arts Gujarat
1971 Monindra Nath Chakravarti Civil Service West Bengal
1971 Kandathil Mammen Cherian Literature & Education Kerala
1971 Jogesh Chandra De Trade & Industry West Bengal
1971 Ramrao Deshmukh Trade & Industry Maharashtra
1971 Satish Dhawan Science & Engineering Karnataka
1971 Bhalchandra Digambar Garware Trade & Industry Maharashtra
1971 Gangubai Hangal Arts Karnataka
1971 Musiri Subramania Iyer Arts Tamil Nadu
1971 P Tiruvillvamalai Seshan M. Iyer Arts Tamil Nadu
1971 Jainendra Kumar Jain Literature & Education Delhi
1971 Mungtu Ram Jaipuria Social Work Delhi
1971 Veni Shankar Jha Literature & Education Madhya Pradesh
1971 Raj Kapoor Arts Punjab
1971 A. Vithal alias Dhananjay Keer Literature & Education Maharashtra
1971 Amir Khan Arts Maharashtra
1971 Nissar Hussain Khan Arts Uttar Pradesh
1971 P. Kalathil Kunju Kurup Arts Kerala
1971 R. K. Laxman Arts Maharashtra
1971 Shantilal Jamnadas Mehta Medicine Maharashtra
1971 Ved Rattan Mohan Trade & Industry Uttar Pradesh
1971 Kedar Nath Mookerjee Trade & Industry West Bengal
1971 Santosh Kumar Mukerji Medicine Madhya Pradesh
1971 Bishnupada Mukhopadhyaya Medicine Bihar
1971 Kalindi Charan Panigrahi Literature & Education Odisha
1971 Manibhai J. Patel Trade & Industry Madhya Pradesh
1971 D. K. Pattammal Arts Tamil Nadu
1971 Krishnarao Phulambrikar Arts Maharashtra
1971 Venkatarama Ramalingam Pillai Literature & Education Tamil Nadu
1971 Vulimiri Ramalingaswami Medicine Tamil Nadu
1971 Suresh Chandra Roy Trade & Industry West Bengal
1971 Pandurang Vasudeo Sukhatme Science & Engineering [A]
1971 Pichu Sambamoorthi Arts Tamil Nadu
1971 Devchand Chhaganlal Shah Social Work Maharashtra
1971 Madan Mohan Singh Medicine Delhi
1971 Bhagwati Charan Verma Literature & Education Uttar Pradesh
1971 Parmeshwari Lal Verma Civil Service Chandigarh
1971 Kasturi Lal Vij Civil Service Delhi
1972 Jagjit Singh Aurora Civil Service Delhi
1972 Madhavrao Bagal Social Work Maharashtra
1972 Surinder Singh Bedi Civil Service Delhi
1972 Gopal Gurunath Bewoor Civil Service Karnataka
1972 Gulestan Rustom Billimoria Social Work Maharashtra
1972 Kunhiraman Palat Candeth Civil Service Delhi
1972 Ram Narayan Chakravarti Science & Engineering West Bengal
1972 Pran Nath Chhutani Literature & Education Chandigarh
1972 Yashodhara Dasappa Social Work Karnataka
1972 Maheshwar Dayal Social Work Delhi
1972 Hari Chand Dewan Civil Service Punjab
1972 Minoo Merwan Engineer Civil Service Gujarat
1972 Benoy Bhushan Ghosh Civil Service West Bengal
1972 Inderjit Singh Gill Civil Service Maharashtra
1972 Mohd. Hayath Civil Service Karnataka
1972 Lakhumal Hiranand Hiranandani Medicine Maharashtra
1972 L. A. Krishna Iyer Science & Engineering Kerala
1972 Sourendra Nath Kohli Civil Service Punjab
1972 Jai Krishna Civil Service Uttar Pradesh
1972 Nilakanta Krishnan Civil Service Tamil Nadu
1972 Ashwini Kumar Civil Service Punjab
1972 Pran Nath Luthra Civil Service Punjab
1972 Amrut V. Mody Civil Service Maharashtra
1972 N. G. Krishna Murti Civil Service Delhi
1972 T. A. Pai Civil Service Karnataka
1972 Vinayakrao Patwardhan Arts Maharashtra
1972 Dattatraya Yeshwant Phadke Science & Engineering Maharashtra
1972 Kayalath Pothen Philip Literature & Education Maharashtra
1972 Bhalchandra Nilkanth Purandare Medicine Maharashtra
1972 Tapishwar Narain Raina Civil Service Jammu & Kashmir
1972 Bharat Ram Trade & Industry Delhi
1972 Mohinder Singh Randhawa Science & Engineering Punjab
1972 Adya Rangacharya Literature & Education Karnataka
1972 M. B. Ramachandra Rao Science & Engineering Delhi
1972 Ayyagari Sambasiva Rao Science & Engineering Andhra Pradesh
1972 Sujoy B. Roy Medicine West Bengal
1972 Khusro Faramurz Rustamji Civil Service Madhya Pradesh
1972 S. S. Sahi Civil Service Chandigarh
1972 Shantilal C. Sheth Medicine Maharashtra
1972 Baldev Singh Medicine Delhi
1972 Khem Karan Singh Civil Service Punjab
1972 Sartaj Singh Civil Service Punjab
1972 Sagat Singh Civil Service Punjab
1972 Birendranath Sircar Arts Bihar
1972 Papanasam Sivan Arts Tamil Nadu
1972 Chandrika Prasad Srivastava Civil Service [B]
1972 M. S. Swaminathan Science & Engineering Tamil Nadu
1972 Krishnaswami Swaminathan Literature & Education Delhi
1972 Bal Dattatreya Tilak Science & Engineering Maharashtra
1972 Syed Husain Zaheer Trade & Industry Andhra Pradesh
1973 Om P. Bahl Science & Engineering [C]
1973 C. Vaidyanatha Bhagavathar Arts Kerala
1973 Gosasp Maneckji Sorabji Captain Social Work Maharashtra
1973 Harindranath Chattopadhyay Literature & Education Andhra Pradesh
1973 Banarsidas Chaturvedi Literature & Education Uttar Pradesh
1973 M. A. Muthiah Chettiar Trade & Industry Tamil Nadu
1973 M. F. Husain Arts Delhi
1973 Pothan Joseph Literature & Education Kerala
1973 N. R. Malkani Social Work Rajasthan
1973 Vinoo Mankad Sports Gujarat
1973 Sudhir Krishna Mukherjee Civil Service West Bengal
1973 Ramakant Maheshwar Muzumdar Civil Service Karnataka
1973 Krishnarao Shankar Pandit Arts Madhya Pradesh
1973 Pitambar Pant Civil Service Uttar Pradesh
1973 Vennelakanti Raghavaiah Social Work Andhra Pradesh
1973 Raja Ramanna Science & Engineering Tamil Nadu
1973 K. Sukumaran Literature & Education Kerala
1974 Alice Boner Arts [A]
1974 Camille Bulcke Literature & Education [D]
1974 Ram Kumar Caroli Medicine Uttar Pradesh
1974 Moti Chandra Science & Engineering Maharashtra
1974 Dhirendra Nath Ganguly Arts West Bengal
1974 D. V. Gundappa Literature & Education Karnataka
1974 Vasant Shankar Huzurbazar Literature & Education Maharashtra
1974 Chintamoni Kar Arts West Bengal
1974 Mogubai Kurdikar Arts Maharashtra
1974 Jayant Pandurang Naik Literature & Education Maharashtra
1974 Habib Rahman Science & Engineering Delhi
1974 Bommireddy Narasimha Reddy Arts Andhra Pradesh
1974 John Richardson Social Work Andaman & Nicobar Islands
1974 Toppur Seethapathy Sadasivan Science & Engineering Tamil Nadu
1974 Sukhlal Sanghvi Literature & Education Gujarat
1974 Hasmukh Dhirajlal Sankalia Civil Service Maharashtra
1974 Bhupati Mohan Sen Literature & Education West Bengal
1974 Thakur Jaideva Singh Science & Engineering Uttar Pradesh
1974 Khushwant Singh Literature & Education Punjab
1974 Arunachala Sreenivasan Science & Engineering Karnataka
1974 Raman Viswanathan Medicine Tamil Nadu
1975 Begum Akhtar[i]# Arts Uttar Pradesh
1975 Dilbagh Singh Athwal Science & Engineering [C]
1975 Asima Chatterjee Science & Engineering West Bengal
1975 Madhav Sadashiv Gore Science & Engineering Maharashtra
1975 Pratul Chandra Gupta Literature & Education West Bengal
1975 P. Krishnagopala Iyengar Science & Engineering Maharashtra
1975 Darab Jehangir Jussawala Medicine Maharashtra
1975 Raj Kumar Khanna Civil Service Delhi
1975 Pancheti Koteswaram Civil Service Tamil Nadu
1975 Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi Literature & Education Maharashtra
1975 Balai Chand Mukhopadhyay Literature & Education Bihar
1975 Kirpal Singh Narang Literature & Education Punjab
1975 P. Ardeshir Narielwala Trade & Industry Maharashtra
1975 Ronald Carlton Vivian Piadade Noronha Civil Service Madhya Pradesh
1975 Ratan Shastri Social Work Rajasthan
1976 Malcolm Adiseshiah Civil Service Tamil Nadu
1976 Harivansh Rai Bachchan Literature & Education Maharashtra
1976 Nabakanta Barua Literature & Education Assam
1976 Naoroji Pirojsha Godrej Trade & Industry Maharashtra
1976 Laxmanshastri Balaji Joshi Literature & Education Maharashtra
1976 Zehra Ali Yavar Jung Social Work Andhra Pradesh
1976 Mallikarjun Mansur Arts Karnataka
1976 Shri Ram Mehta Civil Service Delhi
1976 Yash Pal Science & Engineering Punjab
1976 Bhogilal Pandya Social Work Rajasthan
1976 Udupi Ramachandra Rao Science & Engineering Karnataka
1976 Krishnaswami Srinivas Sanjivi Medicine Tamil Nadu
1976 Devulapalli Krishnasastri Literature & Education Andhra Pradesh
1976 Devendra Sen Civil Service West Bengal
1976 Calambur Sivaramamurti Civil Service Delhi
1976 E. C. George Sudarshan Literature & Education [C]
1977 Gopinath Aman Literature & Education Delhi
1977 Prithvi Singh Azad Public Affairs Chandigarh
1977 Harish Chandra Literature & Education [C]
1977 Kumar Gandharva Arts Madhya Pradesh
1977 Phulrenu Guha Social Work West Bengal
1977 Jagmohan Civil Service Delhi
1977 Kailas Nath Kaul Literature & Education Uttar Pradesh
1977 Yousuf Hussain Khan Literature & Education Delhi
1977 Chackachanveedu Krishnan Nair Social Work Delhi
1977 K. S. Narayanaswamy Arts Maharashtra
1977 Paramsukh J. Pandya Arts Maharashtra
1977 Balasubramaniam Ramamurthi Medicine Tamil Nadu
1977 Perugu Siva Reddy Medicine Andhra Pradesh
1977 Annapurna Ravi Shankar Arts Uttar Pradesh
1977 Yudhvir Singh Social Work Delhi
1977 Mysore Narasimhachar Srinivas Science & Engineering Karnataka
1977 T. P. Meenakshisundaram Literature & Education Tamil Nadu

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ The order of precedence is: Bharat Ratna, Param Vir Chakra, Ashoka Chakra, Padma Vibhushan and Padma Bhushan.[5]
Non-citizen recipients
  1. ^ a b Indicates a citizen of Italy
  2. ^ Indicates a citizen of the United Kingdom
  3. ^ a b c d Indicates a citizen of the United States
  4. ^ Indicates a citizen of Belgium
Posthumous recipients
  1. ^ Begum Akhtar died on 30 October 1974, at the age of 60.[24]

References

  1. ^ "PV Sindhu recommended for Padma Bhushan, India's third highest civilian award, by sports ministry". Firstpost. 25 September 2017. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  2. ^ Lal, Shavax A. (1954). "The Gazette of India—Extraordinary—Part I" (PDF). The Gazette of India. The President's Secretariat (published 2 January 1954): 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2018. The President is pleased to institute an award to be designated 'Padma Vibhushan' in three classes, namely: 'Pahela Varg', 'Dusra Varg' and 'Tisra Varg'
  3. ^ a b c d "Padma Awards Scheme" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  4. ^ a b c Ayyar, N. M. (1955). "The Gazette of India—Extraordinary—Part I" (PDF). The Gazette of India. The President's Secretariat (published 15 January 1955): 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2018. All persons upon whom the decoration of 'Padma Vibhushan' ('Dusra Varg') was conferred under the Regulations issued with Notification No. 2-Pres./54, dated the 2nd January, 1954, shall, for all purposes of these regulations, be deemed to be persons on whom the decoration of Padma Bhushan has been conferred by the President.
  5. ^ "Wearing of Medals: Precedence Of Medals". Indian Army. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2015.
  6. ^ Mukul, Akshaya (20 January 2008). "The great Bharat Ratna race". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 26 August 2015. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  7. ^ Bhattacherje, S. B. (2009). Encyclopaedia of Indian Events & Dates. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. A248, A253. ISBN 978-81-207-4074-7. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014.
  8. ^ "Those who said no to top awards". The Times of India. 20 January 2008. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
  9. ^ S., Muthiah (2011). Madras Miscellany. Westland. p. 121. ISBN 978-93-80032-84-9.[permanent dead link]
  10. ^ Bassett, Ross (2016). The Technological Indian. Harvard University Press. p. 272. ISBN 978-0-674-50471-4.
  11. ^ George, K. M. (1992). Modern Indian Literature, an Anthology: Surveys and poems. Sahitya Akademi. p. 1148. ISBN 978-81-7201-324-0.
  12. ^ "Jnanpith Laureates". Bharatiya Jnanpith. Archived from the original on 14 July 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  13. ^ Rajan, Anjana (26 July 2009). "Her legacy will live on". The Hindu. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
  14. ^ Ganesh, Deepa (22 July 2009). "The matriarch of the Kirana Gharana". The Hindu. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
  15. ^ Krishna, TM (2013). A Southern Music. HarperCollins Publishers India. p. 209. ISBN 978-93-5029-822-0.
  16. ^ Mathai, Kamini (17 July 2009). "The end of the trinity". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 16 September 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  17. ^ Datta, Amaresh (1987). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1.
  18. ^ "Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellow". New Delhi: Sangeet Natak Akademi. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  19. ^ "Yash Pal: Awarded the Marconi Prize in 1980". Marconi Society. Archived from the original on 9 June 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  20. ^ "Former Chairmen: Prof. Udupi Ramachandra Rao (1984–1994)". Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  21. ^ Zhou, Lulu (6 December 2005). "Scientists Question Nobel". The Harvard Crimson. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  22. ^ O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. "Profile: Harish-Chandra". School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews. Retrieved 27 March 2018.[permanent dead link]
  23. ^ a b c "Padma Awards Directory (1954–2014)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). 21 May 2014. pp. 37–72. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
  24. ^ "Google doodle celebrates 103rd birth anniversary of renowned singer Begum Akhtar". India Today. 7 October 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2018.

External links