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List of French monarchs

Monarchy of France
Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg
Details
Style See article
First monarch Clovis I
(as King)
Last monarch Napoleon III
(as Emperor)
Formation 843 (historical)
1180 (modern)
Abolition 4 September 1870
Residence Palais de la Cité
Louvre Palace
Palace of Versailles
Tuileries Palace
Appointer Hereditary
Pretender(s) Disputed:
Louis Alphonse
(House of Bourbon)
Henri d'Orléans
(House of Orléans)
Jean-Christophe
(House of Bonaparte)

The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870.

Sometimes included as "kings of France"[1] are the kings of the Franks of the Merovingian dynasty, which ruled from 486 until 751,[2] and of the Carolingians, who ruled until 987 (with some interruptions).

The Capetian dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, included the first rulers to adopt the title of king of France for the first time with Philip II (r. 1180–1223). The Capetians ruled continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. The branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois (until 1589) and Bourbon (until 1848).

During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791 was in effect (1791–92) and after the July Revolution in 1830, the style "King of the French" was used instead of "King of France (and Navarre)". It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy which linked the monarch's title to the French people rather than to the possession of the territory of France.[3]

With the House of Bonaparte "Emperors of the French" ruled in 19th century France, between 1804 and 1814, again in 1815 and between 1852 and 1871.

Titles

Family tree of French kings (987-1848)

The title "King of the Franks" (Latin: Rex Francorum) gradually lost ground after 1190, during the reign of Philip II (but FRANCORUM REX continued to be used, for example by Louis XII in 1499, by Francis I in 1515, and by Henry II about 1550. It was used on coins up to the eighteenth century.[n 1] During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791 was in effect (1791–92) and after the July Revolution in 1830, the style "King of the French" was used instead of "King of France (and Navarre)". It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy which linked the monarch's title to the French people rather than to the possession of the territory of France.[5]

In addition to the Kingdom of France, there were also two French Empires, the first from 1804 to 1814 and again in 1815, founded and ruled by Napoleon I, and the second from 1852 to 1870, founded and ruled by his nephew Napoleon III (also known as Louis-Napoleon). They used the title "Emperor of the French".[6][7]

This article lists all rulers to have held the title "King of the Franks", "King of France", "King of the French" or "Emperor of the French". For other Frankish monarchs, see List of Frankish kings. In addition to the monarchs listed below, the Kings of England and Great Britain from 1340–60, 1369-1420, and 1422–1801 also claimed the title of King of France. For a short time, this had some basis in fact – under the terms of the 1420 Treaty of Troyes, Charles VI had recognized his son-in-law Henry V of England as regent and heir. Henry V predeceased Charles VI and so Henry V's son, Henry VI, succeeded his grandfather Charles VI as King of France. Most of Northern France was under English control until 1435, but by 1453, the English had been expelled from all of France save Calais (and the Channel Islands), and Calais itself fell in 1558. Nevertheless, English and then British monarchs continued to claim the title for themselves until the creation of the United Kingdom in 1801.

History

Predecessors

The the first Frankish royal dynasty were the Merovingians, a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century. Their territory largely corresponded to ancient Gaul as well as the Roman provinces of Raetia, Germania Superior and the southern part of Germania. The Merovingian dynasty rose to historical prominence with Childeric I (c. 457-481), the son of Merovech, leader of the Salian Franks, but it was his famous son Clovis I (481–511) who united all of Gaul under Merovingian rule.[8]

After Clovis's death, his kingdom was divided among his four sons, who took up residences in different cities. The number and extent of the parts of the kingdom varied over time. Clothar I, the youngest son, eventually reunited the kingdom. After Clothar's death, the kingdom was divided among his four sons. The parts of the kingdom varied over time and eventually developed into three distinct realms. Neustria, centred at Soisson and Paris, Austrasia, centered at Metz, and Burgundy, centered at Orléans. Clothar II, grandson of Clothar I, eventually reunited the kingdom. Following the reunification of the kingdom, Neustria and Burgundy remained under the direct rule of the King of the Franks, while Austrasia was soon put under the rule of a junior king. The following list restricts itself to the kings ruling in Neustria and Burgundy.

The last Merovingian kings, known as the lazy kings (rois fainéants), did not hold any real political power, while the Mayor of the Palace governed instead. When Theuderic IV died in 737, Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel left the throne vacant and continued to rule until his own death in 741. His sons Pepin and Carloman briefly restored the Merovingian dynasty by raising Childeric III to the throne in 743. In 751, Pepin deposed Childeric and became King in his place, with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy.[9]

West Francia (843–987)

After the death of Louis the Pious in 840, the Frankish Empire fell in a civil war between Louis's sons. The war ended in 843 with the Treaty of Verdun, who partitioned the Empire in three rival kingdoms: the Middle Francia, held by Emperor Lothair I; the East Francia, hedl by Louis the German; and the West Francia, held by Charles the Bald. With Charles, the basis for the future France were throw.

Carolingians

Portrait Coat of Arms Name
(Birth–Death)
Reign start Reign end Duration Marriage(s)
Issue
Claim
Steuben - Charles the Bald.jpg Coa Illustration Cross Carolingian.svg Charles II
The Bald
13 June 823

6 October 877
Aged 54
1 August 843 6 October 877 34 years, 2 months and 7 days (1) Ermentrude of Orléans
10 children
(2) Richilde of Provence
4 children
 • Son of Emperor Louis
 • Title granted after Verdun Treaty
Amiel - Louis the Stammerer.jpg Coa Illustration Cross Carolingian.svg Louis II
The Stammerer
1 November 846

10 April 879
Aged 32
6 October 877 10 April 879 1 year, 6 months and 4 days (1) Ansgarde of Burgundy
5 children
(2) Adelaide of Paris
1 children
Son of Charles II
Charles Auguste Guillaume Henri François Louis de Steuben - Louis III (vers 863-882) et Carloman (vers 866-884).jpg Coa Illustration Cross Carolingian.svg Louis III
863/865

5 August 882
Aged 17/19

and
Carloman II
866/8

6 December 884
Aged 16/18
10 April 879 5 August 882
(Louis III)
6 December 884
(Carloman II)
5 years, 7 months and 26 days
(collect.)
Unmarrieds Sons of Louis II
Amiel - Charles the Fat.jpg Coa Illustration Cross Carolingian.svg Charles III
The Fat
13 June 839

13 January 888
Aged 48
6 December 884 13 January 888 3 years, 2 months and 23 days Richardis
Childless
Nephew of Charles II

Robertians

In 888, Odo, Count of Paris, was chosen by the western Franks to be their king following the removal of emperor Charles the Fat. He was crowned at Compiègne in February 888 by Walter, Archbishop of Sens.[10]

Portrait Coat of Arms Name
(Birth–Death)
Reign start Reign end Duration Marriage(s)
Issue
Claim
Odo of France.PNG Insigne Lutetiae.svg Odo
859/60

1 January 898
Aged 38/39
29 February 888 1 January 898 9 years, 10 months and 3 days Théodrate of Troyes
4 children
Elected by Frankish nobility

Carolingians

Charles the Simple, the posthumous son of Louis II, was crowned by a faction opposed to the Robertian Odo at Reims Cathedral, though he only became the effectual monarch with the death of Odo in 898.[11]

Portrait Coat of Arms Name
(Birth–Death)
Reign start Reign end Duration Marriage(s)
Issue
Claim
Rouget - Charles III of France.jpg Coa Illustration Cross Carolingian.svg Charles III
The Simple
17 September 879

7 October 929
Aged 50
1 January 898 22 June 922 24 years, 5 months and 21 days (1) Frederuna
6 children
(2) Eadgifu of Wessex
1 son
Son of Louis II

Robertians

Portrait Coat of Arms Name
(Birth–Death)
Reign start Reign end Duration Marriage(s)
Issue
Claim
Robert I de France.jpg Insigne Lutetiae.svg Robert I
860/66

15 June 923
Aged 47/53
22 June 922 15 June 923 11 months and 24 days (1) Adela of Maine[12]
2 daughters
(2) Béatrice of Vermandois
3 children
Elected by Frankish nobility

Bosonids

Portrait Coat of Arms Name
(Birth–Death)
Reign start Reign end Duration Marriage(s)
Issue
Claim
Dejuinne - Rudolph of France.jpg Bosonides.png Rudolph
890

14/15 January 936
Aged 46
15 June 923 14/15 January 936 12 years, 6 months and 30 days Emma of France
Childless
Elected by Frankish nobility

Carolingians

Portrait Coat of Arms Name
(Birth–Death)
Reign start Reign end Duration Marriage(s)
Issue
Claim
Steuben - Louis IV of France.png Coa Illustration Cross Carolingian.svg Louis IV
The Overseas
September 920/21

10 September 954
Aged 33/34
15 January 936 10 September 954 18 years, 7 months and 26 days Gerberga of Saxony
3 children
Son of Charles III
Monvoisin - Lothair of France.jpg Coa Illustration Cross Carolingian.svg Lothair
941

2 March 986
Aged 44
10 September 954 2 March 986 31 years, 5 months and 20 days Emma of Italy
2 children
Son of Louis IV
Amiel - Louis V of France.jpg Coa Illustration Cross Carolingian.svg Louis V
The Sluggard
966/67

21 May 987
Aged 20/21
2 March 986 21 May 987 1 year, 2 months and 19 days Adelaide-Blanche of Anjou
Childless
Son of Lothair

Kingdom of France (987–1792)

After the death of Louis V, the son of Hugh the Great and grandson of Robert I, Hugh Capet, was elected by the nobility as king of France. The Capetian Dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, ruled France continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. They were direct descendants of the Robertian kings. The cadet branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois and Bourbon.

Not listed below are Hugh Magnus, eldest son of Robert II, and Philip of France, eldest son of Louis VI; both were co-kings with their fathers (in accordance with the early Capetian practice whereby kings would crown their heirs in their own lifetimes and share power with the co-king), but predeceased them. Because neither Hugh nor Philip were sole or senior king in their own lifetimes, they are not traditionally listed as Kings of France, and are not given ordinals.

House of Capet

The main line of descent from Hugh Capet is generally known as the "direct Capetians" or House of Capet. This line became extinct in 1328, precipitating a succession crisis known as the Hundred Years War. While there were numerous claimants to succeed, the two best claimants were the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet.

Portrait Coat of Arms Name
(Birth–Death)
Reign start Reign end Duration Marriage(s)
Issue
Claim
King Hugh Capet.jpg France Ancient Arms.svg Hugh I
Hugh Capet
941

24 October 996
Aged 55
3 July 987 24 October 996 9 years, 3 months and 21 days Adelaide of Aquitaine
3 children
Elected by Frankish nobility
Blondel - Robert II of France.jpg France Ancient Arms.svg Robert II
The Pious
27 March 972

20 July 1031
Aged 59
24 October 996 20 July 1031 34 years, 8 months and 26 days (1) Rozala of Italy
Childless
(2) Bertha of Burgundy
Chidless
(3) Constance of Arles
4 children
Son of Hugh Capet
Blondel - Henry I of France.jpg France Ancient Arms.svg Henry I
4 May 1008

4 August 1060
Aged 52
20 July 1031 4 August 1060 29 years and 15 days (1) Matilda of Frisia
Childless
(2) Anne of Kiev
4 children
Son of Robert II
Saint-Èvre - Philip I of France.jpg France Ancient Arms.svg Philip I
The Amorous
23 May 1052

29 July 1108
Aged 56
4 August 1060 29 July 1108 47 years, 11 months and 25 days (1) Bertha of Holland
3 children
(2) Bertrade de Montfort
3 children
Son of Henry I
Blondel - Louis VI of France.jpg France Ancient Arms.svg Louis VI
The Fat
1 December 1081

1 August 1137
Aged 55
29 July 1108 1 August 1137 29 years and 3 days (1) Lucienne de Rochefort
Childless
(2) Adelaide of Maurienne
7 children
Son of Philip I
Decaisne - Louis VII of France.jpg France Ancient Arms.svg Louis VII
The Young
1120

18 September 1180
Aged 59/60
1 August 1137 18 September 1180 43 years, 1 month and 17 days (1) Eleanor of Aquitaine
2 daughters
(2) Constance of Castile
2 daughters
(3) Adela of Champagne
3 children
Son of Louis VI
Louis-Félix Amiel-Philippe II dit Philippe-Auguste Roi de France (1165-1223).jpg France Ancient Arms.svg Philip II
Philip Augustus
21 August 1165

14 July 1223
Aged 57
18 September 1180 14 July 1223 42 years, 9 months and 26 days (1) Isabella of Hainault
3 children
(2) Ingeborg of Denmark
Childless
(3) Agnes of Merania
2 children
Son of Louis VII
Lehmann - Louis VIII of France.jpg France Ancient Arms.svg Louis VIII
The Lion
5 September 1187

8 November 1226
Aged 39
14 July 1223 8 November 1226 3 years, 3 months and 25 days Blanche of Castile
5 children
Son of Philip II
Decreuse - Louis IX of France.jpg France Ancient Arms.svg Louis IX
The Saint
25 April 1214

25 August 1270
Aged 56
8 November 1226 25 August 1270 47 years, 1 month and 11 days Margaret of Provence
11 children
Son of Louis VIII
Saint-Èvre - Philip III of France.jpg France Ancient Arms.svg Philip III
The Bold
30 April 1245

5 October 1285
Aged 40
25 August 1270 5 October 1285 15 years, 1 month and 10 days (1) Isabella of Aragon
4 children
(2) Marie of Brabant
3 children
Son of Louis IX
Bézard - Philippe IV le bel.jpg Blason de France 1285-1328.png Philip IV
The Fair/The Iron King
April–June 1268

29 November 1314
Aged 46
5 October 1285 29 November 1314 29 years, 1 month and 24 days Joan I of Navarre
4 children
Son of Philip III
Tassaert - Louis X of France.jpg Blason de France 1285-1328.png Louis X
The Quarreler
4 October 1289

5 June 1316
Aged 26
29 November 1314 5 June 1316 1 year, 6 months and 7 days (1) Margaret of Burgundy
1 daughter
(2) Clementia of Hungary
1 son
Son of Philip IV
No image.svg Blason de France 1285-1328.png John I
The Posthumous
15 November

20 November 1316
Aged 5 days
15 November 1316 20 November 1316 5 days Unmarried Son of Louis X
Debacq - Philip V of France.jpg Blason de France 1285-1328.png Philip V
The Tall
1293

3 January 1322
Aged 29
20 November 1316 3 January 1322 5 years, 1 month and 14 days Joan II of Burgundy
4 daughters
 • Son of Philip IV
 • Middle brother of Louis X
Déhérain - Charles IV of France.jpg Blason de France 1285-1328.png Charles IV
The Fair
18/19 June 1294

1 February 1328
Aged 33
3 January 1322 1 February 1328 6 years and 29 days (1) Blanche of Burgundy
2 children
(2) Marie of Luxembourg
1 son
(3) Jeanne d'Évreux
3 daughters
 • Son of Philip IV
 • Younger brother of Louis X and Philip V

House of Valois

The death of the last Direct Capetian precipitated the Hundred Years' War between the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet over control of the French throne.[13] The Valois claimed the right to the succession by male-only primogeniture, having the closest all-male line of descent from a recent French king. They were descended from the third son of Philip III, Charles, Count of Valois. The Plantagenets based their claim on being closer to a more recent French King, Edward III of England being a grandson of Philip IV through his mother, Isabella. The two houses fought the Hundred Years War to enforce their claims; the Valois were ultimately successful, and French historiography counts their leaders as rightful kings. One Plantagenet, Henry VI of England, did enjoy de jure control of the French throne under the terms of the Treaty of Troyes, which formed the basis for continued English claims to the throne of France until the 19th century. The Valois line would rule France until the line became extinct in 1589, in the backdrop of the French Wars of Religion.

Portrait Coat of Arms Name
(Birth–Death)
Reign start Reign end Duration Marriage(s)
Issue
Claim
Robert-Fleury - Philip VI of France.jpg Blason comte fr Valois.svg Philip VI
The Fortunate
1293

22 August 1350
Aged 57
1 April 1328 22 August 1350 22 years, 4 months and 21 days (1) Joan of Burgundy
2 children
(2) Blanche of Navarre
1 daughter
Grandson
of Philip III
Lugardon - John II of France.jpg Blason comte fr Valois.svg John II
The Good
26 April 1319–
8 April 1364
Aged 44
22 August 1350 8 April 1364 13 years, 7 months and 17 days (1) Bonne of Bohemia
7 children
(2) Joan I of Auveregne
1 son
Son of Philip VI
Dejuinne - Charles V of France.jpg Blason comte fr Valois.svg
Armes de France depuis Charles V..png
Charles V
The Wise
21 January 1338

16 September 1380
Aged 42
8 April 1364 16 September 1380 16 years, 5 months and 8 days Joanna of Bourbon
3 children
Son of John II
Saint-Èvre - Charles VI of France.jpg Armes de France depuis Charles V..png Charles VI
The Mad
3 December 1368

21 October 1422
Aged 53
16 September 1380 21 October 1422 42 years, 1 month and 5 days Isabeau of Bavaria
8 children
Son of Charles V
Lehmann - Charles VII de France, le victorieux.jpg Armes de France depuis Charles V..png Charles VII
The Victorious
22 February 1403

22 July 1461
Aged 58
21 October 1422 22 July 1461 38 years, 9 months and 1 day Marie of Anjou
6 children
Son of Charles VI
Louis-XI-cadre.jpg Armes de France depuis Charles V..png Louis XI
The Prudent/The Cunning
3 July 1423

30 August 1483
Aged 60
22 July 1461 30 August 1483 22 years, 1 month and 8 days (1) Margaret Stewart, Dauphine of France
Childless
(2) Charlotte of Savoy
3 children
Son of Charles VII
Charles VIII Ecole Francaise 16th century Musee de Conde Chantilly.jpg Charles VIII, roi de Naples.png Charles VIII
The Affable
30 June 1470

7 April 1498
Aged 27
30 August 1483 7 April 1498 14 years, 7 months and 8 days Anne of Brittany
3 children
Son of Louis XI
Louis-xii-roi-de-france.jpg Arms of the Dukes of Orléans.svg Louis XII
The Father of the People
27 June 1462

1 January 1515
Aged 52
7 April 1498 1 January 1515 16 years, 8 months and 25 days (1) Joan of Berry
Childless
(2) Anne of Brittany
2 children
(3) Mary Tudor
Childless
 • Great-grandson of Charles V
 • Son-in-law of Louis XI
Franciscus Rex Galliae - Serie Gioviana.jpg Blason comte fr Angouleme (Valois).png Francis I
The Restorer of Letters/The Knight-King
12 September 1494

31 March 1547
Aged 52
1 January 1515 31 March 1547 32 years, 2 months and 30 days (1) Claude of Brittany
7 children
(2) Eleanor of Austria
1 daughter
 • Great-grandson of Charles V
 • Cousin and son-in-law of Louis XII
Henry II of France..jpg Blason comte fr Angouleme (Valois).png Henry II
31 March 1519

10 July 1559
Aged 40
31 March 1547 10 July 1559 12 years, 3 months and 9 days Catherine de' Medici
10 children
Son of Francis I
Francois II de france.jpg Blason comte fr Angouleme (Valois).png Francis II
19 January 1544

5 December 1560
Aged 16
10 July 1559 5 December 1560 1 year, 4 months and 25 days Mary Stuart
Childless
Son of Henry II
Charles IX - Workshop of François Clouet.jpg Blason comte fr Angouleme (Valois).png Charles IX
27 June 1550

30 May 1574
Aged 23
5 December 1560 30 May 1574 13 years, 5 months and 25 days Elisabeth of Austria
1 daughter
Son of Henry II
Dumonstier Henry III of France.jpg Blason comte fr Angouleme (Valois).png Henry III
19 September 1551

2 August 1589
Aged 37
30 May 1574 2 August 1589 15 years, 2 months and 3 days Louise of Lorraine
Childless
Son of Henry II

House of Bourbon

The Valois line looked strong on the death of Henry II, who left four male heirs. His first son, Francis died in his minority. His second son, Charles IX had no legitimate sons to inherit. Following the assassination of his third son, the childless Henry III, and the premature death of his fourth son Francis, Duke of Anjou, France was plunged into a succession crisis over which distant cousin of the king would inherit the throne. The best claimant, Henry, King of Navarre was a Protestant, and thus unacceptable to much of the French nobility. Ultimately, after winning numerous battles in defense of his claim, Henry converted to Catholicism and was crowned king, founding the House of Bourbon.

Portrait Coat of Arms Name
(Birth–Death)
Reign start Reign end Duration Marriage(s)
Issue
Claim
King Henry IV of France.jpg Arms of France and Navarre (1589-1790).svg Henry IV
The Great/The Good King
13 December 1553

14 May 1610
Aged 56
2 August 1589 14 May 1610 20 years, 9 months and 12 days (1) Margaret of Valois
Childless
(2) Marie de' Medici
6 children
 • 1th generation descendant of Louis IX
 • Son-in-law of Henry II
Louis XIII.jpg Arms of France and Navarre (1589-1790).svg Louis XIII
The Just
27 September 1601

14 May 1643
Aged 41
14 May 1610 14 May 1643 33 years Anne of Austria
2 sons
Son of Henry IV
Louis XIV 1694.jpg Arms of France and Navarre (1589-1790).svg Louis XIV
The Sun King
5 September 1638

1 September 1715
Aged 76
14 May 1643 1 September 1715 72 years, 3 months and 18 days Maria Theresa of Spain
6 children
Son of Louis XIII
Louis XV; Buste.jpg Arms of France and Navarre (1589-1790).svg Louis XV
The Beloved
15 February 1710

10 May 1774
Aged 64
1 September 1715 10 May 1774 58 years, 8 months and 9 days Marie Leszczyńska
10 children
Great-grandson of Louis XIV
Antoine-François Callet - Luís XVI.jpg Arms of France and Navarre (1589-1790).svg
Coat of arms of France 1790-92.svg
Louis XVI
The Last
23 August 1754

21 January 1793
Aged 38
10 May 1774 21 September 1792 18 years, 4 months and 11 days Marie Antoinette of Austria
4 children
Grandson of Louis XV

First Empire (1804–1815)

House of Bonaparte

The French First Republic lasted from 1792 to 1804, when its First Consul, Napoléon Bonaparte, was declared Emperor of the French. Napoleon would briefly regain control of the country during his Hundred Days rule in 1815.

Portrait Coat of Arms Name
(Birth–Death)
Reign start Reign end Duration Marriage(s)
Issue
Claim
Robert Lefevre Napoleon 1812.jpg Insigne Francum Napoleonis.svg Napoleon I
The Eagle
15 August 1769

5 May 1821
Aged 51
18 May 1804 (1st)
20 March 1815 (2nd)
11 April 1814 (1st)
22 June 1815 (2nd)
11 years, 1 month and 4 days (1) Joséphine de Beauharnais
Childless
(2) Marie Louise of Parma
1 son
Elected by the Legislative Body (Parliament)
80 Napoleon II.jpg Insigne Francum Napoleonis.svg Napoleon II[n 2]
The Eaglet
20 March 1811

22 July 1832
Aged 21
22 June 1815 7 July 1815 15 days Unmarried Son of Napoleon I

Restored Kingdom of France (1814–1848)

House of Bourbon

Following the first defeat of Napoleon and his exile to Elba, the Bourbon monarchy was restored, with Louis XVI's younger brother Louis Stanislas being crowned as Louis XVIII. Louis XVI's son had been considered by monarchists as Louis XVII but he was never crowned and never ruled in his own right before his own death; he is not usually counted among French monarchs, creating a gap in numbering on most traditional lists of French kings. After his final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, the Bourbon Monarchy was re-established yet again, and would continue to rule France until the July Revolution of 1830 replaced it with a cadet branch, the House of Orleans.

Portrait Coat of Arms Name
(Birth–Death)
Reign start Reign end Duration Marriage(s)
Issue
Claim
Gérard - Louis XVIII of France in Coronation Robes.jpg Arms of the Kings of France (France Moderne).svg Louis XVIII
The Desired
17 November 1755

16 September 1824
Aged 68
11 April 1814 (1st)
7 July 1815 (2nd)
20 March 1815 (1st)
16 September 1824 (2nd)
10 years, 5 months and 5 days Marie Joséphine of Savoy
Childless
 • Grandson of Louis XV
 • Middle brother of Louis XVI
Charles X of France 1.PNG Arms of the Kings of France (France Moderne).svg Charles X
9 October 1757

6 November 1836
Aged 79
16 September 1824 2 August 1830 5 years, 10 months and 17 days Maria Theresa of Savoy
2 sons
Youner brother of Louis XVI and Louis XVIII
Louis Antoine d'Artois.jpg Arms of the Kings of France (France Moderne).svg Louis XIX
6 August 1775

3 June 1844
Aged 68
2 August 1830 2 August 1830 20 minutes Marie Thérèse of France
Childless
Son of Charles X
Henri dArtois by Adeodata Malatesta.jpg Arms of the Kings of France (France Moderne).svg Henry V
The God-given
29 September 1820

24 August 1883
Aged 62
2 August 1830 9 August 1830 7 days Maria Theresa of Austria-Este
Childless
Grandson of Charles X

House of Orléans

The Bourbon restoration came to an end with the July Revolution of 1830, which deposed Charles X and replaced him with Louis Philippe I, a distant cousin with more liberal politics. The popular monarchy changed the styles and forms of the ancien regime, replacing it with more populist forms (i.e. replacing "King of France" with "King of the French"). Ultimately it was overthrown as well during the continent-wide Revolutions of 1848, to be replaced by the Second French Republic.

Portrait Coat of Arms Name
(Birth–Death)
Reign start Reign end Duration Marriage(s)
Issue
Claim
Louis-Philippe, roi des Français.jpg Armes Ducs d'Orléans.png Louis Philippe I
The Citizen King
6 October 1773

26 August 1850
Aged 76
9 August 1830 24 February 1848 17 years, 6 months and 15 days Maria Amalia of Naples and Sicily
9 children
 • Sixth generation descendant of Louis XIII in the male line
 • Elected by French Parliament

Second Empire (1852–1870)

House of Bonaparte

The Second French Republic lasted from 1848 to 1852, when its president, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was declared Emperor of the French.

When he was declared emperor, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte took the regnal name Napoleon III, after his uncle (the Emperor Napoleon I) and his cousin (Napoleon II, who was declared but uncrowned as heir to the Imperial throne). He would later be overthrown during the events of the Franco-Prussian war. He was the last monarch to rule France; thereafter the country was ruled by a succession of Republican governments. (See French Third Republic.)

Portrait Coat of Arms Name
(Birth–Death)
Reign start Reign end Duration Marriage(s)
Issue
Claim
Franz Xaver Winterhalter Napoleon III.jpg Insigne Francum Napoleonis.svg Napoleon III
The Little/Caesarion
20 April 1808

9 January 1873
Aged 64
2 December 1852 4 September 1870 17 years, 9 months and 2 days Eugénie de Montijo
1 son
Nephew of Napoleon I

Later pretenders

Various pretenders descended from the preceding monarchs have claimed to be the legitimate monarch of France, rejecting the claims of the President of France, and of each other. These groups are:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ 'Louis XII, 1499 [...] LVDOVIVS XII FRANCORUM REX MEDILANI DUX [...] Francis I, 1515 [...] FRANCISCUS REX FRANCORUM PRIMUS DOMINATOR ELVETIORUM [...] Henri II, 1550? [...] HENRICVS II FRANCORVM REX' [4]
  2. ^ From 22 June to 7 July 1815, Bonapartists considered Napoleon II as the legitimate heir to the throne, his father having abdicated in his favor. However, throughout this period he resided in Austria, with his mother. Louis XVIII was reinstalled as king on 7 July.

References

  1. ^ Sullivan, William. Historical causes and effects, from the fall of the Roman empire, 476, to the reformation, 1517. p. 213. Grimshaw, William. The history of France from the foundation of the monarchy to the death of Louis XVI. p. 11
  2. ^ Claudio Rendina & Paul McCusker, The Popes: Histories and Secrets, (New York : 2002), p. 145.
  3. ^ Deploige, Jeroen; Deneckere, Gita, eds. (2006). Mystifying the Monarch: Studies on Discourse, Power, and History. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press. p. 182. ISBN 9789053567678. 
  4. ^ Potter, David (2008). Renaissance France at War: Armies, Culture and Society, C.1480–1560. Warfare in History Series. 28. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. viii. ISBN 9781843834052. Retrieved 2012-11-27. 
  5. ^ Deploige, Jeroen; Deneckere, Gita, eds. (2006). Mystifying the Monarch: Studies on Discourse, Power, and History. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press. p. 182. ISBN 9789053567678. 
  6. ^ Le Couronnement de Napoléon Premier, Empereur des Français. Paris, France: Guerin. 1806. p. 1. 
  7. ^ Pascal, Adrien (1853). Histoire de Napoléon III, Empereur des Français. Paris, France: Barbier. p. 359. 
  8. ^ Brown, Peter (2003). The Rise of Western Christendom. Malden, MA, USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. p. 137. 
  9. ^ Babcock, Philip (1993). Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. MA, USA: Merriam-Webster. p. 341. 
  10. ^ Gwatking, H. M.; Whitney, J. P.; et al. (1930). Cambridge Medieval History: Germany and the Western Empire. Volume III. London: Cambridge University Press. 
  11. ^ Parisse, Michael (2005). "Lotharingia". In Reuter, T. The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 900–c. 1024. III. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 313–315. 
  12. ^ The Annals of Flodoard of Reims, 916–966, eds & trans. Steven Fanning: Bernard S. Bachrach (New York; Ontario, Can: University of Toronto Press, 2011), p. 92
  13. ^ Knecht, Robert (2004). The Valois: Kings of France 1328–1422. NY, USA: Hambledon Continuum. pp. ix–xii. ISBN 1852854200.