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List of Caliphs

Khalīfah (Caliph)
خَليفة
Rashidun Caliph Abu Bakr as-Șiddīq (Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafa) - أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن عثمان التيمي القرشي أول الخلفاء الراشدين.svg
Calligraphic of Abū Bakr as-Șiddīq, the first caliph
Style Amir al-Mu'minin
Residence al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah (Medina)
al-Kūfah (Kufa)
Dimashq (Damascus)
Baġdād (Baghdad)
Qāhirah (Cairo)
Qustantiniyye (Constantinople)
Precursor Muhammad as Islamic prophet
Formation 8 June 632
First holder Abū Bakr as-Șiddīq
Final holder Abdülmecid II
Abolished 3 March 1924

This is a list of people who have held the title of Caliph, the supreme religious and political leader of an Islamic state known as the Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, as the political successors to Muhammad. All years are according to the Common Era.

Background

A few months before his death, the Islamic prophet Muhammad delivered a sermon to over 100,000 Muslims at the event of Ghadir Khumm. In the sermon, he declared Ali ibn Abi Talib to be his successor. He described Ali with several leadership titles in the sermon, including "Mawla," "Imam," "Ameer," and "Khalifah."[1] After the sermon, Muhammad instructed everyone to pledge allegiance to Ali. According to both Shia and Sunni sources, Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman were all among those who pledged allegiance to Ali at the event.[2][3][4]

After Muhammad's death, however, some of Muhammad's companions left and gathered at a place known as Saqifa. At Saqifa, Umar pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr, despite their previous pledges of allegiance to Ali. Abu Bakr then assumed political power, and his supporters became known as the Sunnis. Despite that, a group of Muslims kept their allegiance to Ali. These people, who became known as Shias, held that while Ali's right to be the political leader may have been taken, he was still the religious and spiritual leader after Muhammad.

Ecumenical caliphates

Rashidun Caliphate (8 June 632 – 29 January 661)

# Calligraphic Name (and titles) Reign Relationship with Muhammad Parents House Notes
1 Rashidun Caliph Abu Bakr as-Șiddīq (Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafa) - أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن عثمان التيمي القرشي أول الخلفاء الراشدين.svg Abū Bakr
(أبو بكر)
'Abdullah
Șaḥābī
Aṣ-Ṣiddīq
8 June 632 – 22 August 634
  • Father of Aisha, Muhammad's wife
Banu Taim
  • Reigned until his death
2 Rashidun Caliphs Umar ibn Al-Khattāb - عُمر بن الخطّاب ثاني الخلفاء الراشدين.svg ʿUmar ibn al-Khattab
(عمر بن الخطاب)
Șaḥābī
Al-Farooq
Amir al-Mu'minin
23 August 634 – 3 November 644
  • Father of Hafsa, Muhammad's wife
Banu Adi
  • Assassinated by a Persian
3 Rashidun Caliph Uthman ibn Affan - عثمان بن عفان ثالث الخلفاء الراشدين.svg 'Uthman ibn 'Affan
(عثمان بن عفان)
Șaḥābī
Dhun Nurayn
Amir al-Mu'minin
11 November 644 – 20 June 656 Banu Ummaya
  • Assassinated at the end of a siege upon his house
4 Rashidun Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib - علي بن أبي طالب.svg 'Ali ibn Abi-Talib
(علي بن أبي طالب)
Șaḥābī
Amir al-Mu'minin
20 June 656 – 29 January 661 Banu Hashim
  • Only person to have been born in the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam
  • First male to openly accept Islam
  • Proclaimed as Muhammad's successor at the event of Ghadir Khumm shortly before Muhammad's death
  • Considered as the first successor to Muhammad by Shia Muslims
  • Assassinated during Fajr prayer in Kufa

Hasan ibn Ali's Caliphate (661)

# Calligraphic Name (and titles) Reign Relationship with Muhammad (or previous Caliph) Parents House Notes
5 Hassan mojtaba - 140098.jpg Ḥasan ibn ʿAli
(الحسن بن علي)

Ahl al-Bayt
al-Mujtaba[5]
661 (six or seven months)
  • Grandson of Muhammad.
  • Son of 'Ali ibn Abi-Talib.
Banu Hashim
  • Abdicated after six or seven months for Mu'awiyah
  • Also known as the 5th Rashidun Caliph

Umayyad Caliphate (661 – 6 August 750)

# Name (and titles) Reign Relationship with Muhammad (or previous Caliph) Parents Notes
6 Mu'awiyah I
(معاوية)
Șaḥābī
Amir al-Mu'minin
661 – 29 April or 1 May 680
  • Worked as one of at least 29 scribes during the time of Muhammad
  • Became Governor of Syria during 'Umar's reign until his bay'ah as caliph
  • Muawiyah officially transformed caliphate from elective monarchy by shura into hereditary monarchy
7 Yazid I
(يزيد)
680 – 11 November 683
8 Mu'awiyah II
(معاوية الثاني)
Amir al-Mu'minin
November 683 – 684
  • Last Ummayad Caliph from Sufyanid line
  • Abdicated without children
9 Marwan I
(مروان بن الحکم)
Șaḥābī
Amir al-Mu'minin
684 – 7 May 685
  • Marwan's ascension pointed to a shift in the lineage of the Umayyad dynasty from descendants of Abu Sufyan (the "Sufyanids") to those of Hakam (the "Marwanids"), both of whom were grandsons of Umayya (for whom the Umayyad dynasty is named)
10 'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
(عبد الملك بن مروان)
Amir al-Mu'minin
685 – 8 October 705
  • Marwan I, Ummayad Caliph
  • 'Aisha bint Muawiya ibn Al-Mughira
11 Al-Walid I
(الوليد الأول)
Amir al-Mu'minin
October 705 – 23 February 715
12 Sulayman ibn 'Abd al-Malik
(سلیمان بن عبدالملک)
Amir al-Mu'minin
February 715 – 22 September 717
13 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz
(عمر بن عبد العزيز)
Amir al-Mu'minin
September 717 – February 720
  • Grandson of Marwan I
  • First cousin of Al-Walid I and Sulayman ibn 'Abd al-Malik
  • Great-grandson of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab from female-line
  • Also known as Sixth Rashidun Caliph
  • People mistakenly say he was the 5th Rashidun Caliph -- Whereas the 5th is actually Hassan Ibn Ali
14 Yazid II
(يزيد الثاني)
Amir al-Mu'minin
10 February 720 – 26 January 724
15 Hisham ibn 'Abd al-Malik
(هشام بن عبد الملك)
Amir al-Mu'minin
26 January 724 – 6 February 743
16 Al-Walid II
(الوليد الثاني)
Amir al-Mu'minin
6 February 743 – 17 April 744
  • Son of Yazid II
  • Nephew of Hisham ibn 'Abd al-Malik
17 Yazid III
(يزيد الثالث)
Amir al-Mu'minin
April 15 to October 3 or 4, 744
18 Ibrahim ibn al-Walid
(ابراهيم ابن الوليد)
Amir al-Mu'minin
744 (few weeks)
19 Marwan II
(مروان بن محمد)
Amir al-Mu'minin
744 – 6 August 750
  • Grandson of Marwan I

Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258 and 1261–1517)

Caliphs of Baghdad (25 January 750 – 20 February 1258)

(Not accepted by the Muslim dominions in the Umayyad-ruled Iberian Peninsula and the Fatimid and Almohad-ruled parts of North Africa).[6][7]

# Regnal name Personal name Reign Parents Notes
20 As-Sāffaḥ 'Abdallah Abul-'Abbās 750 – 10 June 754
21 Al-Mansur Abu Ja'far 'Abdallah 10 June 754 – 775
  • Remembered for killing Ja'far al-Sadiq, who was a descendant of Muhammad, the sixth Shia Imam, and a major figure in Sunni jurisprudence[8]
22 Al-Mahdi Abu 'Abdallah Muhammad 775 – 4 August 785
  • Named al-Mahdi by al-Mansur in order to turn the attention of his subjects from the ‘Alid family toward the family of ‘Abbas[9]
23 Al-Hadi Abu Muhammad Musa August 785 – 14 September 786
24 Al-Rashid Harun 14 September 786 – 24 March 809
25 Al-Amin Muhammad March 809 – 24/25 September 813
26 Al-Ma'mun Abu Jaʿfar 'Abdallah September 813 – 9 August 833
27 Al-Mu'tasim Abū Ishaq Muhammad 9 August 833 – 5 January 842
28 Al-Wathiq Abu Ja'far Harun 5 January 842 – 10 August 847
29 Al-Mutawakkil Ja'far 10 August 847 – 11 December 861
30 Al-Muntasir Abu Ja'far Muhammad 861 – 7 or 8 June 862
31 Al-Musta'in Ahmad 862 – 866
32 Al-Mu'tazz 866 – 869
33 Al-Muhtadi Abū Isḥāq Muḥammad 869 – 21 June 870
34 Al-Mu'tamid Abu’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad 21 June 870 – 15 October 892
35 Al-Mu'tadid Abu'l-'Abbas Ahmad October 892 – 5 April 902
36 Al-Muktafi Abu Ahmad ʿAlî 5 April 902 – 13 August 908
37 Al-Muqtadir Abu al-Fadl Ja'far 13 August 908 – 929 (First reign)

929 – 31 October 932 (Second reign)

38 Al-Qahir Abu Mansur Muhammad 929 (First reign)

31 October 932 – 934 (Second reign)

39 Ar-Radi Abu al-'Abbas Muhammad 934 – 23 December 940
40 Al-Muttaqi Abu Ishaq Ibrahim 940 – 944
41 Al-Mustakfi 'Abdallah September 944 – January 946
42 Al-Muti Abu al-Qasim al-Faḍl January 946 – 974
43 At-Ta'i 974 – 991
44 Al-Qadir 1 November 991 – 29 November 1031
45 Al-Qa'im 29 November 1031 – 2 April 1075
46 Al-Muqtadi 2 April 1075 – February 1094
  • Muhammad, son of Al-Qa'im, Abbasid Caliph
  • Urjuman, Armenian concubine
47 Al-Mustazhir February 1094 – 6 August 1118
48 Al-Mustarshid 6 August 1118 – 29 August 1135
49 Ar-Rashid 29 August 1135 – 1136
50 Al-Muqtafi 1136 – 12 March 1160
51 Al-Mustanjid 12 March 1160 – 20 December 1170
52 Al-Mustadi Hassan 20 December 1170 – 30 March 1180
53 An-Nasir 2 March 1180 – 4 October 1225
54 Az-Zahir 5 October 1225 – 11 July 1226
55 Al-Mustansir Abû Ja`far 11 July 1226 – 2 December 1242
56 Al-Musta'sim 2 December 1242 – 20 February 1258
  • Last Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad
Interregnum

During the latter period of Abbasid rule, Muslim rulers began using other titles, such as Sultan.

Caliphs of Cairo (13 June 1261 – 22 January 1517)

The Cairo Abbasids were largely ceremonial Caliphs under the patronage of the Mamluk Sultanate that existed after the takeover of the Ayyubid dynasty.[10][11]

# Regnal name Personal name Reign Parents Notes
57 Al-Mustansir II Abu al-Qasim Ahmad 13 June 1261 – 28 November 1261
  • Installed as Caliph in Cairo, Egypt by the Mamluk Sultans in 1261
  • Title caliph also claimed by Al Hakim I who was installed as caliph by ruler of Aleppo
58 Al-Hakim I Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad 16 November 1262 – 19 January 1302
  • Abu 'Ali al-Hasan
  • Great-grandson of Al-Mustarshid
  • Installed as caliph by ruler of Aleppo in 1261
  • Proclaimed as caliph by Mamluk Sultan after Al-Mustansir II died
59 Al-Mustakfi I Abu ar-Rabi' Sulaiman 20 January 1302 – February 1340
60 Al-Wathiq I Abu Ishaq Ibrahim February 1340 – 17 June 1341
61 Al-Hakim II Abu al-'Abbas Ahmad 1341 – 1352
62 Al-Mu'tadid I Abu Bakr 1352 – 1362
63 Al-Mutawakkil I Abu 'Abdillah Muhammad 1362 – 1377 (First reign)

1377 – 1383 (Second reign)

1389 – 9 January 1406 (Third reign)

64 Al-Mus'tasim Abu Yahya Zakariya 1377 (First reign)

1386 – 1389 (Second reign)

65 Al-Wathiq II 'Umar September 1383 – 13 November 1386
66 Al-Musta'in Abu al-Fadl al-'Abbas 22 January 1406 – 9 March 1414
  • Became Sultan of Egypt from 7 May 1412 until 6 November 1412
67 Al-Mu'tadid II Abu al-Fath Dawud 1414 – 1441
68 Al-Mustakfi II Abu ar-Rabi' Sulayman 1441 – 29 January 1451
69 Al-Qa'im Abu Al-Baqa Hamzah 1451 – 1455
70 Al-Mustanjid Abu al-Mahasin Yusuf 1455 – 7 April 1479
71 Al-Mutawakkil II Abu al-'Izz 'Abdul 'Aziz 5 April 1479 – 27 September 1497
72 Al-Mustamsik Abu as-Sabr 1497 – 1508 (First reign)

1516 – 1517 (Second reign)

73 Al-Mutawakkil III Muhammad 1508 – 1516 (First reign)

1517 (Second reign)

Ottoman Caliphate (1517 – 3 March 1924)

The head of the Ottoman dynasty was just entitled Sultan originally, but soon it started accumulating titles assumed from subjected peoples.[12][13] Murad I (reigned 1362–1389) was the first Ottoman claimant to the title of Caliph; claimed the title after conquering Edirne.[14]

# Portrait Tughra Name Reign Parents Notes
74 Yavuz Sultan I. Selim Han.jpg Tughra of Selim I Selim I 1517 – 21 September 1520
  • Reigned until his death.[15]
75 Semailname 47b.jpg Tughra of Suleiman I Suleiman I 30 September 1520 – 6 or 7 September 1566
  • Reigned until his death.[16]
76 II Selim.jpg Tughra of Selim II Selim II 29 September 1566 – 21 December 1574
  • Reigned until his death.[17]
77 Sultan Murad III.jpeg Tughra of Murad III Murad III 22 December 1574 – 16 January 1595
  • Selim II
  • Nurbanu Sultan, Venetian or Spanish, haseki sultan and valide sultan
  • Reigned until his death.[18]
78 Sultan Mehmet III (reigned 1595-1603) Enthroned, Attended by Two Janissaries LACMA M.85.237.34.jpg Tughra of Mehmed III Mehmed III 27 January 1595 – 20 or 21 December 1603
  • Reigned until his death;[19]
79 Sultan I. Ahmet.jpg Tughra of Ahmed I Ahmed I 21 December 1603 – 22 November 1617
  • Reigned until his death.[20]
80 I Mustafa (cropped).jpg Tughra of Mustafa I Mustafa I 22 November 1617 – 26 February 1618 (First reign)

20 May 1622 – 10 September 1623 (Second reign)

81 Genç Osman.JPG Tughra of Osman II Osman II 26 February 1618 – 19 May 1622
  • Deposed in a Janissary riot on 19 May 1622;
  • Murdered on 20 May 1622 by the Grand Vizier Kara Davud Paşa (Black Da'ud Pasha) from compression of his testicles.[22]
82 Murad IV minature.jpg Tughra of Murad IV Murad IV 10 September 1623 – 8 or 9 February 1640
  • Reigned until his death.[23]
83 Ibrahim I.jpg Tughra of Ibrahim Ibrahim 9 February 1640 – 8 August 1648
84 IV Mehmet.jpg Tughra of Mehmed IV Mehmed IV 8 August 1648 – 8 November 1687
85 II Suleyman.jpg Tughra of Suleiman II Suleiman II 8 November 1687 – 22 June 1691
  • Reigned until his death.[26]
86 Ahmet II.jpg Tughra of Ahmed II Ahmed II 22 June 1691 – 6 February 1695
  • Reigned until his death.[27]
87 II Mustafa.jpg Tughra of Mustafa II Mustafa II 6 February 1695 – 22 August 1703
  • Deposed on 22 August 1703 by reason of the Janissary uprising known as the Edirne Event;
  • Died in Istanbul on 8 January 1704.[28]
88 Levni 002.jpeg Tughra of Ahmed III Ahmed III 22 August 1703 – 1 or 2 October 1730
89 Mahmud I by John Young.jpg Tughra of Mahmud I Mahmud I 2 October 1730 – 13 December 1754
  • Reigned until his death.[30]
90 Osman III by John Young.jpg Tughra of Osman III Osman III 13 December 1754 – 29 or 30 October 1757
  • Reigned until his death.[31]
91 Sultan Mustafa III.jpg Tughra of Mustafa III Mustafa III 30 October 1757 – 21 January 1774
  • Reigned until his death.[32]
92 Abdulhamid I minature.jpg Tughra of Abdülhamid I Abdülhamid I 21 January 1774 – 6 or 7 April 1789
  • Reigned until his death.[33]
93 Joseph Warnia-Zarzecki - Sultan Selim III - Google Art Project.jpg Tughra of Selim III Selim III 7 April 1789 – 29 May 1807
  • Mustafa III

Mehr-î-Shâh (Mihr-î-Şâh) Vâlidā Sultân;

94 IV. Mustafa.jpg Tughra of Mustafa IV Mustafa IV 29 May 1807 – 28 July 1808
95 MahmutII.jpg Tughra of Mahmud II Mahmud II 28 July 1808 – 1 July 1839 Abdülhamid I
96 Sultan Abdülmecid - Google Art Project.jpg Tughra of Abdülmecid I Abdülmecid I 1 July 1839 – 25 June 1861
97 Abdul-aziz (cropped).JPG Tughra of Abdülaziz Abdülaziz I 25 June 1861 – 30 May 1876
  • Deposed by his ministers;
  • Found dead (suicide or murder) five days later.[38]
98 Portrait of Murad V.jpg Tughra of Murad V Murad V 30 May 1876 – 31 August 1876
  • Deposed due to his efforts to implement democratic reforms in the empire;
  • Ordered to reside in Çırağan Palace where he died on 29 August 1904.[39]
99 Abdul Hamid II in Balmoral Castle in 1867.jpg Tughra of Abdülhamid II Abdülhamid II 31 August 1876 – 27 April 1909
100 Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire cropped.jpg Tughra of Mehmed V Mehmed V 27 April 1909 – 3 July 1918
101 Sultan Mehmed VI of the Ottoman Empire.jpg Tughra of Mehmed VI Mehmed VI 4 July 1918 – 1 November 1922
102 Portrait Caliph Abdulmecid II.jpg
[c]
Abdülmecid II 18 November 1922 – 3 March 1924

The Office of the Caliphate was transferred to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey which dissolved the office on March 3, 1924, in keeping with the policies of secularism that were adopted in the early years of the Republic of Turkey by its President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.

After the dissolution of the Office of the Caliphate, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey founded the Presidency of Religious Affairs as the new highest Islamic religious authority in the country.

Non-ecumenical caliphates

Caliphates not accepted as legitimate by the majority of muslims.

Ibn al-Zubayr's Caliphate (684–692)

Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, the nephew of Aisha, the third wife of Muhammad led a rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphate in 684 AD. He was proclaimed caliph in Mecca but was defeated and killed there in 692 AD after a six-month siege by general Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf.[46]

Ummayad Caliphate of Córdoba (929–1031)

(Not universally accepted; actual authority confined to Spain and parts of Maghreb)[47][48]

Name Reign Parents Notes
Abd-ar-Rahman III 929–961
Al-Hakam II 961–976
Hisham II al-Hakam 976–1009 (First reign)

1010–1013 (Second reign)

Muhammad II 1009
Sulayman ibn al-Hakam 1009–1010 (First reign)

1013–1016 (Second reign)

Abd ar-Rahman IV 1021–1022
Abd ar-Rahman V 1022–1023
Muhammad III 1023–1024
  • Abd ar-Rahman bin Ubayd Allah bin Abd ar-Rahman III, grandson of Abd ar-Rahman III
  • Hawra
Hisham III 1027–1031
  • Muhammad bin 'Abd al-Malik bin Abd ar-Rahman III, grandson of Abd ar-Rahman III
  • 'Ateb

Fatimid Caliphate (909–1171)

The Fatimid Caliphate

(The Fatimids belonged to the Isma'ili branch of Shia Islam and hence are not recognized by the majority of Sunnis, whether subjects in their dominions, or from neighboring states).[49][50]

Name Reign Parents Notes
Al-Mahdi Billah 909–934
  • Descendant of Fatimah, youngest daughter of Muhammad
  • Founder of the Fatimid dynasty
Al-Qa'im Bi-Amrillah 934–946
Al-Mansur Billah 946–953
Al-Muizz Lideenillah 953–975 Egypt is conquered during his reign
Al-Aziz Billah 975–996
Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah 996–1021
Ali az-Zahir 1021–1036
Al-Mustansir Billah 1036–1094
Al-Musta'li 1094–1101 Quarrels over his succession led to the Nizari split
Al-Amir 1101–1130 The Fatimid rulers of Egypt after him are not recognized as Imams by Mustaali Taiyabi Isma'ilis
Al-Hafiz 1130–1149
Al-Zafir 1149–1154
Al-Faiz 1154–1160
Al-Azid 1160–1171

Almohad Caliphate (1145–1269)

The Almohad dynasty at its greatest extent (c. 1200)

(Not widely accepted, actual dominions were parts of North Africa and Iberia)[51][52]

Name Reign Notes
Abd al-Mu'min 1145–1163
Abu Yaqub Yusuf I 1163–1184
Yaqub al-Mansur 1184–1199
Muhammad an-Nasir 1199–1213
Abu Ya'qub Yusuf II 1213–1224
Abd al-Wahid I 1224
Abdallah al-Adil 1224–1227
Yahya 1227–1235
Idris I 1227–1232
Abdul-Wahid II 1232–1242
Ali 1242–1248
Umar 1248–1266
Idris II 1266–1269

Sokoto Caliphate (1804–1903)

The Sokoto Caliphate (pink) at its greatest extent (c. 1800)

(Not widely accepted, actual dominions were parts of West Africa)

Established by Tariqa Islamic scholar and religious leader Usman dan Fodio through the Fulani War (alternatively known as the Fulani Jihad), which sought to reduce the influence of pre-Islamic religious practices and spread a more vigorous form of Islam through the auspices of a Caliphate.

Bornu and Songhai Empires

The Bornu Empire at its greatest extent (c. 1750)
Songhai Empire at its greatest extent (c. 1500)

Several rulers of West Africa adopted the title of Caliph. Mai Ali Ghaji ibn Dunama was the first ruler of Bornu Empire to assume the title. Askia Mohammad I of Songhai Empire also assumed the title around the same time.[53]

See also

References

  1. ^ Majd, Vahid. The Sermon of Prophet Muhammad (saww) at Ghadir Khum. pp. 17–18. 
  2. ^ "A Shi'ite Encyclopedia". Al-Islam.org. Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project. Retrieved 27 February 2018. 
  3. ^ Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Volume 4. p. 281. 
  4. ^ al-Razi, Fakhr. Tafsir al-Kabir, Volume 12. pp. 49–50. 
  5. ^ "Imam Hassan as". Duas.org. 
  6. ^ Lane-Poole 2004, pp. 12–13
  7. ^ Bosworth 2004, pp. 6–7
  8. ^ Al-Mudaffar, Sheikh Muhammad Al-Hussein. Imam Jafar Sadiq. p. 291. 
  9. ^ ibn Maja (1368). al-Sunan, II. 
  10. ^ Bosworth 2004, p. 7
  11. ^ Houtsma & Wensinck 1993, p. 3
  12. ^ Lane-Poole 2004, p. 195
  13. ^ Bosworth 2004, pp. 239–240
  14. ^ Lambton, Ann; Lewis, Bernard (1995). The Cambridge History of Islam: The Indian sub-continent, South-East Asia, Africa and the Muslim west. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 320. ISBN 9780521223102. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  15. ^ "Yavuz Sultan Selim Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  16. ^ "Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  17. ^ "Sultan II. Selim Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  18. ^ "Sultan III. Murad Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  19. ^ "Sultan III. Mehmed Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  20. ^ "Sultan I. Ahmed". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  21. ^ a b "Sultan I. Mustafa". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  22. ^ "Sultan II. Osman Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  23. ^ "Sultan IV. Murad Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  24. ^ "Sultan İbrahim Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  25. ^ "Sultan IV. Mehmed". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  26. ^ "Sultan II. Süleyman Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  27. ^ "Sultan II. Ahmed Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  28. ^ "Sultan II. Mustafa Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  29. ^ "Sultan III. Ahmed Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  30. ^ "Sultan I. Mahmud Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  31. ^ "Sultan III. Osman Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  32. ^ "Sultan III. Mustafa Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  33. ^ "Sultan I. Abdülhamit Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  34. ^ "Sultan III. Selim Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  35. ^ "Sultan IV. Mustafa Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  36. ^ "Sultan II. Mahmud Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  37. ^ "Sultan Abdülmecid Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  38. ^ "Sultan Abdülaziz Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  39. ^ "Sultan V. Murad Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  40. ^ "Sultan II. Abdülhamid Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  41. ^ "Sultan V. Mehmed Reşad Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  42. ^ "Sultan VI. Mehmed Vahdettin Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  43. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 13
  44. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 17
  45. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 14
  46. ^ Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O edited by Tony Jacques
  47. ^ Lane-Poole 2004, p. 21
  48. ^ Bosworth 2004, p. 11
  49. ^ Lane-Poole 2004, p. 71
  50. ^ Bosworth 2004, p. 63
  51. ^ Lane-Poole 2004, p. 47
  52. ^ Bosworth 2004, p. 39
  53. ^ Nehemia Levtzion, Randall Pouwels. The History of Islam in Africa. Ohio University Press. p. 81. 

Bibliography